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III. Cabia.

§ 1. Caria occupied the south-west angle of Asia Minor, and was
bounded on the W. and S. by the sea, on the N. by Messogis
dividing it from Lydia, and on the E. by the river Glaucus and
Lycia. Though generally a mountainous country, it contains some
extensive valleys and a great deal of rich land in the basin of the
Maeaoder. The Peraea, or southern district, is a beautiful country,
and contains some fertile tracts. Timber is abundant, and the
country produces good ^rain and fruits, the fig * and the olive. Tho

* Dried figs were named Oaric<B, lit. " Carian figs," by the Latins : —
Hie nuz, hie mixta est rugoeis carica palmis. — Ov. Met. viii. 674.


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Chap. VIU. MOUNTAINS, BAYS, &c. 116

cb'mate varies with the varying altitade: the highest imcta are
cold and wintry, while it is hot in the lower grounds. The former
supplied pasturage for large flocks of sheep, and even now the green
slopes near Alabanda are covered with flocks. The wool of Miletus
and the wine of Cnidus were the chief exports. The limestone of
the country furnished excellent building-material.

§ 2. The mountain-ranges ofCariaare connected with the Taurus
system. The watershed which divides the basin of the^Mieander
from the Calbis and the other streams that seek l^e Mediterranean,
is formed by a range which emanates from Cadmus in the N.E. angle
of the province, and which takes first a southerly and then a
westerly direction, terminating in the peninsula of Halicamassus :
near the southern coast the ridge was named lide. From this range
lateral ridges strike off towards the N.W., in the direction of the
Mseander, and form the valleys in which its tributaries flow : the
most westerly of these was named Latmus,' terminating in the
subordinate ridge of Orion* near Miletus. The sea-coast is irregular ;
the Latmleus Sinus once extended inland to the roots of the hills, but
has long since been filled up by the alluvium of the Mteander :
between Grion and Lide lies the lasiui Sin.. Oulf of AsyrikaUm^
with a much indented line of coast : between Lide and the high
ground which forms the peninsula of Cnidus, the deep inlet named
Ceramieus Sin.> Q. of Budrum : and on the other side of Cnidus the
irregular gulf in front of the isle of Syme, c<Mitaining the three
lesser bays named ^bassins* Sehflsnus, and Thymnias. The penin-
sulas form the most striking feature in the outline of Caria : that
on which Miletus stood was of a triangular shape, the southern
point forming the promontory of Posidium; the peninsula of Hali-
camassus narrowed at the point where the town stood, and again
expanding ended in the promontories of Zephyrium, Aatypalnat and
Temerium; the peninsula of Cnidus is about 40 miles long, and no-
where more than 10 miles broad, and terminates in the promontory
of Triopium, Crio : it is contracted to a narrow neck in two places,
viz. at the point where it connects with the mainland, and midway
at the Bubassius Sinus : there is thus a double peninsula, to which
Herodotus (i. 174) gives the distinctive names of the Triopian and
the Bybassian, and it was at the junction of these two that the
Cnidians cut their canal in the Persian War. The peninsula on the
eastern side of the bay of Schoenus is formed by a ridge named
Phoenix, which terminates in OynoMSma, " the Dog's tomb," now
(7. Voi2)o: lastly, another peninsula is formed between the Calbis

* Latmas was the febled soene of Diana's interriews with Endymion, to wbom
the epithet Zatmius is henoe applied by the Latin poeto (Ov. lyut. ii. S99 ; VaL
Flacc. viU. 28 ; SUt. 9U9, iii. 4, 40).


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116 GAKIA. Book II.

aud the Gulf of Glaucus, which terminates in the p^omontoiy of
Pedalinm or ArtemiaiiixiL The scenery along the coast is very fine,
the rocks in many places rising abruptly from the sea.

§ 3. The chief river of Caria is the Kmuidert Meinder, which rises
near Gelaenod in Phrygia, having its sources in a lake, whence issues
also one of its tributaries, the Marsyas : its course takes a south-
western direction, skirting the southern slopes of the range of
Messogis, and is remarkable for its extreme tortuousness,' whence
the term " to mseander *** owes its origin. The stream is deep, but
not broad : it frequently overflows its banks, and carries down an
immense amount of deposit.

