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§ 18. llie chief river is the HermiiSt Kodus-chai, which rises in
the Phrygian Mount Dindymus, and flows with a very devious
course, but with a general westerly direction, into the bay to which
it communicates its name, receiving on its right bank the Hyllus
and Lycus, and on its left the Cog&mus and Paetdlns* Sarahat, 'i'he
plains through which it flows in its middle course are broad and
fertile : that which stretches from Magnesia to Sardis was specifically
named Hemweus campus, while a more northerly portion was named
Hyrcanus campus. Both the Hermus* and the Pactolus* are said
to have carried down large quantities of gold-dust from Mount
Tmolus. In the S. of Lydia, between Tmolus and Messogis, is the
river Ca^8ter» Little Meindei', which rises on the slope of l^oliis,
and winding about the flat rich plains which border it, falls intb the
gulf named after it, near Ephesus. The upper plains of the Cayster
were named Cilbiani campi, and were divided into " upper " and
" lower." ITie broader plains about its mid course were the proper
Caystrifini campi, while near its mouth was a narrow maritime plain
shut oflf from tie central plain by the projecting spurs of Pactyas
and Gallesius. This last was the original ^Ao-tof Xct/icbv of Homer
(/Z. ii. 461), the favourite resort of wild-fowl,' particularly swans.

» Auto turbidns Hermus. — ^Viao. Oeorg. li. 187.
Itooniam hon ille radnm, non Lydia mallet
Stagna sibi, nee qui rigno perfUnditnr auro
Campmn, atqae illatis Hermi flaveecit arenis. — Sil. Ital. i. 167.
Ant quales referont Baccho sollennia Nymphso
Mseonke, quas Hermus alit, ripasqne paternas
Percurrunt auro madidiB : Istatnr in antro
Amnia, et undantem declinat prodigus urnam.

CLAro. Sapt. Ftoi, il. 67.

* Pactolnsqne irrigat anro. — ^Yibo. jSn, x. 142.
Sis peeore et multa dives teUure licebit
Tibique Paotolos flnat. Hob, £pod. xv. 19.

' Jam Tarias pelagi volacres, et qute Aoia drcnm

Dulcibus In stagnis rimantur prata Caystri. — Vibo. Grorg. i. 883.

Ceu quondam nivei liquida inter nubila cycni,
Cum scse e postu referunt, et longa cnnoros

r3



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106 LYDIA. Book II.

§ 19. The earliest inhabitants of this province were the M8s6ne8,
a Tyrrhenian or Pelasgian race. The Lydians, whose name first
appears in the poems of Mimnermus, were a kindred race to the
OEurians and Mysians, and gradually overpowered the Maaonians,
probably about the time when the Mermnadss supplanted the Hera-
cleid dynasty. In addition to these the Hellenic race contributed
an important element in the colonies which were planted along the
sea-coast at dififerent periods, and by various branches of the Hellenic
race, among whom the lonlans became dominant, and communicated
their name to the district.

§ 20. The towns of Lydia may be arranged into two classes— the
Greek towns which lined the coast, and the old Lydian towns of the
interior, situated amid the fertile plains of the Hermus and Ca^sten
The former comprised Phocaea, Smyrna, ClazomSnae, Erythrae, Teos,
Lebfidos, Coldphon, and Ephesus, which were members of the Ionic
confederation. The sites in most instances had been previously oo-
cujued by Carians, Leleges, and other kindred races ; and' Smyrna at
a later period by iEolians. The lonians seized them, and their
choice justifies the character for taste which Herodotus (i. 142) im-
putes to this race. Of the Lydian towns we know but little. Sardis
is the only one which comes prominently forward. The hostilities
which existed between the Lydian monarchs and the Greek cities of
the coast bring into early notice Smyrna, Clazomenae, and Colophon,
the first of which was utterly destroyed. Sardis itself, after the
death of Croesus, retained its position as the residence of the Persian
governors, but was never a place of commercial importance. The
Greek towns succumbed to Persia after the Ionian revolt. Phocaea,
which had hitherto been the first in commercial enterprise, sunk at
this period, through tlie withdrawal of its inhabitants. The Alex-
andrian age witnessed the rebuilding of Smyrna, the ruin of
Lebedus and Colophon, whose inhabitants were removed by Lysi-
machus to Ephesus, and the rise of Kphesus to a state of com-
mercial eminence. Thyatlra and Philadelphia belong to a somewhat
later period — the former owing its name to Seleucus Nicator, the
latter to one of the kings of Pergamum. In the Syrian wars
Smyrna, Erythrae, and the Colophonians of Notium, sided with
Rome, and received various immunities in return. On the consti-



Dant per colU modos : sonat unnis, et Asia longe

Polsa pains. Vuto. ^En. tU. 699.

