Sir William Smith William Latham Bevan.

The student's manual of ancient geography online

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cap. 13, 20). The chief manufactories of woollen stuffs were in Baby-
lonia and Phceniuia. The line goats' hair of Ancyra in Asia Minor was
also highly prized.

III. The chief supply of apices and aromatics was obtained from
Yemen, the southern part of Arabia Felix. Hence was derived frank-
incense, ladanum (the gimi of the Cutu* ladantferus), myrrb, gum
storaz, balm, and (according to Herodotus, iii. 110, ill) cassia and
cinnamon, Uiough these were more properly the productions of
Ethiopia than of Arabia : perhaps he really referred to a different
production under the name of cinnamon. It is worthy of remark, as
illustrating the origin of spices, that the Greek and in many coses the
English terms are of Semitic origin, and may be referred to Hebiew

In addition to the productions above enumerated, we may further
notice— the dyes of Phoenicia, some of which were derived from cer-
tain kinds of shell-fish, the bucemum, and the murex or purpura, while
the scarlet dye was produced from an insect named the coccus, which
is found on the holm oak in Armenia and Persia — ^indigo, the very name
of which (from Indicwn) implies the country whence it was obtained —

flass, which was originally invented and afterwards manufactured in
hoenicia— rice, noticed by Strabo (xv. p. 690, 692) as growing in
India and Syria— and the citron, which was considered as indigenous
in Media, and hence called Medtca. The cherry was introduced into
Europe from Cerftsus (whence the name) in Pontus bv the Roman
consul Lucullus: and the pheasant derives its name n*om the river
Phasis in Colchis.

§ 8. The commerce of Asia was chiefly carried on overland by
caravans — then, as now, the only means adapted to the wide open
plains, the insecure state of society, and the various difiiculties and
dangers which attend the lengthened journeys across this vast con-
tinent. The merchants engaged in the trade of these parts met
at certain points for the interchange of their wares, and thus the
goods changed hands several times before reaching their final destina-
tion. In ancient times Babylonia formed one of these focuses for the
prosecution chiefly of the Indian trade : Bactriana was another such
entrepdt, as Bokhara is at the present day, for the commerce of the
north and east, and particularly of China : Phrenicia, again, was
the mart where the products of Asia and Europe were exchanged
and forwarded to their lespective destinations: and on a smaller
scale, Southern Arabia was the entrepdt for the trade of South
Africa and the coasts of the Indian Ocean.

Commercial Routes of Asia. — The points above specified were centres,
to which the great commercial routes converged. Some of these are
minutely described to us by ancient writers ; others are not described,
but are known to have existed.

I. Prom Babylonia the following routes existed :—( I.) To Asia
Minor, by the *• Royal Road," which led from Ephesus to Susa: this
road is described by Herodotus (v. 52) ; it was provided with stations


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and cftrayanserais, and followed yery nearly the same line aa that of
the modem route between Smyrna and Baghdad, keeping along the
^ central plateau of Asia Minor, crossing the Euphmtee probably near
Melitene, or pei'haps lower down at Samosata, thence crossing northern
Mesopotamia to the Tigris at Nineveh, and down the course of the
river to Babylon. (2.) To Phoenicia, by the course of the Euphrates
as far aa Thapsacus, thence across the desert by Palmyra and Damascus
to Tyre. (3.) To Mesopotamia, by the same route as far as Thapsacus,
and thence across the desert to Edeesa. (4.) To India, through
Ecbat&na to Hecatompylos, E. of the Caspian (}ates, thence by Alex-
andria in Aria, Herat, Prophthasia and Arachotus, and the valley of the
Cahulf to Tazila on the Indus ; then either dowik the course of that
river, or across to the valley of the Ganges, and by Palimbothra near
Patna, to the shores of the Bay of Bengal. (5.) To Bactria, by the
same route as far as Hecatompylos, and thence towards the N.E.
through Antiochia Margiana, Merv, to the valley of the Oxus.

