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conquest of Miletus — to the Athenians and Laoedsemoniazis alternately in
the Peloponneeian War —
and to the Peraians again
at the peace of Antal-
cidas. It was besieged
by Mithridates, B.C. 74,
but relieved by Lucullus ;
and, in gratitude for its
resistance, it was made a
free city by the Romams.
Its gold coins, named

Cyziceni, had a very ex- • coin of Cyzicus.

tensive circulation. The

oysters and the mat-hie of Cyricus were much prized. The
ruins of Cyricus are extensive, and are named Bal Kiz, Lamps&ons
stood on the Hellespont, near the modem Lamsaki, and neturly
opposite to Callipolis, on the Thracian coast: it was named Pityusa
before the Milesians settled there. During the Ionian revolt it was

■ Frigida tam multoe placuit tibi Cyxlcus annos
Tulle, Propontiaca qua fluit Isthmoe aqua. — Prop. ill. 22, 1.

* There is some doubt as to whether the ground on which Cyzicus stood was
originally an island or a peninsula. The great length of the isthmus (above a mile)
renders it probable that it was made into an artificial island, by a narrow channel
dug across, rather than into an artificial peninsula by so long a bridge or mole.

1* Hence it is termed Hmmonia, i. e. Thcssalian : —
Hincque Propontiacis hoBrentcm Cyzicon oris,

Cysicon UoranoniflD nobile gentis opus. — Ov. TVitt. I. 10, 89.


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taken by the Persians, and remained under their supremacy, though
governed by a native tyrant. After the battle of Mycale it joined
the side of Athens, and, having revolted from her, was besieged
and taken by Strombichides. It was the birthplace of several illus-
trious men — Chairon the historian, Anaxiiuenes the orator, and Metro-
dorus the disciple of Epicurus. > Ab^QS was situated at the point
where the Hellespont is narrowest,^ being no more than 7 stadia across:
on the other side of the strait was Sestos, about 30 stadia distant.
Xerxes erected his bridge of boats from a point a little N. of the town,
B.C. 480. Under the Romans it became a tree town, in gratitude for
its sturdy resistance to Philip II. of Macedon. Abydus is well known
in mythology as the scene of Leander's exploit of swimming across the
strait to visit Hero.^ Dard&ans stood about 8 miles from Abydos, and
is supposed to have communicated to the strait its modem appellation,
DaraaneUes : it was regarded as the ancient capital of the Dardanians,
and is further known as the spot where Sylla concluded peace with
Mithridates, B.C. 8^. Further to the S., at the junction of the Helles-
pont with the JEgesan sea,^ we enter upon the plain of Troj,* the stage
on which the events of the Iliad were enacted. We have already had
occasion to remark that the features of the soa-coast, and of the plain
itself, have undergone much alteration, and that the Simois no longer
flows into the Scamander. The site of Troy itself is a matter of great
uncertainty : some fix ib at Hiiim KoYfun, the modem Kissarlik, cS>out

1 Lampsaeus was the chief seat of the worship of Priapus : —

Et te mrioola, Lampaace, tata deo. — Or. TVist. i. 10, 86.
Hellfpontiad aerret tutela PriapL— Viko. Qeorg. iv. 111.
Henoe Lampsaoeniu is used as o synonym for "obscene : '* —

Nam mea Lampeado lasoirit pagina Tersu.— Mabt. zi. 16.
Qoantam Lampsaciae oolont poellie. Id. zi. 51.

« Henoe the expression **fttueeM Abydi.**— Viao. Gwrg, 1. 207.
The jonction of the two shores, efPected by Xerxes, was regarded as one of the
greatest feats of skill and labonr : —

Fama canit tnmidum super SBquora Xerxem
Oonstruxisse rlas, multum cum pontibus ausus,
Europamque Asi», Scstonqne admovit Abydo
Inoessitque ft-etum rapidi super Hellespont!. — Luc. it 672.
Tot potuere monus vel Jungere Seston Abydo,
Ingestoqne solo Phrixeum elidere pontum. — Id. vi. 55.

» Vel tua me Sestos vel te mea sumat Abydos.— Or. Heroid. xviii. 127.
Utque rogem de te, et soribam tibi, iA quis Abydo
Venerit, aut qunro, si quis Abydon eat.— Id. xlx. 80.