The less important streams were, for the most part, tributaries of
the Marauder : on its right bank it receives the Letiiasns, which joins it
near Magnesia, and the teflos, which flowed by Priene ; on its left
bank, the Orstmis or Xosynvs, Hagitik; the Harp&siui, Harpa ; and the
Xan^ts, Tthina, which rises near Stratonicea, and ioins the Meeander
opposite to Tralles. We liave yet to notice the OalUf or Indiis, Tavof,
which rises in Mount Cadmus, and, flowing to the S., joins the Medi-
terranean near Caimui.

§ 4. Caria was occupied by the following races— the Carians, who
believed themselves to be autochthonous, but, according to the
Greeks, were emigrants from Crete — the Caunians, who may have
been allied to them, and who were settled on the south coast — and
the Hellenic races of the lonians and Dorians, the former of whom
occupied the western coast as far as the lasian bay, while the latter
held the promontories of Halicamassus and Cnidus, The Carians
are represented as a warlike race,* serving as mercenaries under any
one who was willing to pay them. Their language differed from
that of the Greek settlers,* although the two people probably became
intermixed. The southern coast between these peninsulas and the
Calbis was designated Persea, or more fully Persea Rhodiorum, as it
once belonged to Rhodes.

{ 5. Caria possessed some of the most flourishing and magnificent
towns of Asia Minor, especially MilStus, the metropolis of Ionia,

* Non secos ao liquldus PhrygUs MsMndroe in nrris
Ludit, et amblgiio lapsu refluitque fluitque :
Ocourrennque f4bi Venturas aspicit undaa :
Et nunc ad fontes, nunc in mare versus apertum,
Inoertas exercet aquas. Ov. Met. viii. 162.

Msandrofl, toties qui terris crrat in isdem,

Qui lapsas in se s»pe retorquet aquas. — In. ITeroid. ix. 55.

* The following lines supply ps witli an instance of the metaphorical use of the
term : —

Victori chlamjdem auratam, quam plurima ciroum

Purpura Mmandro dupliei Mellboea oucurrit. — Vino. ^n. v. 250.

* Theocritus {Id, xvii. 89) describes them as ^outoX^ukt.

* Hence Homer characterises them as fiap^ttpoi^w^p {II. ii. 867).


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Chap. VIII. TOWNS. 117

and the first maritime power of Western Asia — Mylaaa, the ancient
capital of Caria— Halicamassus, the greatest of the Dorian colonies
— Tralles and Alahanda, which passed into a proverb for wealth and
luxury — and Cnidus, a seat both of commerce and art. Most of
these towns possessed buildings of celebrity : we may instance Uie
temple of Branchidas near Miletus, the Mausoleum at Halicamassus,
and the temple of Labranda near Mylasa. In addition to these, the
following less important towns had magnificent temples— Magnesia,
Aphrodisias, and Euromus ; while others can show to this day the
remains of fine theatres and other public buildings. These towns
and works of art testi/y to the extent of Greek influence in this
country : with the exception of Mylasa, indeed, they all claimed a
Greek origin. Three towns belonging to the Ionian confederacy —
Prifine, Myus, and Miletus— were grouped on the shores of the
Latmian bay ; they decayed through natural causes, the alluvium
of the Maeander gradually turning the bay into a pestilential marsh :
the two former ceased to exist even in classical times : Miletus
survived until the Middle -Ages, but the period of its commercial
greatness terminated with its capture by the Persians, B.C. 494.
The Dorian towns were situated on the southern peninsulas : the
position of Halicamassus was one of great natural strength, and it
became, during the Persian period, the virtual capital of Caria : it
fell after its capture by Alexander. Cnidus was, from its central
position, the metropolis of the Dorian confederacy, and flourished
down to the period of the Koman empire. A few towns rose under
the Seleucidae : they were situated in the valley of the Maeander :
Antiochia, Stratonio^a, and probably Aphrodisias, belong to this
period: these towns continued to exist under the later Roman
empire. The great fertility of the soil seems to have been the
foundation of the wealth of the towns of the interior : Tralles,
Alabanda, and Mylasa, were all surrounded by remarkably fertile
districts. We shall describe these towns in their order from N. to S.
taking firstly those which stood on or near the sea-coast, and
secondly, those of the interior.