II. From Bactria. (1.) To Serica, China, across the ranges that
intervene between the upper valleys of the Oxus and Jaxartes to where
a pass leads across the central range to the desert of Gobi: the Chinese
merchants came as fiiu* as this range, and interchanged their goods at a
spot called the Turris Lapidea, "stone tower," probably identical with
the Hormeterium, or ** merchants' station," to which Ptolemy refers:
the position of this spot cannot be accurately made out : the name
Tachkend means "stone tower," but its position is somewhat too
low on the Jaxartes ; Tdkiil-i-8ouleiman stands nearer tlie western
entrance of the pass and was probably the chief mart, while the ruins
of an old building now called Chthd-autun, " the forty columns," not
far distant, have been identified with the *' stone tower." (2.) To
India, by the pass of Bameean to Ortosp&na, Cabul, and thence to the
Indus. Cabm appears to have been an important trading station, being
the spot where three ixxads converged, and hence termed the Bactrian
Trivium, one perhaps leatling to the Indus, another to Persia, and the
third to Bactriana. (3.) To Europe, by the course of the Oxus to the
Caspian Sea, which was crossed to the mouth of the Araxes on the
opposite shore, and then by that stream to the head->vater8 of the
Pnasis, and so down to the Euxine.

III. From Phoenicia the overland routes led — (1.) To Babylonia by
Palmyra as already described. (2.^ To Qerrha on the Persian Gulf,
which was the chief trading station lor India. (3.) To southern Arabia,
either wholly by land or perhaps by sea as far as the S. E. angle of the
Mediterranean, where the "Arabian marts " referred to by Herodotus
(iii. 5) were situated, and thence by Petra to the S.

lY. In Arabia, overland routes led — (1.) Northwards from Mariaba,
the great commercial capital of the southern district, through Maooraba,
Mecca, to Petra. (2.) From the same point to Gerrha on the Persian
Gulf. (3.) From Gerrha across the country to Petra. (4.) From
Petra, westward to Egypt and northward to Palestine : Petra was thus
the great entrepdt of Northern Arabia. Lastly, from some point on
the southern coast of Arabia, probably Aden, an extensive maritime
tirade was prosecuted with the eastern coast of A&ica, and the western
coast of India. The commercial route established by Solomon, with
the aid of the Phoenicians, from the head of t^e Red Sea to Ophir
(1 Kings, ix. 28 ; x. 22, 23), was probably directed to some entrepdt on
the southern coast of Arabia, where the varied productions of India,
South Africa, and Arabia, could be procured.


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§ 9. The ethnography of the continent of Asia is a subject of great
interest and importance, but one which in this work we can only
treat incidentally. Asia was, as we have already observed, the
cradle of the human race : there the first family " became fruitful,
and multiplied, and replenished the earth : '* there the different
types oi language and physical conformation were first developed :
and thence issued the various nations to their respective homes in
the four quarters of the globe. In Asia, therefore, we jnight expect
to see the greatest diversity of race and language, and to be able to
trace those differences back to the point of their original divergence.
Such a diversity did in point of fact exist, as testified by the trilingual
inscriptions of the Persian Empire: and we are enabled, by the
light of history, and still more by the analysis of language, to arrive
at a probable opinion as to the time when, and the place where, the
divergence commenced. If we refer to the Bible, which furnishes us
with the only historical narrative of these events, we find it stated
that the human race remained '* of one language and of one speech **
until a period subsequent to the flood — that the place where the
difference of language originated was in the plain of Shinar, the later
Babylonia— and that a tripartite division was there established,
consisting of the descendants of Shem, Ham, and Japhet.

(1.) Modem philology confirms in a remarkable degree the
statements of Scripture. There are still existing abundant traces
of a language, which, from its simple and unspecific chai-acter and
from the wide area over which it prevailed, may be regarded as
the representative of the "one language and one speech" of the
Bible. Ethnologists assign to this language and to the races speaking
it the titles "Turanian,** " Allophylian," " Scythic," and "Tatar."
The Scythians of the ancient world, the Tatars of the modern, are
the most prominent races of this type.

Turanian or Soythic Branch, — The language in its most fmcient form
survives in the Assyrian, Armenian, and Persian inscriptions, which
are for the most part trilingual, one column being in the Soythic
speech. The language and other chai*acteristics of the following ancient
races, viz. the Parthians, Saesa, Colchians, Asiatic Ethiopians, Saspeiri,
Tibfiureni, and Moschi, point them out as belonging wholly to this
primitive stock ; while the Armenians, Cappadocians. Susianians, and
Chaldasans, contained a large admixture of the same element.

Out of this primitive language were gradually developed more
perfect forms, apparently at considerable intervals of time. The
earliest of these developments was probably the Hamitic language,
which appears to have originated in Egypt (pre-eminently the
" land of Ham "), and to have spread eastward along the shores of
the Arabian Sea to the Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean. The
' extension of Hamitism eastwards to Babylonia is supported by the

E 3

Qigitized by VjOOQ IC


Mosaic genealogy, which represents Kimrod as the grandson of Ham
(Qteu. X. 8), and thus extends the territory of Cush from Abyssinia,
which was the proper position of the race, to the eastern Gntbah ih

Hamitic or Cushite Branch,— The nations which may be assigned to
fhm family are — ^the soathem Arabs, the early ChaldsMins, the early
Snsiamans, the Ethiopians of Asia, and perhaps the early Canaanites.

