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its junction with the Thymbres, when it again turns northwards, and
in a tortuous course crosses Bithynia to the Euxine : it was navigable
in its lower course, and yielded an abundance of fish. The Fhasit
rises in the Moschici Montes, and flows in a semicircular course, with a
rapid stream, into the Euxine ; in the upper part of its course it was
named Boas: its water is described ai being very cold, and so light
that it swam like oil on the Euxine. The Sarns rises in Cataonia, and
first flows towards tlie S.E. through Cappadocia, and then towards the
S.W. through Cilicia, traversing in its lower course the rich Ale'ian
plain, and emptying itself into the Mediterranean S. of Tai-sus. The
Pyramnt also rises in Cataonia, and has a general S.W. course : for a
certain distance it is said to disappear imder ground ; on its reappear^
ance it becomes a navigable stream, and forces its way through a glen
of Taurus, which in some parts is so narrow that a dog can leap across
it ; it then crosses the eastei-u part of the Aleian plain to the sea.

§ 6. The lakes form a conspicuous feature in the map of Asia
Minor. The central plateau is not (it should be observed) a dead
flat, but intersected by numerous ranges of mountains of varying
altitude. In the southern portion of the plateau these ranges form
basins in which the waters gather into lakes, no outlet towards the
sea existing in any direction. These lakes are for the most part
strongly impregnated with salt. The largest of them is Tatta* Tuzla,
on the borders of Lycaonia and Cappadocia, about 75 miles in cir-
cumference. Ck>rfiJis and TrogltiSf in Pisidia, are also of a large

§ 7. The soil and the climate of Asia Minor are, as may be
supposed, exceedingly variable. The alluWal plains about the
lower courses of the rivers of the western district and Cilicia sur*
pass all in fertility. The extent and flatness of these plains is remark-
able ; the mountains rise out of them at their upper extremities,


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" like islands ont of the ocean f^ they are sheltered from the severe
cold of the upper regions, and are for the most part well watered.
The most extensive of these alluvial plains is in the eastern part of
Cilicia, hence designated Campestris, which is formed by the rivers
Cydnus, Sarus, and Pyramus. Of a similar character are the lands
which surround many of the lakes in the interior ; these have at
one period occupied larger beds than at present ; the dry margins
are consequently beds of rich alluvial soil. Fertile plains of a
different class are found occasionally on the sea-coast ; of these, that
of Attalia on the southern coast was the most extensive. The hills
of the western district are clothed with shrubs and wood, and in
some cases cultivated to their very sx^nmits. The climate of the
maritime region is fine, but the heat sometimes excessive. ITie
western portion of the central plateau consists of extensive barren
plains traversed by deep gullies which the streams have worked
out for themselves. The southern part is subdivided into numer-
ous portions by ranges of considerable height ; in the northern part the
hills are of less height, and consequently the plains present a more
unbroken appearance. The same peculiarity, which we have already
noted in regard to the alluvial plains, also characterizes the upper
plains ; " they extend without any previous slope to the foot of the
mountains, which rise from them like lofty islands out of the surface
of the ocean."* The climate of the central district is severe, the
loftier hills being tipped with snow throughout the greater part of
the year. The northern district along the shores of the Euxine,
from the Iris to the Sangarius, is fertile, the hills being of no great
elevation ; on either side of these limits the coimtry is too moun-
tainous to admit of much cultivation.

§ 8. The population of Asia Minor was of a very mixed cha-
racter : Turanian, Indo-Europaaan, and Semitic, races are found
there coexisting in different proportions, the predominant element,
however, being the Indo-Europaeau. This admixture is indicated in
the Mosaic table, where Lud, the progenitor of the Lydians, is repre-
sented as a son of Shem, while the remainder of the northern and
western parts of the world are assigned to the Japhetites — Gomer,
Ashkenaz, and Kiphath being (according to the best authorities) the
representatives of the races in the western part of Asia Minor, while
Meschech and Tubal undoubtedly held the eastern part

(1.) T\tranian Races, — ^The most important were the Moschi, the
Meschech of Scripture, and the Mmkai of the Assyrian inscriptions, the
progenitorB of the Muscovites ; and the Tibareni, the Tubal of Scripture.
Theae races occupied the later Cappadocia, and were pressed northwards
to the shores of the Euxine by the entrance of the Cappadocians. At a

FeUowt*8 Asia Minor, p. S6. < Leake*8 Asia Minor, p. 95.