1 . Mftgneria stood on the Lethseus, a short distance from the right
bank of the Meander, surrounded by a plain of great fertility. Ongi-
nally an JRoUsnk town, it was destroyed by ^e Cimmeiians about
B.C. 726, and was re-occupied by Milesian colonists ; it is known as the
residence of Themistoclee, and as possessing a splendid temple of
Artemis Leucophryne, the ruins of which are found at Inek-haxar,
PriSne was well situated on the terraced slope of Mycale, and in ancient
times stood immediately on the coast of the Bay of Latmus, from
which, however, it was removed a distance* of 40 stades even in
Strabo's time by the alluvial deposits of the Haander. The two ports,
- which it originiJlv possessed, were thus filled up, and the town early
simk into insigninoance. It was the birth-place of Bias. Remains of it
exist near Sarmoon, particularly the ruins of the temple of Athena


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118 CARIA. Book II.

Polias.' M71IC, the sm&llest of the Ionian towns, was on the southern
bank of the Msander, about 30 stades from its mouth : it was one of
the towns given to Themistocles bv the Persian king: it was after-
wards connected with Miletus, which finally received its inhabitants.
Milfitni occupied a peninsula at the southern entrance of the Bay of
Latmus ; it consisted of an inner and an outer city, with their separate

fortifications, and four har-
bours, which were protected
on the sea- side by Lade and the
] other islands which formed the
I Tragasffian group. Down to the
/ period of the Ionian revolt,
B.C. 4d4, Miletus enjoyed the
highest commercial prosperity,
' and planted its colonies along
CoinofMlletai. the shores of the ^groan, the

Hellespont, the Propontis,
and the Euxine : it was exposed to contests with the Lydian kings '
Ardys, Sadyattes, and Alyattes, and ultimately yielded to Croesus.

Chart of the CoMt aboat Miletus.

From 494, when the city was plundered and its inhabitants removed
by Darius, it was subject to Persia until the battle of Mycale, b.c. 479,
when it became independent, and joined Athens, with which it was

' The rains of this temple afford a fine speeiinen of lomie arehitectnre, of about
the same date as the Mansoleum.


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chap.viii. towns. 119

ocnmeoted until nearly the end of the Peloponneman War. In B.C. 3.S4
it was taken and partly destroyed by Alexander. St. Paul visited it
on his return from Macedonia. Miletus holds a conspicuous place in
Qreek literature, as the birth-place of the philosophers Thales, Anazi-
mander, and Anaximenes, and of the historians Cadmus and Hecatteus.^
Its manufactures of furniture, woollen cloths, and carpets,' were also
celebrated. At BraneMdg, or Didj^ma, 12 miles S. of Miletus, and
about 2 miles inland from Prom. Posidium, was the famous temple of
Apollo Didymeus, with an oracle, which was consulted alike by lonians
and .^olians, as well as by foreigners : the kings Croesus of Lydia and
Necos of Egypt paid reverence to it. The temple was destroyed by the
Persians, d.c. 494, and afterwards rebuilt by the Milesians on an
enormous scale. A road called the " sacred way,'* lined with seated
statues led to it from the sea. Only two columns now remain; the
rest is a heap of ruins. The len^h of the temple was 304, and its
breadth 165 feet ; in point of size it ranked next to the great temple
of Diana at Ephesus. Imiiib, Asvn Kalessi, on a small island close to
the north coast of the bay named after it, had a mixed population of
Oreek settlers, whose chief occupation was fishing. It was taken by
the Lacedaemonians in the Peloponneeian War, and was besieged by the
last Philip of Macedonia.