(2.) The Semitic form of language appears to have emanated
from Babylonia. Tliis circumstance appears to be indicated in the
notices that Asshur went forth out of Babylonia to Assyria (Gen. x.
11), that a Semitic race settled in Elam (Susiana) (Gen. x. 2*2),
and that the Semitic family of Terah dwelt in Ur of the Chaldees
(Gen. xi. 28). The period when this movement originated may be
assigned to the earlier part of the 20th century B.C. : the westerly
migrations of Abraham to Canaan, of the Joktanidre to Arabia, and
of the Phoenicians to the Mediterranean coast, were connected with
this movement.

Semitic Branch, — The nations which may be groaned together in this
family are the later Babylonians (as distinct from the Chaldaiana), the
Assyrians, Syrians, Phoenicians, Canaanites, Jews, Cyprians, the later
Oiliciaus, the Solymi, and the northern Arabians.

(3.) The Japhetic or Indo-Europaean family is the third great
division of the human race. Its name implies an ethnical affinity
between the Indian and Europaian nations, a fact which has long
been established on most indubitable evidence. Hence we must
suppose a double migration, eastward and westward, from some cen-
tral point. Armenia is supjiosed to have been that point.

Japhetic or Indo-Europssan 5rancA.— From Armenia issued westward
the Thracians, Pelasgians, Celts, Teutons, Phrygians, Bithynians, Ly-
dians, and Lycians; eastward the Get® of the Caspian steppes and
the progenitors of the modem Hindoos, who settled in the upper valley
of the Indus, whence one branch appears to have retraced its steps
across the Hindu Kush, and to have settled in Sogdiana, Bactria, Aria,
Hyrcania, Arachosia, Media, Persia, Carmania, and Drangiana, while
another descended to the plains of Hindostan, and took possession of
the whole of that peninsula.


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Harbour of Alexandria Troos.


§ 1. Boundaries; name. § 2. Position and physical character. § 3.
General features. § 4. Mountains. § 5. Rivers. § 6. I>akefl.
§ 7. Soil and climate. § 6. Population. § 9. Divisions. I. Mysia.
§ 10. Boundaries; general chai*acter. § 11. Mountains. § 12.
Rivers. § 13. Inhabitants; divisions. § 14. Towns; history.
§ 15. Islands — Lesbos, Tenedos, &c. II. Lydia. § 16. Boun-
daries ; general character. § 17. Mountains. § 18. Rivers. § 19.
Inhabitants. §20. Towns; history. §21. Chios. §22. Samos.
§ 23. Icarus, &c.

§ 1. Asia Minor is the name assigned by geographers to the
large peninsula which stretches westward from the main body of the
continent of Asia, and which is bounded on three of its sides by
water^-on the VV. by the ^Ega^an ; on the N. by the Euxine, and
the chain of intermediate seas that connect it with the ^gaean,
viz. the Hellespont, Propontis, and Thracian Ikwponis ; and on the
S. by the Mediterranean : on the E. it was separated from Syria by
the ranges of Amanus and Taurus, from Armenia by the Euphrates
and one of the ranges of Par}'adre8, and from Colchis by the river


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The Name. — The application of the name "Asia Minor" to this
peninsula may be traced as follows: — ^The name "Asia'* originated, as
we have already seen, in the alluvial plain of the Cayster, and seems at
all periods to have adhered in a special sense to portions of the penin-
sula, even after its extension to the whole of the continent. Hero-
dotus, for instance, describes the territory of the L^dian monarchs as
"Asia within the Halys ;*' Strabo and Livy as "Asia within Taurus;"
the kings of Pergamus adopted the title of " ELiugs of Asia," and when
the last of these died, and bequeathed his territories to the Bomans,
they constituted a portion of them into a province named "Asia,"
partly, perhaps, in imitation of the princes whom they succeeded, and
partly because it was the first territory on that continent of which
they took formal possession. From the province of Asia^ which only
included the western district, the name was gradually extended to the
whole peninsula, and the addition of " Minor " first appears in Orosius,
a writer of the fourth century of our era. It is most important to
note, in connexion with classical and even Biblical literature, that the
term "Asia" was at no period co-extensive with the whole of the
peninsula : it applied either to the continent, or to a portion of the
peninsula — in Latin authors frequently, and in the New Testament
exclusively, to the latter. But the idea of Asia Minor, as a distinct
and united country, was quite foi*eign to the mind of the ancients.
The modem name of the peninsula is Anadoli, i. e. " the east."