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later period Soytbo-Thracian tiibea recrossed the BosporuB fironi Europe
into Asia, and settled along the northern coast, under the names Thyni,
Bitiiyni, and MariandynL

(2.) Tndo-Ewroptean Races. — The Phrygians, Trojans, Mysians, K»o-
nians, Mygdonians, and Dolionians, as well as the Pelasgians, who were
closely allied to the Phrygians, belong tu this class. The Phrygians
(whose name appears imder the different forms of Phryges, Brygee,
Briges, Breuci, Bebryoes, and Berecynths) were in early times the
dominant race in Asia Minor, and had even crossed over the Hellespont
into Europe, whence, however, they were driven back by the advance
of the Illyrians and Scytho-Thracians, and resettled on the shores of
the Propontis, in the districts named Lesser Phrygia and Mysia. A
Celtic race, the Galatians, entered Asia Minor at a comparatively
late period.

(3.) Semitic Races, — ^These were chiefly located on the shores of the
Mediterranean Sea. The Cilicians were connected by their own tradi-
tions with the PhoDnlcians. The Pisidians and the early inhabitants of
Lycia, the Solymi and Termilse, we're undoubtedly of Semitic origin
the frequent occurrence of Semitic names in the latter district, as
Solymi (Salem), Phoenix (Phoenicia), and Cabalia (Qebal), furnishes a
proof of this. The Lydians on the western coast are supposed to be
also a Semitic race, but this question can hardly yet be considered as
decided. The same may be said of the Cappadocians, who are described
us Syrians by Herodotus-— a primd facie ground for inferring that they
were of Aramscan and thus of Semitic origin. That description may
however have been attached to them from their having entered Asia
Minor from the side of Syria. The Cappadocians are by some ethnolo-
gists supposed to be of the Arian division of Indo-Europa»ms, an
opinion which is fkvoured by the comparatively late period of their

§ 9. The territorial divisions of Asia Minor varied considerably
in different ages. We have described the positions which the
several races were supposed to occupy in the age of Herodotus
(p. 36). Subsequently to that time we may note the following
changes :— (1.) the introduction of the name " Pontus,*' which first
appears in Xenophon {Anab, v. 6, § 15), to describe the province
lying along the shore of the Euxine in the N.E. ; (2.) the separa-
fion of Pisidia from Phrygia and Pamphylia, which was not form-
ally effected until the time of Constantine the Great; (3.) the
immigration of the Gauls into the district named Galatia ; and (4.)
the consequent coiitraction of the boundaries of Phrygia and Bithy-
nia. The divisions usually recognised in geographical works belong
to the period of the Roman empire, and are partly of a political,
partly of an ethnographical character. They are the following 14 :
on the western coast, Mysia with Troas and .^lis, Lydia with the
northern portion of Ionia, and Caria with southern Ionia and
Doris ; on the southern coast, Lycia, Pamphylia, and Cilicia ; in
the interior, Cappadocia with Armenia Minor, Lycaonia with Isau-
ria, Pisidia, Phrygia, and Galatia ; and on the northern <x)ast, Bi-
thynia, Paphlagonia, and Pontus.


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90 ASIA MINOR. fiooK II.