HnlitmrniWTit, Budrum, was situated on the Ceramian Gulf, and was
regarded as the largest and strongest city in all Caria. Its principal
acropolis was named Salm&cis after a well near it, whose waters were
supposed to have an enervating influence.* It possessed two harbours,
the entrance to the larger one being guarded by a pier on each side.
The most remarkable building was the Mausoleum erected to the
memory of Mausolus by his widow Artemisia (b.c. 352): it was
situated in the centre of the town. Halicamassus originally belonged
to the Dorian confederacy, but was expelled from it : it became subject
to Persia, and, at the same time, the seat of a tyranny founded by
Lygdamis, and carried on by Artemisia, who fought at Salamis : this
dh^nasty gradually established its supremacy over the whole of Caria.
Halicamassus was besieged by Alexander, and, with the exception of
the acropolis, was taken and destroyed. It was the birth-place of the
historians Dionysius and Herodotus. The remains of Halioimassus
consist of the ancient polvgonal walls, which are in a good state of
preservation, part of a mole on the £. side of the harbour, the founda-
tions of a large Ionic temple, and of a Doric colonnade near the Mauso-
leum, and some cemeteries outside the walls. The Mausoleum ' itself

* The morals of the Mflesians were so lax that Milenut became a synonym for

Jnnzit Aristidefl Milesia earmina secnm.— Or. Dritt. U. 418.
• Qoamvis Milesia magno
YeUera matentar, Tyrlos incocta mbores. — Yxao. Oeorg, IIL 306.

Earn dream Milesia vellera Nymphs
Carpebant, hyaU satoro fhcata colore. In. iv. 834.

> Unde sit infiunis ; qoare male fortibns undis
BalmaoiB cnervet, tactosqne remoUiat artns ;
Discite. Caosaiatet : vis est notissima fontis. — Or. Met, iv. 385.

* The name was applied by the Bomans, as it is by oorselves, to any fine
sepulchral monnment :—

Nee mansolei dives fbrtona 8et>nlcri

Mortis ab extrema conditione vacat. — Paop. iiL 3, 19.
Nam vleina doocnt noe vivere mansolea :

Cam dooeaat ipsos posse perixe deos.^ — ^Mast. v. 64.


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120 CARIA. Book II.

is correctly described by Pliny as having been a circular building sur-
rounded by 36 columns and surmounted by a pyramid, which was
crowned with a colossal group of a chariot with four horses. The
height of the whole edifice was 140 ft. and its circumference 411. It
was decorated with sculptures in relief, executed *in Parian marble and
of the highest merit. The site of the Mausoleum was explored in 1857
by Mr. C. Newton, who discovered two colossal figures, one of which
is supposed to represent Mausolus himself, the halves of two horses
forming a portion of the crowning group, some slabs of the frieee,
several lions, and other interesting objects. These objects are deposited
in the British Museum.

Plao of Cnidus, and Chart of the at^Jdlnini^ Coast.

Cnidiu stood at the very extremity of the peninsula already
described as terminating in Prom. Triopium : a portion of it was
built on the mainland, and a portion on an island which was joined
to it by a causeway. The island sheltered the two harbours which
lay on each side of the causeway, the larger of them, on the south
side, being protected by moles of gvo&t Rtrength. Cnidus was a

member of the Dorian con-
federacy, the members of
which met at the temple of
the Triopian Apollo. It
surrendered to the Persian
I ' general Harpagus, in the

time bf Cyrus, and was at-
tacked by the Athenians in
the Peloponnesian War.
uomoTUDMoi. Cimon defeated the Lace-

daemonian fleet \mder Pis-
ander near it, B.C. 894. Cnidus had considerable trade, and pro-
duced many eminent men — Eudoxus, Ctesias, and Agatharcides— and


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acquired some remarkable works of art. particularly the statue of
Aphrodite by Praxiteles, and others which were set up at Oljrmpia
and Delphi. The worship of Venus* was prevalent at Cnidus.
Canniii, in Persea, stood on the banks of a small stream now called
Koi-gez, which communicates with a lake about 10 miles from the sea :
it is frequently mentioned in history : it was taken by Ptolemy, b.c.
H09 ; it was subsequently given by the Romans to the Khodians, taken
from them, B.C. 167, but again restored to them : it was the birth-place
of Protogenes the painter.