§ 2. The position and physical character of this peninsula des-
tined it to hold a conspicuous place in the history of the ancient
world. Situated at the extreme west of Asia and in close contiguity
to Europe, it became, as it were, the bridge to unite the two con-
tinents : as such, it was traversed by successive waves of population
as they surged westward from Central Asia, and it served as the great
high-road on which the contending hosts of the East and West
marched to the conflict, and not unfreguently the battle-field on
which the question of supremacy was decided between them. In a
strategetical point of view, it may be regarded as the outwork of the
citadel of Asia : so long as any of its numerous lines of defence were
sustained — whether the Hellespont, the Halys, the passes of Taurus
and Amanus, the maritime plain of Issus, or the valley of the
Euphrates — so long the safety of Europe or of Asia was inviolable.
Not less marked was the importance of Asia Minor in the progress
of commerce and civilization. In this respect the western district
occupies the first place. Holding easy communication by sea with
Phoanicia in one direction, with Greece by the isles that stud the
jEgaean in another, and with the Euxine in a third — with a coast
well adapted to early navigation, being broken up into bays and
estuaries, and fringed with islands — with a soil fertile in the pro-
ductions most valued in ancient times — with a brilliant sky and a
pure air — it was well calculated to become the nursery of commerce
and art. It was here that the activity of the Greek mind was first
developed: Miletus and Phocaea were foremost in commercial


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enteiprise : the first school of philosophy was planted on the soil of
Ionia : hoth epic and lyric poetry were horn and matared in this
favoured district: the earliest historical writers of importance,
Hecatseus, Charon, Hellanicus, and Herodotus, were natives of Asia
Minor. Lastly, in the culture of the fine arts, she was not
hehind her contemporaries ; the temples of Diana at Ephesus, and
of Juno at Samos, erected in the sixth century B.C., the monu-
mental sculptures of Xanthus and Halicamassus, the statuary of
Branchid^e, and the paintings of Phociea, attested, and in many
instances still attest, the taste and skill of the artists of Asia Minor.
$ 3. The general features of the peninsula of Asia Minor may he
descrihed in the following manner: — Lol fonn, it is an irregular
parallelogram, the sides facing the four cardinal points ; in size, it
has a length of ahout G50, and a hreadth of ahout 350 miles, its
area heing about half that of France ; in physical conformation, it
consists of a central plateau, surrounded by a maritime district, the
plateau occupying a length of about 500, and a breadth of about
260 miles, or about one-half of the whole peninsula. The general
fall of the land is towards the N., as indicated by the courses of the
rivers ; the southern part of the plateau is therefore higher than the
northern. The sea-coasts vary in character : while the N. and S.
are regular, the former even more so than the latter, the W. coast
is extremely irregular, the Propontis and the -^gaean being deeply
indented with bays and inlets.

Considerable ohangee have taken place in the coast-line within his-
torical times, throu^ the large amount of alluvium deposited by some
of the rivers. The £l»an Bay has been din^inished on its northern side
by the deposits of the Evenus and Caicus ; the Hermajan Bay, which
at one time opened out widely in the direction of Temnos, is now so
contracted at tne mouth of the Hermus as to present the appearance
of a double bay ; the port of Ephesus Ib entirely filled up, and the
general level of the plain, on which the town stood, is raised oy the de-
posits of the Cayster ; but the greatest change of all is in the neigh-
bourhood of Miletus, where the Mseander has protruded a considerable
plain into the very centre of the Latmian Bay, turning the head of the
bay into an inland lake, swallowing up the islands of Lade and Asteria,
and removmg the sea to a considerable distance from the Bite of ancient
Miletus. On the southern coast a marked change has occurred in the
lower course of the Pyramus, which formerly reached the sea by a
direct channel, but now turns off at right angles to its upper course
near the site of Mopsuestia, and doubling round Moimt Parium reaches
the sea in an easterly direction.

§ 4. The mountains which form the framework of the plateau are,
Tanruf in the S., Antitannif and Soydiies in the E., Paryadres and
its continuations to the Mysian Olympos in the N., and a series of
subordinate heights that connect the latter with Taurus in the W.