History. — In the earliest historical period Asia Minor was parcelled
out into a number of independent kingdoms, among which the Phry-
gian appears to have been the most powerful. The Trojan and earlier
Lydian dynasties are also known to us. The last of the Lydian dynas-
ties, the Mermnadae, extended their sway over the whole of Asia Minor
westward of the Halys from B.c. 720 to 546, when their territory, along
with the rest of the peninsula, was incorporated by Cyrus into the Per-
sian Empire. Asia Minor remained subject to Persia until the time of
Alexander the Great, b.c. 334, when it was transferred to the Macedo-
nian Empire. After the death of the conqueror it fell in the first in-
stance to Antigonus, and after the battle of Ipsus, b.c. 3)1, to Lysi-
machus. About 20 years later, Seleucus attached the greater part of it
to Syria, while several provinces, Bithynia, GkJatia, Cappadocia, Pontus,
Paphlagonia, and Armenia Minor, and the town of Pergamus, became the
seats of independent monarchies. The battle of Magnesia, ».c. 190, ter-
minated the supremacy of the Seleucidsc, and the Komau conquerors
handed over Lycia and Caria to the Rhodiana, Mysia, Lydia, and Phrygia
to the kings of Pergamus. The last of these kings bequeathed his terri-
tory to Rome, B.C. 133, and the Roman province of Asia was formed, in-
cluding a large part of Phrygia, Mysia, Lydia, and Cai'ia, which last
had been taken aw^y ft'om the Rhodians, Lycia being declared inde-
pendent. By degrees the other portions of Asia Minor fell into the
hands of the Romans ; Bithynia by the bequest of Nicomedes IV., B.C.
75 ; Cilicia by the conquest of Pompey, B.C. 67 ; Pontus partly after
the defeat of Mithridates, and the remainder in the reign of Nero ; Ga-
latia and Lycaonia after the death of the Tetrarch Amyntas, u.c. 25 ;
Cappadocia after the death of Archelaus, A. D. 18; and lastly Armenia
Minor, after the death of Tigranes in Vespasian's reign. Asia Minor
was then divided into the following provinces : — Asia, Lycia, Cilicia
with Pamphylia, Cappadocia, Galatia with Lycaonia, Bithynia with
Pontus, and Armenia Minor. In Constantino's division Asia Minor
(with the exception of Cilicia and Isauria, which were added to .the
Diocese of the East), was divided into two Dioceses, Asiana and Pontus,
the latter consisting of Pontus, Bithynia, Galatia, and Cappadocia, the
former of the remaining provinces.

Site of AbjdoB, fVoro the West.


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I. MySIA, with iEOLIS.

f 10. The province, of Mytia lay in the north- west of Asia Minor,
bounded on the N. by the Pix)ix)nti8 and the Hellespont, on the
W. by the ^giean, on the S. by Mount Temnus and Lydia, and
on the E. by Bithynia and Phrygia, the boundary in this direction
being marked by the river Rhyndacus and Mount Olyminis. It is
generally mountainous, but possesses some plains on the sea-coast.
It is also well watered by a number of small rivers. Nevertheless
it was not in ancient times so productive as other portions of Asia
Minor, and many parts of it were covered with marshes and forests.
Besides the ordinary products and the wheat of Assus, Mysia was
celebrated for the lapis cusiiis, found near Assus, which had the
property of quickly consuming the human body, and was hence used
for coflBns. Near the coasts of the Hellespont there were excellent
oyster beds.'

Name. — The name Mysia is probably only another form of Moeeia,
derived from a Celtic word signifying **a marsh.'* The Mysians were
Bometimes distinguished from the Moesians by the title of ''Asiatic."

§11. ITie mountains of Mysia are irregular. The highlands of
the central plateau break up into a number of ranges, which seek
the sea in various directions, though with a geneml tendency to-
wards the W. The most important of these ranges are — Olympus
on the eastern border — Temnnt on the southern border — and Ida in
IVoas near the ^g«au.

Olyminii, Ket^idi Dagk, distinguished from other mountains of the
same name by the title of " Mysian," is an extensive range between
the valleys of the Scmgarius and Rhyndacus, and attains the height of
7000 feet. The lower regions are well clad with forests, which in
ancient times harboured dangerous bandd of robbers ; the summit is
covered with snow for the greater part of the year. Temniui traverses
the province in a north-westerly direction from the angle in which
Mysia meets Phrygia and Lydia to the neighbourhood of Ida ; it is
only noticed by the later goographers, and has no associations of any
interest. Ida ^ is an irregular ridge running out into several branches

• Ponttu et OMtriferi fouoes tcntantor Abydi. — Viao. Oeorg. i. 207.
Hellespontia, cicteris o$treo$ior oris. — Catcll. xvlil. 4.
Pontus et oHfiferam dirimat Chalcedona carstt. — Lvc. ix. 050.