Sic niger, in ripis errat quom forte Caystri,
Inter LedflDoa ridetur oorrns olores. — Mabt. i. 54.

Utque jacens ripA deflcre Caystrius ales

Didtnr ore suam deflcientc necem,
Sio ego, Sarmaticas longe projcotos hi oraa,

Efflcio, taciturn ne mihi ftmoa eat.— Or. TYist. v. 1,11.



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Chap. VII. TOWNS. 107

tntion of the province of Asia, Ephesus was selected as the capital,
and was thenceforth the capital of the whole surrounding district.
Most of the cities of Lydia sufiFered severely from an earthquake in
the reign of Tiberius. We shall describe these towns in their order
from N. to S.



Site of Epbesus.

Fhocea stood at the head of a small inlet on the peninsula between
the bays of Cyme and Hermus. The mouth of the inlet was closed by
the island of Bacchium, which contained the chief public buildings,
and protected the two harbours of the town. Phoca;a became a place of
commercial importance, and must have been strongly fortified. It was
besieged by Harpagus in the Ionian War, on which occasion the greater
part of its population emigrated to Corsica.* It revived, however, and
was strong enough to sustain a long siege from the Roman fleet under
iEmilius in the Syrian War. Its ruins retain the ancient name, Palxo
Foggia. Smyrna was originally built on the northern side of the
Hermsean bay, near its head. This was destroyed by Alyattes, B.C.



" Nulla sit hac potior sententia (Phoefeonim
Yelut profagit exsecrata dvitas
AgTos atqae lares patrios, habitandaque fana

Apris reliquit et rapacibus lupis),
Ire, pedes quocunqne feirent, quocunque per undaa
Notus Tocabit, aut protemni Africus. — Hoe. £pod. 16, 17.
The Phocieans are said to have founded Massalia on this occasion : but the
traditions in regard to this vary. The Latin poets use the term Phoeaioua as a
synonym for Massilian : e. g,

Scipio Phocaicis sese referebat ab oris. — Sil. iv. 62.
See also i. 385, and Luc. iU. 301.
The purple shell-flsh was abundant on this part of the coast : —
Phocaico bibulas tingebat muriee lanas. — Ov. M«t. vi. 0.



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108 LYDIA. BOOKIL

627, and for 400 yean the town oeaaed to exist. A second town, named
New Smyrna, was then foimded on the southern side of the bay by
Antigonus, and completed by Lysimachus. The former was the old
colony of the JSolians, and, subsequently to b.c. 688, of the lonians.
The latter was the Smyrna which attracted so much admiration by the
beauty of its streets and the excellence of its harbour ; and which has
a special interest for the Christian as the seat of one of the Seven
Churches, and the scene of St. Polycarp's martyrdom. Smyrna, alone
of the Ionic towns, retains its ancient importance, and is the chief
mart of the Levant. The Cyclopean walls of the Acropolis mark the

site of the old town: the
stadium and theatre are
the most striking remains
of the new town. It
claimed to be Homer's
birth-place, ' and had a
temple erected "^to him.
ClaiomSiui was on the
southern coast of the Her-
n j« ^r f^i»-,.««..- maean bay, at the entrance

Cuin of Cla.omeu«. ^^ ^^^ p^ula on which

Erythrse stood. Originally on the mainland, the town was transferred
to an adjacent island, which was at a later period turned into a penin-
sula by a causeway connecting it with the coast. It derives its chief
interest from being the birth-place of Anaxagoras. SrjfhnB was situated
at the head of a capacious bay opposite the island of Chios, the entrance
to which was partially closed by a small group of islands named Hippi.
Its historv is unimportant. The remains at i2i^' consist of the ancient
walls, a tneatre scooped out of the solid rock, and traces of aqueducts
and terraces. Teof stood opposite Clazomense, on the southern side of
the Erythrsean peninsula. Under the Persians its inhabitants emi-
grated to Abdera in Thrace; and the town, though still existing in the
time of the Peloponnesian War, ceased to be of importance. There are
interesting remains of a theatre and of a splendid temple of Bacchus at
Sighajik, one of the ports of the city. It produced two illustrious men,
Anacreon^ and Hecatseus. LebSdns stood on the coast about 10 miles
E. of Prom. Myonnesus, and by its commerce and the fertility of its
district it flourished until the removal of the bulk of its inhabitants to
Ephesiifl by Lysimachus. Under the Romans it was a poor deserted
place,- but attained some celebrity as the head -quarters of the guild of