- 2. Trallef^ stood on the slope of Messogis, not far from the Hse-
ander, and was centrally situated at a point where roads from the S.,
£., and W. converged. Its origin is uncertain, some assigning its
foundation to the Argives, others to the Pelosgiaus. The place was
chiefly famous for the wmdth of its inhabitants, derived partly from
the fertility of the surrounding district, partly from its commercial im-
portance. Extensive ruins of it exist at Ghiuzel Hittar. Alfthftfidn
was situated about 18 miles S. of Tralles, and was also a place of great
wealth and luxury : under the Roman empire it became the seat of a
Conventus Juridicus, or court-house; its site is supposed to be at
Arah-Hissfir on the Marsyas, where are the remains of a temple and
other buildings. Myliaa was situated in a fertile plain, not &r from
the head of the lassian Bay, and at the foot of a mountain which yielded
the beautiful white marble, out of which the town was built : Physcus
served as \\a port. The town boasted a high antiquity, and possessed
two splendid temples, one of which stood in the village of Labranda,
and was connected with the town by a Via Sacra about 9 miles long.
Its resistance to Philip, the son of Demetrius, is the only historical
event of interest connected with it. The remains at Melasio consist
of a marble archway, the vestiges of a theatre, and ranges of columns.
The temple at Labranda was sacred to Jupiter Stratius, and was of
immense size : it was surroimded by a grove of plane trees. It was
situated in the mountains between Mylasa and Alabanda, where exten-
sive ruins have been found. A^irodiaiaf stood on the Mosynus, S. of
the Mroander, not far distant from the eastern border : it was a very
lai^ and fine city, as the ruins at Ghera testify, particularly those of
the temple of Aphrodite ; of its history we know nothing beyond the
fiict that imder the Ronoans it became a free city. Antio^iia, sur-
oamed *'ad MaDandrum," stood on the Mosvnus, and was named after
Antiochis, the mother of Antiochus, son of Seleucus. Cn. Manlius en-
camped here, b.c. 189, on his way to Galatia : the supposed remains,
about 5 miles S.E. of Kuyuja, are inconsiderable. Stratoniete, S.E.
of Mylasa, derived its name from Stratonice, the wife of Antiochus
Soter, who founded it, probably on the site of the moi-e ancient Idrias.
Mithridates resided there : at a later peiiod its resistance to Labienus

> None, O ooraleo creata ponto,
Quid sanctum Idaliom, Syrosque apertos,
Qtuoque Aneona, Cnidomqne sruDflinosam,
Colls. Catvll. xxxtL U.

O Venus, regina Cnidi Paphique. Hor. Carm. i. 80, 1.

* Borne was much fk^uented by the inhabitants of Tralles and Alabanda : —
Hie Andro, ille Samo, hie Tralllbus aut Alabandis
Esqnilias dietumque petnnt a vimino coUem
Viscera magnanim domnum dominique fbturi. — Jvv. iii. 70.



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122 CARTA. Book II.

attracted t&e notice of the RomaoB to it, and Hadrian took it under hii
special care. The remains at Etki-Hi$Mr are very extensive : some
columns still stand erect, and the theatre still preserves its seats and
a part of the proscenium.