* The proximity of Ida to Troy leads to its bcinir frequently noticed by the poets.
Virgil describes the meteor as disappearing behind its wooded heights : —

lUam, ramma super labentem culmina tecti

Cemimos Idtea elaram se eondere siWa. — jEn. ii. 605.
Bo, again, it appears among the ornaments of iBneas*s ressel : —

Imminet Ida super, profugis gratisslma Tcucris.— ^n. x. 158.
Ida was farther celebrated in mythology as the birthplace of Cybele : —

Alma paremt Ido^a deAm. — Vikg. jEn. x. 253.
It is also used as a synonym for Trojan ; as In the expressions — Id^rm judex for


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near the Mgnwa ; the higheet point, named Chu^bniB,' attains an eleva-
tion of 4650 feet above the level of the sea; these ranges are well'
covered with wood, the haunts in ancient times of wild beasts, and
contain the sources of numeroiis rivers.^

ITie sea-coast i& also irregular, particularly in the southern part
of the province, where the Siniif AdnunyttSniiSt Gulf of Adramytti,
advances far inland between Lesbos and the mainland, and is suc-
ceeded by a series of sinuosities terminating with the Sin. ELaltloiui*
OtiHf of Sandarli, on the borders of Lydia. The promontories of
BhiBtSnm,* Intepeh^ on the Hellespont — ^Sigfivm/ Tenisheri, at the
entrance of the Hellespont — and Leotami Baha, the extremity of
the range of Ida — are frequently noticed by classical writers.

The less important promontories are — ^AlMmiif , near Lampsacus —
Bard&ais, S. of Abydus near Dardanus — and Oane, C, Cdoni, W. of
the mouth of the Caicus.

§ 12. The most important rivers are the Bhyndiens and the Calcns.
The former rises in Northern Phrygia, and flows in a north-western
direction between Mysia and Bithynia through the Lake of Apol-
lonia, and, after receiving the Maoettos from the S.W., falls into
the Propontis. llie Oaleui,' Ak-m, rises in Temnus, and consists
in its upper course of two streams, which unite near Pergamum :
thence it flows into the Bay of Elsea. la addition to these, there are
numerous streams, unimportant in point of size, but invested with
historical associations, which we will briefly notice.

Paris (Ov. Fast. vi. 44), ItUete naves (Hor. Od, i. 14, 2) ; or for Phrygian, ait
Idma urbes (Virg. JS»». Tii. 207) ; or lastly for Roinan, as being descended from
Tro7, as /Anw ran^ww (SU. Ital. i. 126).
Propertius ocmfoands this Ida with the one in Crete : —
Idaam Simoenta JotIb cunabula parri (ill. 1, 97).
» ^Uifv t> iKovtv voAvir(B«ura, iviftipa ihipw. HoM. 7?. viil. 47.

Concidit : nt quondam cava ooncldit, ant Erymantfao
Ant Idi in magn&, radicibus ernta pinus. — Yiao. jEn. r. 448.
Ardoa proceris spoliantur Ou^ra sllvls :

Innnmerasque mlhi longa dat Ida trabes.— Ovid. Reroid. xvl. 107.
• Rhorteius is often used as a spionym for " Trojan;" e. g. Rhateiut ductcr sell.
.£neas (Virg. J?n. xli. 456) ; Shateia littora {Luc. vi. 851) ; and by a secondary
application, for ♦♦ Roman," e. g. Rhateia regna (Sil. Ital. vii. 4S1).

' The naval camp of the Greeks was formed near Sigeum : hence it is fi^uently
noticed by Homer and Virgil. The latter alludes to ita position just where the
Hellespont widens out into the .£g»an : —

Sigea igni f^ta lata relucent.— ^£». ii. 819.
Sigeus, or SigeYus, is also used as a synonym for " Trojan ;" e. g. SigH eampi
(yB». vU. 294), SigtM in pulvere (Stat. AehU. i. 84) ; and tor " Roman : "—

Sen Laurens tibi Sigeo sulcata colono

Arridet tellus. Sn.. Ital. ix. 203.