» Hence the expreasioni Smymatu rates (Luc. Ix. 984), and Smymtta plectra
(SU. vUi. 596} : so also Statins,

Non si pariter mi hi vertiee laeto
Neotat adoratas et Smyrna et Mantua lauron,
Digna loquar. SOv. It. 8, 8.

1 VitabiB fDstus, et fide Tela
Dices laborantcs in uno

Pcnelopen, vitreamque Circen.— Hok. Chrm. i. 18, 18. •
Anacreonta Telum. — Id. £pod. xiv. 10.
Sit quoque vinosi Tela Musa senis.— Ov. Art, Am. ill. 330.
* An Lebedum laudas, odio maris atque viarum ?
Sds Lebedus quid sit ! Gabiis desertior atque
Fidenis vicus, Hon. Ep. i. 1 1, 6.



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Chap. VII. TOWNS. 109

aotora. A few shattered maniwiii of masonry at Eedesia are all that re-
mains of it. O ol ftph on was on the banks of the small river Hales, about
2 miles distant from the shore and from its port of Notium, with re-
spect to which Colophon wiui designated the "upper city" (Thuc.
ill. 34). Its history is almost wholly concerned with the disputes of
its own citizens. After the remoTal of its inhabitants bv Lysimachus,
it sunk; but Notium still existed, and was unsuccessfully besieged by
Antiochus, u.c. 190. It claimed to be the birth-place of Homer, and
produced Mimnermus the poet. EphetOf was finely situated near the
spot where the Cayster discharges itself into the head of the bay named
after it. The original town of Androclus was on the slope of Coressus :
thence it gradually spread over the adjacent plain, and was afterwards
extended by Lysmiachus over the heights of Prion. Down to the
Alexandrian age, Ephesus derived its importance almost entirely from
its connexion with tne worship of Diana i under Lvsimachus it became
a commercial town, and under the Romans' it attamed its greatest pro-
sperity as the capital of the province of Asia. The original temple of
Diana existed on the spot before the lonians came there : the first
Greek edifice, erected about the 6th century B.C., perished by fire on
the night of Alexander's birth. A new one was erected, 425 feet in
length, and 220 in width, adorned (according to Pliny) with 127
oolunms, each 60 feet high. It was the largest of all the Greek temples^
This was the temple which existed in St. Paul's time, and survived

until Christianity over-

spread the land. The ^^^^^-^^5^ v^^^ZZZT^

trade of Ephesus under ^^Jj^fti. ^.^Nk ^^^ ^^"^ \

the Romans was con- /^jSj^^Y^^ \ —/^ i j j b j \ \
siderable: it had easy // '^mK^T \ A il (/ ^/rfoSv^^X li
access to the interior of 11 tT^ / / • T"^ ^^^fel^^^ I I
Asia Minor, and pos- 1 rfT^^L/^l/ \y%4^R\ 1/
sessed an excellent \ /i*i-w^<Z/|)9^ v/^ra'^ aJ5/

double harbour. It has xj j^^o^ji^ ^\Jv ^-^^

acquired an especial in- ^^ *^ ^^— ' "^

terest for the Christian Coin of Ephesna

from the visit which St.