Among the less important towns we may hriefly notice— (1.) on the
sea-coast, Heraeleaf whose agnomen *' ad Latmum, ' sufficiently explains
its position — Bargylia, on the Bay of lassus, which was sometimes
named after it Bargylieticus, once occupied by a garrison of Philip III.
of Macedonia— CaxTanda, on an island off the north coast of the Hali-
camassian peninsula — Myndns, a few miles N.W. of Halicamassus,
strongly fortified, and possessing a good harbour, probably at Gumiihlu
—Ped&aa, probably at the entrance of the Hidicamassian peninsula,
where the Persians were defeated in the Ionian revolt — Physoui, on
the coast of Persea, with a magnificent harbour, now called Marmorice,
whence communication with Rhodes was maintained— Lor jf ma, near
Cape Cynossema, supposed to be at Fort Aplotheeat where walls
and several towers show that a strong place once existed — Calynda,
near the borders of Lycia, about 7 miles from the sea, and probably
on the Calbis, though its site has not been made out. (2.) In the interior
— ITyia, in the valley of the Mseander, at Sultan- Hismr, where are the
remains of a theatre with the rows of seats almost entire, an amphi-
theatre and other buildings ; a place of literary distinction — Alnida,
between Alabanda and Mylasa, one of the strongest places in Caria —
and EnrOmiif, N.W. of Mylasa, at laJdee, where are the ruins of a
magnificent temple.

History. — The Carians do not come prominently forward in history.
After they were driven from the sea-coast by the Qreek settlers, they
lived in villag&, and formed a confederation, the members of whicn
met at the temple of Zeus Chrysaoreus, on the site of the later Stra-
tonicea. Caria formed a portion of the Lydian and Persian empires.
In the Ionian revolt it joined the Greeks, and after the suppression
of the revolt it returned to its former masters, who established a
monarchy at Halicamassus. After the defeat of Antiochus, the
Romans divided Caria between the kings of Pergamus and the
Rhodians. In the year b.c. 129, the portion assign^ to the former
was added to the province of Asia.

§ 6. The island of Cm * lies off the coast of Caria, separated by a
narrow channel from the Halicamassian peninsula, of which it may
be deemed a continuation. Its length from N.E. to S.W. is about
23 miles. Its soil was very productive, and its wines and oint-
ment were well known to the Romans : * its textile fabrics, consisting
of a kind of gauae,^ were also celebrated. ITie most fertile portion

* The modern name, Staneho^ is a cormptioa of it riof Km.
« Albo non sine Coo.— Hob. Sat. ii. 4, 39.

Lubrica Coa. Pkss. Sat. v. 185.

' nia gerat Testes tenuea, qnas femtna Coa

Texuit, aoratas dispoeuitque Tias.— Tibull. ii. S, 5S.
Quid Jurat omato prooederc, vita, capillo,

£t tennes Coa vcste movere sinus.— Pbop. i. S, 1.
Sire illam Cois ftilgentem incedcre ridi

Totum de Coa reste rolumen erit.— Id. ii. 1, 5.
The term Coa is sometimes used by itself for these robes :—

Cois tibi piene ridere est. Hob. SoL i. S, 101.


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Chap. VIII. ISLANDS. 123

of the island was towards the N. and E., where the ground was
level : the rest wi» mountainous. The capital, also named Cos,
Was situated at the
eastern extremity of the
island, and possessed a
well sheltered roadstead,
much frequented by
the numerous vessels
which passed through
the channel between the

island and the main- CoinofC(».

land ; it was thus visited

by St. Paul (Acts xxi. 1). It was also famed for a temple of
iEsculapius, to which a school of physicians was attached. Cos
was a member of the Dorian Pentapolis : under the Romans it be-
came a free state. The town was fortified by Alcibiades : having
been destroyed by an earthquake, it was rebuilt by Antoninus Pius.
It was the birth-place of Ptolemy Philadelphus, the painter Apelles,
auu the physician Hippocrates.

Between Cos and Icaria are the less important islands— CUynma,
fiEuned for its excellent honey, but not meriting the praises bestowkl
upon its foliage,^ being a bare island — Leros, about 30 miles S.W. of
Miletus, colonized successively by Dorians and Milesians,* with a
sanctuary of Artemis, which witnessed, according to mythology, the
metamorphosis of Meleager's sisters into guinea-fowls — Patmoi, to
the N.W., interesting as the spot whither St. John was banished, and
where he is believMl to have composed the Apocalypse — and the
Gorasiis, a group of two lax^r and several smaller islands. Between
Cos and Rhodes are ITisfnis, of volcanic origin, well known for its
wine, its millstones, and its hot spring, occupied by a Dorian popula-

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