» Mysusque Caicus. Viro. Oeorg. iv. 370.

Et Mysum capitisque sui ripicque prioris

Poenituisse femnt, ali& nunc ire, Caioum.— Ovid. Met. xv. 277.


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The Propontis receives the JBsSpiii,' which rises in Ida, and flows
towards the N%E., forming the eastern boundary of the Troad— and
the Oraaleuf,^ the scene of the victory of Alexander the Qreat over the
Persians, B.C. 3.S4, and of LucuUus over Mithridates, B.C. 73 ; it is pro-
bably the same as the Kodthc^su,. The Hellespont receives the follow-
ing streams from E. to W. — the Perofitet, Brogcu, the Fraotiiii, Mu$-
kakoi-fu^ the Bhodiuf , the BimoU, Dumbreh-chai, formerly a tributary
of the Scamander, but now an independent stream, and the Soamander'
or Xanthm, Mendere-sUt which flowed by the walls of Troy, with its tri-
butary, the Thymhriuf, perhaps the Kamara-su, which still flows into
the Menderesut though the name Ttnibr^ is applied to a stream which
has an independent course to the sea. The Satniolf, Tuzla, in the
southern part of Troas, rises in Ida and flows into the ^gsean Sea : the
Eviniii, acmdarlif rises in Temnus, and flows into the Bay of Elsea.
Most of these streams owe their celebrity to their connexion with the
Homeric poems. The Scamander is described by Homer as having
two sources close to Ilium, one of them sending forth hot water, the
other cold ; he also describes it as a laive and deep river ;* it was
named Xanthus {h)m the yellow colour^ of its water. Pliny describes
the Xanthus and Scamander as distinct streams ; Ptolemy gives the
Simois and Scamander independent courses to the sea. The proba-
bility is that even in ancient times considerable changes had taken
place in the line of coast by the alluvial deposits carried down bv these
streams. The Simois crossed the plain of Troy, and was therefore the
scene of some of the most striking events in the Trojan war.*

§ 13. The inhabitants of Mysia belonged to various races. (1.)
The Mysians themselves in the age of Homer appear to have lived
on the shores of the Propontis in Mysia Minor ; thence they ad-
vanced southwards and eastwards, and about the time of the .^lian
migration founded the kingdom of Teuthrania. (2.) The Trojans
occupied the district of Troas in the Homeric age ; they were pro-
bably, like the Mysians, an immigtent race from Thrace; they
amalgamated with the Phrygians, and hence the terms are used in-
differently. (3.) Greek colonists settled at an early period along
the western coast ; they consisted of Achseans, Haitians, and .^k>-
lians, of whom the latter possessed the chief influence, and commu-
nicated their name both to the migration and the district.

* *0( Si ZikuMif ivau>¥ vvcu s-ii3a vtlarov *l5i)f ,

'A^i/ciol, vu^rrcf vStap lUKctv Ai<r^iroto. HoK. 77. ii. 834.

1 Ovid describes it as bifurcating near its mouth : —

Alexirhod, Granico nata bieomi, — Mtt. xi. 764.
' *Ov UAw9o¥ KoXiawn 0«ot, av6p«f M litaftMrSpov.—'B.ou. 11, xx. 74.
Xanthus hence appears to have been the more ancient of the two names.
> XivOw fiaJMur^m^i.—ll, xxi. 15.

* *AfrfvpoUvriP.—Il. xxi. 8.

S Kal 2<fui«if » SBt, woXkk fiodypia ecu Tpv^<L\ctai
lUtinrccroi' iv Koy(ji<n, koX i^fuMwi' ylraf iivSpmV — Hex. J7. xiL 82.
8»vus ubi .£acidn telo Jacet Hector, ubi ingens
Sarpedon : ubi tot Simois oonrepta sub nndis
Scuta virum, gnleasque, et fortia corpora volvit. — Viao. jEn. i. 09.