* Longus in angustum qua claodltur Ilellespontus
Ilion ardebat. Ot. Met. xiii. 407.

» By lAtin writers the place was usually called Troja ; the poets, however,
fluently used the names Ilium, Ilion, and lUos : «. g,
O diriim domus //turn, et inclyta hello

Mamia DardanidOm. Viiig. JBn, IL 241.

lUoH aspicies, flrmataque turribus altis
Momia,.Ph<ebe« structa canore lyr«.— Ov. fferoid. xvi 179.
Non semel Ilio$
Vexata. Hoa. Od. ir. 9, 18.


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Chap. VII.



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12 stadia distant from the sea; others at a spot more to the S.E.,
distant 42 stadia from the sea, now named Bunarhcuhi : the former
opinion has in its favour the voice of antiquity, down to the time of
Demetrius of Soepeis and Strabo, and must be received as most pro-
bably the correct view. The town is described in the Iliad as situated
on rising ground * between the rivers Simois and Scamander :7 to the
S.E. rose a hill, a spur of Ida, on which stood the acropolis named
Perg&mum, containing temples and palaces : the city was surrounded
with walls, and ona of the gates leading to the N.W. was named the
Scsan or '* left gate.'* The town was believed to have been destroyed
about B.C. 1184, and rebuilt at a later period, with the title of "New
Ilium," in which ^olian colonists settled. This was probably the
place which was visited by Xerxes, Alexander, and Julius Csesar, and
which, as the representative of the ancient Troy,' was enlai^ged and
favoured by the Romans. During the Mithridatic war New Ilium was
taken by Fimbria, B.C. 85, and suffered severely. In the neighbour-
hood were several spots associated with the Homeric poems — SigSiim,
on the sea coast, where the moimds still exist which were reputed to
cover the bodies of Achilles and Patroclus; and Bhcstdnm, on the
Hellespont, with the moimd of Ajax: nea; each of these spots towns
sprang up, the materials in the case of Sigeum being procured out of
the ruins of Troy. Alaximdria I^rOM, or, as it was sometimes briefly
termed, T^rOM, stood on the coast opposite the S.E. point of the island
of Tenedos : it owed its foundation to Antigonus, one of Alexander's
generals, and its enlargement to Lysimachus, lung of Thraoe, who
changed the original name of Antigonia into that of Alexandria. Its
position rendered it valuable to the Romans, and they did much for
it in the way of public works and buildings, of which an aqueduct to
bring water from Mount Ida was the most remarkable. JiUiu6 Csesar
is said to have designed making it the Roman capital of the East, and

* I1ie epithets applied to it are «ivtin^, ifv«ft4«<nra, and b4>pv6wvm,

J Astaraci tellos, qoam fHglda parri
Finduat Scamandri flomina
Lnbricos et Simots. Hoa. Xp. 18, 13.

* The site of old Iliam was sought for in the neighbourhood. C8B8ar*8 visit to
it is described by Locan in the following passage : —

SigKasqoe petit fome mirator arenas,
Et Simoentis aqnas, et Graio nobile bosto
KhoBtion, et mnltom debentee vatibus, umbras.
Circuit exustSB nomen memorabile Trojse,
Magnaque Phosbei <tu»rit vestigia mari.
Jam Bjlve steriles, et putres robore tranoi
Assarad preasere domoe, et tompla deonim
Jam lassa radice tenent, ao tota tegontur
Pergama dumetis : etiam periere ruinn.
Adspidt Hesiones soopoloe, sylvisque latentes
Anohiso tha l amos : quo Judex sederit antro :
Unde puer raptus codIo : quo rertice Nais
Luaerit (Enone : nullum est sine nomine saxum.
Insdus in siooo serpentem pulvere rivum
Transierat, qui Xanthus erat : seourus in alto
Gramine ponebat gressus ; Phryx incola manes
Heotoreos caloare vetat. Discussa Jaoebant
Saxa, neo nllius fodem serrantia sacri.>-ix. 961-978.