Paul made to it, and the dangers to which he was exposed from the
' worshippers of Diana. He founded a Church there, to which he ad-
dressed an epistle : this was one of the Seven Churches of Asia.
Ephesus has perished through the extinction of its port by the de-
posits of the Cayster. Numerous remains of it exist at Ayataluk, but
the site of the great temple has not been made out. The stadium, the
theatre (which was the scene of the tumult raised by Demetrius), and
the agora, are the most remarkable objects. Sardii, the old capital of
the Lydian monarchy, was well situated on the plain between Mount
Tmolus and Hermus, on both sides of the small river Pactolus, with its
acropolis posted on a precipitous height. It was destroyed by fire on
three occasions: by the Cimmerians in the reigir of Ardys, by -the
lonians at the time of their revolt, and by Antiochus the Great in
his war with Achseus. It was the seat of one of the Seven Churches.
A small village, named SerU still exists on the site, with the remains
of a stadium, theatre, and the walls of the acropolis. y>gniiria,



* Ephesus was much admired by them : —

Laadabont alii claram Rhodon, ant Mitylenem,
Aut Epheson. Hob. Carm. L 7, 1



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110 LYDIA. Book II.

Mania&a, sumamed ad Sipjlnm, to diBbiugalBh it from the towu on the
Mteander, stood on the left bank of the Hermus, and is celebrated for
the victory gained by the Scipios over Antiochus the Qreat, b c. 190.
Though destroyed by the earthquake in Tiberius's reign, it revived, and
existed down to the 5th century. Philadelphia, on the Cogamus, was
founded by Attains Philadelphus, king of Pergamum^ and derives its
interest from having been one of the Seven Churches. Parte of its walls
and of its ruined chiu-ches, twenty -four in number, exist at AUahsher,
ThyatiTa, between Sardis and Pergamum, is frequently noticed in the
history of the Roman wars with Antiochus. It is better known, how-
ever, as one of the Seven Churches, and the abode of Lydia the purple-
seller.

We may briefly notice the following lees important towns : — ^Lenoes, S.
of Phociea, the scene of a battle between licinius Crassus and Aristonicus,

B.C. 131; danu/ near
Colophon, the seat of a
famous temple and oracle
of Apollo; Pygfia, S. of
EphesuB, with a temple
of Diana; and Metropolis,
N.W. of Ephesus, which
produced an excellent
kind of wine.

History of Uts Lydian
Coin of Smyrna. Empire. — According to

Herodotus (i. 7), Lydia
was successively governed by three dynasties — the Atyadse, down to
about B.C. 1200; the Heracleids, down to about. B.C. 700; and the
Mermnadse. down to b.c. 546. The dates are still undecided, the death
of Croesus being sometimes placed in 554. The two first of these
dynasties are almost wholly mythical : real history commences with the
third. The first of this race, Gyges, B.C. 713, instituted an aggreeive
policy against the Greeks of the sea-coast, waging war with Miletus and
Smyrna, and capturing Colophon. His successor Ardys, n.c. 678, car-
ried on the war, and captured Priene. The latter part of his reign was
disturbed by the Cimmerian invasion. Alyattes, b.c 617, expelled the
Cimmerians, aad extended his dominion as fai* as the Halys, where he
came in contact with Cyaxares : he also conquered most of the Greek
cities. The tomb of Alyattes, which Herodotus (i. 93) describes as only
inferior to the monuments of Egypt and Babylon, is still extant. It is
an immense mound of earth about half a mile in circumference. In
the centre a sepulchural chamber has been recently discovered.
CrcBsus, B.C. 560, raised the power of the Lydian throne to its highest
pitch of greatness, his authority on the western side of the Halys
being undisputed. He was conquered by Cyrus, and his territories
added to the Persian empire ; and thenceforth the history of Lvdia
is involved in that of the peninsula generally.

♦ PhoDbi
Qui tripodas, ClarU Uunw, qui sidera scntis.— Viro. ^««. iil. 839.

Mlhi Delphica tellus
Et Claros, ct Tenedon, Patar®aque regia scrvit—Ov. Met, i. 515.
Henoe Clarios is an appropriate epithet of a poet :—

Neo tantom Clario Lyde dilecta poctse. — Ov. 7W»r. i. 6 1.



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Chap.VII. island of CHIOS. Ill

StPatiTB Travd»,^Bt, Paul's first visit to Lydia ocourred in tko
course of his saoond apostolical journey, when he touched at Ephesus
on his return from Greece : on that occasion his stay was but short
(Acts xyiii. 19-21). On his third journey he must have traversed
Lydia on his way from Phrygia to Ephesus. The route he pursued is a
matter of ooi^ecture : as he probably never visited Colossa, he may
have descended the valley of the Hermus, and crossed from Sardis to
Ephesus. He remained in Ephesus three years, during which he Bip-
pears, from expressions in his Second Epistle to the Corinthians, to
have paid a short visit to Corinth. At the conclusion of his visit he
went northwards, probably by sea, to Troas (Acts six.).