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86 ASIA MJNOR. Book U.

The most important of these mountain-iimges k Taonu, which de-
rives its DAme from the Aramaic word Twr, "height." In its western
portion it consists of an irregular series of detached mountains, which
cover the provinces of Lycia and Pisidia, in the former penetrating to
the sea-coast, and terminating in a series of promontories, while, in the
latter, they are removed somewhat inland, and leave the comparatively
level strip occupied by Pamphylia. The range assumes a more decided
form on the borders of Oilicia, and presents the appeiu*ance of an un-
broken wall throughout the whole length of that province, the only
spot where it can be crossed by an army being at the celebrated Portse
(Slicia?. On the eastern border of Cilicia it throws off a southern limb
named Amftnnt Monfl, Almadagh, which, pressing closely on the Medi-
terranean shore, presents an almost insurmountable barrier in that
direction. Taurus itself continues its easterly course, and forms the
boundary of Asia Minor on the border of Cappadocia. Antitavnu
strikes off from the main chain in a northerly direction from the border
of Oilida, and divides Cappadocia into two parts : the lofty Arffaent,
ArgUh DagK whence, accoixling to Strabo, both the Euxiue and 5ledi-
terranean seas could be seen, foiius its culminating point : its htjight
is estimated at 13,000 feet. On the frontier of Cappadocia and Pontus
Antitaurus takes an easterly direction, bounding the valley of the
Halys, and passes out of Asia Minor into Armenia Minor, where it
connects with Seydiief. This latter throws off a northern offset,
which ultimately connects it with the Moschici Montes on the eastern
frontier of Pontus. Another offset of Scydiscs forms the connecting link
between the Taurian system and the lofty range of Paiyadret, KuUag,
wliioh inins parallel to the Euxine Sea, and throws off from its central
chain numerous spurs, reaching to the neighbourhood of the coast, and
enclosing short parallel valleys. Paryadres terminates at the valley of
the Iris, and thenceforward the continuity of the northern range is
broken, though the system may be traced through the Galatian and
Mysian Olympus to the very shores of the Propontis. Lastly, a southern
range of subordinate height, which leaves the Mysian Olympus and
passes neai' Cotyfeum, completes the framework of tlie country by
bounding the plateau on the W. Westward of the line just indicated
the table-land breaks up into numerous ridges, which deRoend towards
the ^groan : of these we may notice— Mess^^, Kentanch Dagh, which
separates the basins of the Mseander and CayRter— Tmolus, Jiouz Dagh,
between the Cayster and Hermus ; and Tenmnt, Ak Dagh, which
divides the upper basin of the Hermus from the Macestus and Rhyn-
dftcus, which take a northerly course.

§ 5. The chief rivera of Asia Minor seek the Euxiue. Kot only
is the general slope of the country in that direction, but also more
numerous outlets are offered among the broken chains of the north,
than along the serried line of Taurus. We may notice, as running
in that direction — the Phasis* Bion, which forms the boundary
between Colchis and Asia Minor — the Aoampsif. Tchoruk^ in Pontus
— the Iris, Kamlmak, in' the same province — the Halyi, Kizil
Irmak, t. e. " red river," the most iraiwrtant in the whole country
— and the Sangftrint. Sakkaryeh, in Bithynia. ITie Proix>nti8
receives an important feeder in the Bhynd&OQS, Lupad. Pi-oceeding
southwards along the coast of the ^gaean, we meet with the Hermus.


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Kodus Chai, in Lydia, and the XMmder, Meinder, in Caria. The
streams that fall into the Mediterranean are necessarily short, from
the close approach of the Taurus range : from this description,
however, we must except the Saras* Sihun, and thePyriUnut, Jthun,
in the eastern part of Cilicia, which rise between the ranges of
Taurus and Antitaurus, and thus have longer courses. The rivers
above enumerated will be more minutely described in the subse-
quent accounts of the provinces, with the exception of those which
hold an important place in the general geography of Asia Minor.

The Halys risee on the borders of Armenia, and traverses Cappa-
docia in a south-westerly course as far as Mazaca; thence it turns
gradually towards the N., and finally towards the N.E., separating in
this part of its course Paphiagonia from Qolatia and Pontus, and dis-
charging itself into the Euxine : it derives its modem name from the
"red" colour of the water when impregnated with the soil of the
country. The Sangarins rises in the Phiygian mountain Adoreus* and,
flowing northwards, receives an important tributary from the neigh-
bourhood of Ancyra ; it afterwards assumes a westerly direction, until

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