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Chap. VU. TOWNS. 99

Constantine hesitated between this spot and Constantinople. The
rains of Treas supplied a large amount of stone for the erection of
Constuitinople. The Turks still call the site Etki Stamhotd, *' Old
Constantinople.'* Ami stood on the southern coast of Troas, eastward
of Ptom. Lectuzn : it possessed a harbour formed by a mole, and must
have been a flourishing place, to judge from the extensive ruins of
temples, tombs, and other edifices, still existing on its site at Beriam
K<duL Of these remains the Street of Tombs, a kind of Via Sacra, is
the most remarkable. It was the birth-place of Cleanthes, and the
temporary residence of Aristotle. Farther along the same coast we
meet xnih Oarg&za,* surrounded by a plain of remarkable fertility ;
and Antaadroi, the Pelasgis of Herodotus (vii. 42), advantageously
situated under a ^ur of Ida, and thus supplied with abundance of
timber for ship-buuding.' It was taken bv the Persians in the reign
of Darius, and, though it for a while shook them off in the time of
the Peloponnesian War, it remained generally subject to them.
AdZMDyttiiim, at the head of the bay named after it, rose to some
importance as a seaport,^ under the kings of Pergamum, and was the
seat of a Conventus Juridicus under the Romans. P«rgkiniim or Ptr-
ffaauu, Btrgamdk, was situated on the banks of the Caicus, near the
junction of the streams Selinus and Cetins. Tradition assigned to it a
Ghreek origin, but it remained an unimportant place until it was chosen
by Lyshnachus, one of Alexander's generals, as the receptacle of his
vast treasures. Philetserus, to whose care these were entrusted, ren-
dered himself independent. The town was enlarged and embellished
' bv one of his successors, Eumenes II., the foimder of a magnificent
library, second only to Alexandria: the massive substructure of some
of the buildings still attests the solidity and splendour of the town.
Pergamum remained a remarkably fine town under the Roman empire.'
El«^ KUseU, was situated on the bay to which it gave name, about
12 stadia S. of the mouth of the Caicus: it served as the port of Per-
gamum. Cyme,* Sandarli, was on the coast, opposite the southern
extremity of Lesbos: it was the most flourishing of all the .£olian
towns, and has some few historical associations in connexion with the
Ionian revolt. Seepels, Eski-Upm, was the chief town in the interior:
it stood on the .^^pus, and was the seat of a school of philosophy : it
was here that the works of Aristotle are said to have been buried in a
pit after the death of Neleus, who had acquired them from Theo-

We may further give a brief notice of the following towns of less
importance : — Pril^^vf, on the Propontis, a Milesian colony, and the

* Nullo tantam se Mysia oultu
Jactat, et ipea boos mirantur Gargara meaaes.— Vxao. Oeorg, 1. 108. ,
1 Henoe .£neas is represented as building his fleet here —
Classemqae sub ip6&
Antandro et Phrygias molimor montibas Id». — Yxao. JBn, SIL 6.

* " A ship of AdramytUom " conveyed 8t Paul from Ctesarea (Acts zxvii. 2).

> It was celebrated for its mannfttcture of parchment, which derired its name
(charta JPeryamena) from this city. It has a stUl higher interest for us as being
the site of one of the Seven Churches of Asia.

* The Italian Cnmo is ndd to have been partly founded by a native of Cyme,
Hippocles, and to have derived its name firom that circumstance. It was also the
birth-place <^ Hesiod's fother, and of the historian Ephorus.

F 2


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100 MY8IA, WITH ^OLIS. " Book II.