§ 21. Off the coast of Lydia lies the important island of Ohiof,
SciOy separated from the mainland by a channel 5 miles in width.
Its length from N. to S. is about 32 miles : its width varies from 18
to 8 miles ; and its area is 400 square miles, or about thrice the area
of the Isle of Wight. The whole island is rocky and uneven ;* the
mountains of the northern portion rise to a great height, and form a
striking object from the coast of Asia Minor. The most valuable
productions were the wine* which the Roman writers describe as
" vinum arvisium,** and the gum-mastic produced from the len-
tiscus tree. The Chian women were famed for beauty. The highest
summit in the island was named Pelinaeus, Mount Elias ; the chief
promontories were Posidium, Mastico, on the S., Phanae ' on the W.,
and Melaena, 8. Niccio^ on the N.W. The oldest inhabitants were
either Pelasgi or Leleges ; settlers from Crete, Euboea, and Caria,
afterwards entered. The chief town, also named Chios, stood on
the eastern coast, on the site of the modem capital ; no remains
of antiquity have been found there. Delphinium, on the same
coast, was a strong position.



N^onou €irl %l;pii^, avT))K «r' aptirrip' exorrct,
*H \nriv9pBt Xtbto. vap' ^MfuScrra MtfMurcu — HoM. Od, ill. 170.
* Quo Chium pretio eadum

Meroemur. Hoft. Carm, ill. 10, 5.

At scnno lingoi oonoinniu utrAqoe
Soariori at Chio nota si commixta Falemi est.— lo. Sat, I. x. 23.
It should be obterred that the quantity of the penultimate la diflferent in th«
rabstantiYe and acyective : —

Quid tiU visa Chios t— Hoa. Ep. i. 11, 1.
Capadores afhr hue, puer, scyphos

Et ChU Tina, aut Lesbia. — In. Bpod. ix. 88.

The figs of Chios are celebrated by Martial : —

Chia aeni dmilis Baccho, quern Sctia misit

Ipsa menun seoum portat et ipsa salem. — xiil. 23.

Nam miht, qun novit pungere, Chia saptt.— rii. 25.
^ The grape of Phann was famed : —

Bex ipse Phannus. — ^Viao. G«org: ii. 98.



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112 LYDIA. Book II.

History, — Chios was a member of the Ionian confederation, and held
a conspicuoiiA place tts a maritime power until the Ionian revolt, when

it became subject to Persia,
and remained in that posi-
tion until the battle of
Mycale^ b.c. 479, when it
joined Athens, and re-
mained among its allies
until B.C. 412, when it re-
volted, and was in conse-
quence devastated. It sided
with the Romans in the
Coin of Chios. Syrian and Mithridatic

wars, and was gifted with
freedom in reward for its fidelity. Chios claimed Homer as one of her
sons, and gave birth to the historian Theopompus, and the poets Theo-
critus and Ion.

§ 22. The important island of Samost Samo, is situated just oppo-
site the point where Lydia and Caria meet, and is separated from
the mainland by a channel less than a mile in width, which was the
scene of the battle of Mycale. Its length from E. to W. is about
25 miles ; its breadth is very variable. The island is covered with
mountains of great elevation, rendering Samos a very conspicuous
object in the landscape. It is to this that it owes its name Samos,
•* a height." The island was productive to a proverb, and famed for
its dried grapes and other fruits. It possessed a stone used for
polishing gold, and its earthenware was so prized at Rome that the
title " Samian ware" was transferred to the red lustrous pottery of
the Roman manufacturers. The general name for the mountain
range which traverses the island was Amp61us. It culminates in a
height named CercSteus, Kerkis, at an elevation of 4725 feet, and
terminates in the promontories of Posidium iu the E., and Can-
tharium in the W. The original inhabitants were Carians and
Leleges. Colonies of iEolians from Lesbos, and lonians from Epi-
daunis, afterwards settled on it. The principal town, also named
Samos, was situated on the S. coast, at the extremity of a plain, at
the other end of which stood the famed temple of Juno.® Under
Polycrates it ranked as the greatest • city in the world ; its harbour
protected by a double mole, and an immense timnel which formed



• Hence the affection with which Juno waa suppoeed to regard the iftland.