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Mysia was divided into the following districts : — (I.) Myiia Minor
or HeUetpontiftoaf the coast-district along the Hellespont and the
Propontis. (2.) Myiia K^jor, the southern portion of the intcrioi
of the province, with Pergamum for its capital, and hence sometimes
termed Pergam6ne. (3.) Troat* the northern part of the western
coast from the Hellespont to the Bay of Adramyttium. (4.) iBdlii,
the southern part of the coast, though more especially applicahle to
the portion between the rivers Caicua and Hermus. (5.) Tenthraiiia»*
a district on the southern frontier, where the Mysians under Teuthras
had settled about the time of the ^olian migration. Under the
Persians the western portion of the coast of the Hellespont was
named Phrygia Minor.

§ 14. The towns of Mysia belonged to various historical eras, and
are invested with associations more than usually varied, and ex-
tending over a long series of ages. The position of Mysia, in com-
mand of the most easy point of crossing the channel that separates
Asia from Europe, naturally rendered it the high-road of communi-
cation between the two continents. Hence it was visited by Darius
both in his Scythian and Greek expeditions, by Xerxes, by Alex-
ander the Great, by Antiochus in his advance into Greece, and by
Lucullus in the Mithridatic War. The banks of the Granicus wit-
nessed more than one contest for the empire of the East, and the
beach of Abydus was oft-times the jiarade-ground of hosts gathered
from every nation of the known world. The towns of Mysia either
lined the sea-coasts of the Propontis and the iEga»an, or were situ-
ated within easy communication with the seaboard. In the Heroic
age, as depicted in the Homeric poems, the towns were the seats of
small sovereignties: the far-famed Ilium, Dard^nus, Antandrus,
ITiebe, Scepsis, and many others, belong to this age. The period
of Greek immigration followed : most of the towns that were favour-
ably situated received colonies either immediately from Greece or
from the Greek colonies on the shores of Asia Minor. The iEolians
settled at Cyme and ten^ other places, and, at a later period, these
again sent out colonies to Antandrus, Ilium Novum, and else-
where : Adramyttium claimed Athens as ita founder : the Milesians,
accompanied in some instances by other Greek colonists, settled
at Cyzlcus, Abydus, Prifijms, Parium, LampsScus, and Garg&ra.
Some of the old towns perished from the effects of war or natural

* Fonitan, ut quondam Teuthrantia regna tcnenti.
Sic mihi res eadem vulnus opemque ferct. — Ov. lYist. ii. 19.
Teothranteosque Caicus.— Id. Met. ii. 243.

7 The names of the other ten were — Temnoc, LarlsM, Neon-TIchos, jl^g«B,
MyrTna, Grjniiim, Cilia, Notium, iEgiro^ssa, and IMtftne : SmTma wan originally
an .£olian colony, but was afterwards occupied by louians.


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Chap. \'1I.



decay ; others from the foundation of new towns and the forcible
removal of their inhabitants. The period succeeding Alexander the
Great mtnessed the rise of Ilium Novum, Alexandria Troas, and
Pergftmum : each of these owed its prosperity to a different cause —
Ilium Novum to its associations with the Troy of Homer, Alexandria
Troas to its favourable position on the sea-coast, and Pergamum to
the establishment of the monarchy which through the favour of the
Romans held sway over the greater part of Asia Minor. After
the extension of the Boman Empire over Asia, the towns of Mysia
received various boons conducive to their prosperity : Pergamum is
described by Pliny as "longe clarissimum Asiae:" Cyzicus and
Dardanus became free cities : Parium and Alexandria Boman colo-
nies. The fine air and scenery of Cyzicus rendered it a fashionable
resort of the wealthy Romans.^ These towns are described below
in their order from N. to S.

Cy^teui wafi well situated on the shores of the PropODtis, at the
inner extremity of an isthmus which connects a peninsula of consider-
able size with the mainland. The isthmus ^ was severed hy an artificial
channel, over which two hridges were thrown, and thus the place was
easily defensible on the land side. Between the peninsula and the main-
land were two roadsteads, one on each side of the isthmus. The Doli-
ones *° were reputed its earliest inhabitants, hut its prosperity was due
to the Milesians who settled there. It fell to the Persians after the

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