chief Beat of the worship of Priapus ; Pariimi, Kemer, more to the W.,
with a good harbour, occupied by a mixed colony of MilesiazuB, Ery-
thrseans and Phocseans ; Oronuurte, near Abydus, with gold-mines in its
neighbourhood; SigCnm, the position of which has been already
described, an u£oIian colony, which was for a long time the source of
dispute between Athens and Mitylene, but ultimately fell to the
former, and became the residence of the Peisistratids ; Luriita, near
Alexandria Troas, an old Pelasgian town, but not regarded as the one
to which Homer refers {II. ii. 841) ; HamazXtOB and Chrysa, in the
southern part of Troas, in both of which Apollo was worshipped under
the form of a mouse, with the appellation of Smintheus ; Atameni,
opposite Lesbos, for some time the residence of Aristotle, and the place
where Histiseus the Milesian was captured by the Persians ; Oaae, oppo-
site the southern point of Lesbos, where the Roman fleet wintered in
the wai- with Antiochus ; Pitane, on the bay of Elsea, with two har-
bours ; Chrjrniiim, on the coast S. of Eltea, the seat of a celebrated
temple and oracle of Apollo;* Myxina, 8.W. of Grynium, a strong
place with a good harbour, occupied for a while by Philip of Mace-
donia in his wars with the Romans ; JEra, a short distance from the
coast, near Cyme ; and Temnof, S. of the Hermus. The position of
the old Homeric town LymMsns ' is uncertain : it is usually placed
near the sources of the Evenus. Several of the towns on the Bay of
Eleea were destroyed by earthquakes in the first century of the Chris-
tian era ; such was the fate of Tenmus, Myrina, Els&a, Pitane, and

History. — The history of Mysia resolves itself into that of the towns
which from time to time were dominant, this province having at no

period acquired any spe-
cific national existence.
In the Heroic a^ Ilium
was the seat of a small
sovereignty, which sur-
I vived the destruction of
its capital, B.C. 1184, and
was ultimately over-
thrown by the growing
power of the Phrygians.

OoinofLampMcus. ^^ * ^^^^ P«"^<* **y8»*

formed a part succes-
sively of the Persian and Macedonian empires, and after the death
of Alexander fell to the lot of the Seleuddffi. Gradually Pergamum
became the seat of a petty sovereignty imder the management of Phile-
tasrus (B.C. 283-263), Eumenes I. (B.C. 263-241), and Attalus I.
(&C. 241-197), the latter of whom amassed enormous wealth, and esta-
blished an allianoe with Rome. At this period the possession of Mysia

* Henee Apollo is named Gryneos :— '

His tibi Grynei nemoris dicator origo. — ^Viao. Eel. vl. 72.
Sed nunc Italiaxn magnam Gryneiu ApoUo. — ^Id. ^n. iv. 345.

• It was the birthplaoe of Briacis :—

Pertur et abdaeta Lymeaside triatia Aehillea. — Or. THst. iv. {. 15.
Audierat, Lyraesai, tuoa, abdncta, dolorea. — Id. Art. Am. ii. 408.
Compare n. iL 690, ^£k. xU. 547.


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Chai'. VII. ISLANDS. 101

was contested between the kings of Pergamum and Bithynia. Eumenes II .
(B.C. 197-159) oontinued the Roman alliance, and received a large por-
tion of Asia Minor for his territory in return for his services. He was
succeeded by Attalus II. (b.c. 159-138), and he by Attalus III. (b.c.
138-133), who on his death bequeathed his kingdotn to the Romans.

8L Paul's 7VaiM2f.~Mysia was visited by St. Paul in his second
journey. Though it was really a portion of "Asia** in the Biblical
sense of the term, the ancient name of Mysia was retained as a terri-
torial designation, as distinct, however, from that of the district of
Troas. He entered it on the side of Galatia, and, descending to the
coast, probably at Adnunyttium, reached the town of Troas, and thence
set sail for Macedonia (Acts xvi. 7-11). In his third journey he returned
to this same spot from Philippi, and spent a week there : crossed over
by land to Assus, following the Roman road which connects these two
towns, and there took ship and coasted down the Qulf of Adramyttium
to Mitylene, and thence southwards (Acts xx. 6-14). We may infer
from 2 Cor. iL 12 that he had visited previously Troas on his way from
Ephesus to Macedonia in this same journey.