Quam Jano fertiir terris magis onrnibos unam

Ponthabiti coluiAf«o Same. Ynto. ^n, i. 1£.

Et Jam Junonla Udv&
Parte Samos fuerant, Deloeqoe, Parosquo relictie.

Ot. Met, viii. 220.

• Horace characterises it as " eoneinna Samoa*' {Ep. i. 11, 2) : it was among
the spots which the JElomans most admired : —

RomeD laudetur Samos et Chios et Rhodes absens.— To. 21.



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Chap. VII. ISLANDS OF SAMOS AND PSYEA. 113

au aqueduct, were the most remarkable objects in it. The town
lay partly on the plain, partly on the slopes of the hills that back
it, on one of which, named AstypaUea, the citadel was posted. The
theatre and a portion of the walls alone remain. The temple of
Juno was of enormous size — 346 feet long and 189 broad, of the
Ionic order, and decorated with statues and paintings. It was burnt
by the Persians ; and, after its restoration, plundered by the pirates
in the Mithridatic War, by Verres, and by M. Antony.

HistoTy. — Samos was at an early period famed for its commercial
enterprise, and was an influential meml»er of the Ionian confederacy.
(Jnder Polycrates (b.c. 532) it became the greatest Greek maritime
power, and entered into
commercial relations with
Egypt. After his death it
b^me subject to Persia, ,
and remained so imtil thet
battle of Mycale, B.C. 479, 1
after which it joined |
Athens, and arlhei«d to
that power through the
Peloponnesian War. In
the Syrian wars it sided • Cotn of Samoa,

with Antiochus against

Rome : in the Mithridatic it adopted a similar policy. It was imi^ed
with the provuice of Asia B.C. 84. Its prosperity gradually decayed
under the Roman emperors. Samos was the birth-place of the philo-
sophers Pythagoras ^ and Melissus, and the poets Asius^ Choerilus, and



§ 23. The small island of Piyra* Ipsara^ lies about 6 miles from
the N.W. point of Chios, and the ffSimitim between Chios and the
mainlanid. le&ms or Ioaria»^ Nikaria, is 10 miles distant from
Samos, and may be regarded as a continuation of the elevated chain
which forms that island. It extends from N.E. to S.W., with a
length of about 17 miles. Its inhabitants were origii\^lly Milesians,
but it afterwards belonged to the Samians. It possessed the towns
of Isti, (Enoe, and Drep&num, or Drac&num — the latter situated near
the promontory of the same name at the E. end of the island. The
surrounding sea was named Icarium Mare.



1 Vir Aiit hie, ortu Samius : sed fhgerat una
£t Samon et dominos, ocUoqae tyraniiidis exsul
Sponte erat. Ov. Met, xv. 60.

Samii sunt rata diota senis. Id. TriaU iU. 8, 62.

' The name is connected in mytholo^ with Icams, the son of Dfedalus.
Transit et loarium, lapeas ubi perdidlt alas

Icams, et vasts nomina fecit aquee. — Ot. Fcui, iv. 283.
Ceratis ope Dsdaleft
Nititur pennis, Titreo daturus

Nomina ponto. Hob. Carm. iv. 2, 2.



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Ruins of Miletus.

CHAPTER VIII.

Asia Mikob (^continued). — Cabia, Lycia, Pamphylia, Cilicia.

III. Cabia. § 1. Boundaries. § 2. MountainB, bays, and promon
tories. § 3. Rivers. § 4. Inhabitants. § 5. Towns; history.
§ 6. Cos, Calymna, &c. § 7. Rhodes. § 8. Carpathus. IV.
Lycia. § 9. Boundaries. § 10. Mountains, rivers, &c. § 11. In-
habitants. § 12. Towns ; history. V. Pamphylia. § 13. Boun-
daries. § 14. Rivers, &c. § 15. Inhabitants; towns; history.
VI. Cilicia. § 16. Boundaries. § 17. Situation. § 18. Moun-
tains; passes. § 19. Coast. § 20. Rivers. § 21. Inhabitants.
§ 22. Towjs; history. § 23. Cyprus; general features. § 24.
Physical features. §25. Towns; history.



Online LibrarySir William Smith William Latham BevanThe student's manual of ancient geography → online text (page 14 of 82)