§ 15. The following islands lie ofif the coast of Mysia : — In the
Propoutis, ProoonntenSt Marmora, which supplied Gyzicus and other
places with the fine streaked marble to which it owes its modem
appellation, with a town of th« same name oolonized by the Mile-
sians — in the jEgsean, TenSdof, Tenedo, 40 stadia distant fipm the
coast, about 10 miles in circumference, with a town on it« eastern
coast which possessed a double harbour ; and Lasboi* now named
Mitylene after its ancient capital, situated in the Gulf of Adra-
myttium, and separated from the mainland by a channel about 7
miles broad. The shape of Lesbos is very irregular : it resembles
a triangle, the three angles being formed by the promontories
Argennum in the N., Sigrium in the S.W., and Malea in the S.E. :
on the side between these two latter, two inlets penetrate deeply into
the interior ; one near Malea, probably the Portus Hierseus of Pliny,
now Port HierOy the other named Euripus PyrrhaeuB, Port Caloni.
The interior is mountainous, Olympus, in the S., attaining an ele-
vation of above 3000 feet. The Pelasgians, lonians, and -^lolians,
entered the island in succession ; the latter race, however, became
dominant, and here they retained a vigour both of intellect and
character far beyond the standard of their race elsewhere : Lesbos
has been rightly described as "the pearl of the .^lian race."'
They possessed six cities — Methymna, Molivo, and Arisba, on the
northern coast ; Antissa and Eressns, near Cape Sigrium ; Pyrrha,
.*t the head of the Euripus named after it ; and Mitylene, which
retains its name, on the eastern coast, opposite the mainland. The
last of these towns became, from its position and capacities, the
natural capital of Lesboe : it was originally built on a small island,

' Niebnhr'8 Uchtru, i. 318.


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102 MYSIA. WITH -ZE0LI8. Book U.

which was afterwardii joiued to the main island by a causeway,
and thus a double harbour was made, the one N. of the causeway

adapted for ships of war,
and the southern for
merchant-ships. The
beauty of the town and
the strength of its for-
tifications are noticed
by several classical

,^,. . writers. Its history is

Coin of Mitylcne. . , , • ,. / r

involved m that of
Lesbos itself, and will be noticed below. The Arginfise were three
small islands between Mitylene and the mainland, off which the ten
Athenian generals defeated the Spartans, B.C. 406.

History of Tenedos and LesboB.—TmieAoM was a place of considerable
importance so early as the time of the Trojan* War, and remained at

all periods a valuable ao-
quLsition for warlike pur-
poses, aR it commanded
the entrance of the Hel-
lespont. During the Per-
sian War it was occupied
by the Persians : it sided
with Athens in the Pelo-
ponnesian War, and was
consequently ravaged by
the Spartans, b.c. 389.
Coin of Tenedos. Restored to Persia by

the peace of Antalcidas,
it revolted on more than one occasion. In the Macedonian wai:B of
the Romans it was held as a maritime station, and in the Mitbridatic
War was the scene of Lucullus's victory, d.c. 85. In the reign of
Justinian it became an entrepdt for the corn-trade between Egypt and
Constantinople. Lesbos appears as an important island in the Homeric
poems. It joined the revolt of Aristagoras, and suffered severe
punishment from the Persians. In the early part of the Peloponnesian
War it sided with Athens: in the fourth year of the war, however,
Mitylene revolte<1, and suffered the destruction of her walls and the
forfeiture of her fleet : all the island, with the exception of the terri-
tory of Methymna, was divided among Athenian settlers. After the
peace of Antalcidas it became independent. Alexander the Great made
a treaty with it, and in coiu*se of time the Macedonian supremacy
was established. In the Mithridatic War Mitylene was the last city
that held out against the Romans, and was reduced by Minucius
Thermufl. Pompey made it a free city, and it became the chief

* Est in eonspectu Tenedon, notissima fam&
Insula, (lives opum, Priami dum regrna raanebant :
Nunc tantiim sinus, ct statlo male Ada carinin :
Hue se provectl desei-to In Utorc condunt.— Vino. ^En. ii. 91.


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town of the province of Asia. In addition to its liistorical fame,
Lesbos has acquired celebrity as the primitive seat of the music
of the lyre.» The lyre of Orpheus was believed to have been carried to
its shore by the waves. It was the birth-place of Lesches, Terpander,
Arion, and, above all, of Alcseus and Sappho. Its women were famed
for their beauty,* and, unfortunately, for their profligacy, which passed
into a proverb in the term \f(T$id(€iy. The historians Hellanicus and
Theophanes, and the philosophers Pittacus and Theophrastus, were
also Lesbians. Lastly, we must notice the healthiness of the climate,
justifying Tacitus's encomium, ** insula nobilis et amoena ; " and its
highly-prized wine.*

Kuins of Sardis.

» Hence the expression "ie«6»o plectro" (Hor. Oarm. i. 26, 11), and the
allusion in the lines —

Age, die Latinum,
Barbite, carmen,
Lesbio primum modulate cirl. — Id. Carm. i. 82, 3.

> Homer describes them In the complimentary terms —

•Ai KoAAci ivCiCMV ^vAa yvyaucwv. — J7. ix. 130, 272.

< Non eadem arboribus pendent vindemia nostris,
Quam Methymneeo carpit de palmite Lesbos. — Virg. Georg. ii. 89.
Innocentis pocula Lesbii. — Hor. Carm. i. 17, 21.
Tu licet abjectus Tiberina moUiter unda

Lesbia Mentoreo vina bibas opere. — Prop. i. 14, 1.


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104 LYDIA. Book II.

II. Lydia.

§ 16. Lydia was bounded by the M^ean Sea on the W., Mysia
on the N., Phrygia on the E., and Caria on the S. In the latter
direction the boundary was carried down by Strabo to the Mseander ;
the range of Messogis, however, forms the more correct limit.
Within these limits is included the northern part of Ionia, which
stretches along the sea-ooast from the Hermsean Bay in the N.

Lydia is mountainous in its southern and western parts, but it
contains extensive plains and valleys between the various ranges.
It is one of the most fertile countries in the world, even the sides
of the mountains admitting of cultivation ; its climate is mild
and healthy, and the chief drawback to the country is the frequency
of earthquakes. In the eastern portion of the province there are
evident traces of volcanic action : numerous extinct volcanos, and
particularly three conical hills of scorias and ashes, with deep craters,
and lava-streams issuing from them, are found on an extensive plain,
to which the ancients gave the name CatacecaumSne, f.e. ** burnt."
The most important productions of Lydia were an excellent kind of
wine, saffron, and gold.

§ 17. The chief mountain-ranges are Tmoluf and ICetsSgis, whose
general direction has been already described (p. 86). The former
ramifies into several subordinate ranges towards the W., viz. : Braoon
and Olympus in the direction of the Uermaean Bay — Sipj^lns* more to
the N., the fabled scene of Niobe's transformation — the isolated
height of GalleiiiiSf in the neighbourhood of Ephesus — and the irre-
gular cluster of hills which form the peninsula of Erythne, named
Corj^eus and IQmaf, and which terminate on the shores of the ^gean
in the promontories of Melaina, Argenniun opposite Chios, and Ck>ry-
cajum. The slopes of Tmolus were clothed with vines,* and it was

3 Nvy a irov iv w4Tp^iri¥, ^ ovpe<r(v oiortfAounr

Vvfi^timv, HOM. n. xxlT. 614.

Flet tamen, et validi circnmdata turbine ventl

In patriam rapU mt. Ibi ftxa eacumine montis

Liquitur, et lacrTmas etiamniim marmora manant. — Ov. Met. ri. 310.
The mountain is said from a certain point of Tiew to amome the appearance of a
woman weeping.
* Virgil praiaea them in Georg. ii. 98, and Ovid in the following lines : —

Jamqoe nemus Baochi Tmoli rineta, tenebat. — Fast, it SIS.

Cumqne choro meliore, sui rineta Tymoli,

Pactolonque petit. Met. xl. 86.

Saflhm also grew plentifully upon it : —

Nonne vides croceos ut Tmolus odoree. — ^Vibo. Qeorg. i. 56.
The prQminent appearance of Tmolus in the landscape is well described by Ovid .: —

Nam ftreta proepiciens late riget arduos alto

Tmolus in adsoensu. Met. xi. lAO.




rich in gold mines. With Messogis is connected the range of
Paotjast which presses close on the Cayster near Ephesus ; and its
westerly continuation MydUe> terminating in the promontory of
Trogylinm, St. Marie, opposite Samos : the name of Mycale is ren-
dered illustrious by the battle between the Greeks and Persians,
fought partly on the beach at its foot, partly in the adjacent channel^
B.C. 479. llie line of coast is very irregular, two bays penetrating
deeply into the interior on each side of the peninsula of Erythne,
viz. the HemuBU 8in«i> G, of Smyrna, on the N., and Caistrianns
SiiL, G, of Scala Nuova, on the S.

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