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tion, with a town of which the remains of the acropolis still exist —
TslOi, celebrated for its ointment— Sym6, at the entrance of the Sinus
Schoenus, high and barren, and hence at times wholly deserted — and
Ohalda, off the west coast of Rhodes. These islands retain, with but
slight variation, their ancient names.

§ 7. The large island of Bhodva ^ is distant about 9 or 10 miles
from the south coast of Caria : its length from N. to S. is about 45
miles, and its width varies from 20 to 25. A range of mountains



t PecnndAqae melle Calymne.— Or. Met. riii. 322.
Sflris tunhroot Calymne. Id. Art, Am, ii. 81.

t Its inhabitants enjoyed an unfortonata celebrity for their extreme ill-temper,
aooording to the subjoined verses of Phoc jlides : —

ndUrrec. nMiv UfOxKiovf col UpoKkhif Adpun,
Even in modem times they are unpopular tnm their stinginess.

> The name was supposed to be derived i^m p68o¥, <* a rose," which appears
as the national emblem on the ooins.

O 2



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124 RHODUS.- Book II.

traverses the isllmd from N. to S., culminating irf Mount Atabjhris>
at a height of 4560 feet, the very summit of which was crowned

^^ith a temple of
Zeus. Though gene-
rally moimtainous, and
especially so about
the towns of Rhodes
and Lindus, the island
was very fertile, the
soil being rich, and
• Co?n of Rhodes. the climate imrival-

led:' its wine,' dried
raisins, figs, saffcon, and oil, were much valued, as also its marble,
sponge, and fish; its inhabitants were skilled in the manufac-
ture of ships, arms, and military engines: hence, even in the
days of Homer, the island obtained fame for great wealth.
The early inhabitants, named Telchines, enjoyed a semi-mythical
fame : the race that succeeded them, the Heliadse, were of a similar
character : they were followed by settlers from various foreign
countries, among whom the Dorians became dominant, and at length
gave a decidedly Doric character to the island. The three most
ancient towns, Lindus, lalysus, and Camlrus, which were known in
the Homeric age,* were members of the Doric Pentapolis, along with
Cos and Cnidus. The later capital, Rhodus, was not founded imtil
B.C. 408 : its rise proved fatal to the existenc-e of Lindus and lalysus,
whose inhabitants were removed thither.

BbiOdns was at the N.E. end of the island, and was built in the form
of an amphitheatre, on ground gradually rising from the shore, and
with such regularity that it was said to appear like one hoiiae. The
acropolis was posted at the S.W. of the town, and there were two
excellent harbours. In addition to many remarkable works of art,,
both in sculpture and painting, Rhodes boasted of one of the seven
wonders of the world in the brazen statue of Helios, commonly known
as the Colo8«u». It was erected, n.c. 280, by Chares, overthrown by
an earthquake, u.c. 224, and appears to have been afterwards restored:
its height was 70 cubits, and it stood at the entrance of one of the
porta. Rhodes produced many men of literary eminence. St. Paul



' There wax a proverb that the sun shone every day at Rhodes : —
Claramquo rclinquit
Sole Rhodon. Lie. Phars. viii. 247.

Virgil highly praises the Rhodian grape : —

Non ego te, dis et mensis accepta secundis
Transierim, Rhodia. Georg. ii. 101.

'Rk 'P66ov iw4a njot ay«v 'Po^cwi' dycpclixwv
or 'Voioy ift-^vifioirro iidrptxa ttoirfiifB^rrti,
Ait^ov, 'Ii}Av470V T« KoX afyyiVMKTCi Kdfunpoy. — Hon. II, 11. 658.



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Chap. VIII. LYCIA. 125

touched there on his voyage from Macedonia to PhcBiiicia. Lindna
^stoud on the eastern coast, and contained the r<*vered sanctuaries of
Minerva and Hercules : it was the birth-place of Cleobulus, one of the
seven sages, and of Chares, the maker or the Colossus : the site of the
town is marked by the remains of a theatre, and of many highly oma-
-mented tombs. lalyinf stood on the northern coast, about 7 miles
from Rhodes. Caminis was about midway down the western coast ;
the Homeric epithet iipyiySeis had reference to the colour of the soil.

History.— "BAiodeB did not rise to any political importance until after
the erection of its capital in b.c. 408, when the equally balanced state of
its parties offered an opening at one time for Spai-ta, at another time for
Athens, according as the oligarchical or democratical faction was upper-
most. The navaJ i>ower of Rhodes rose about the time of Demosthenes,
and the town distinguished itself for its resistance to Demetrius
Poliorcetes after the death of Alexander. Rhodes sided with Rome in
her eastern wars, and received a portion of Caria in reward. In the
civil wars it took the part of Ca?sar, and, after his death, resisted
CassiuB, and suffered in consequence most severely. From this period,
B.C. 42, Rhodes sunk in power, but retained fame as a setft of learning.
In Coustantine's division, Rhodes became the metropolis of the Pro-
vincia Insularum.

§ 8. S.W. of Rhodes lies Carp&thaB, Skarpanto^ which gave to the
surrounding sea the title of Carijathium Mare. It consists for the
most part of bare mountains, rising to a central height of 4000 feet,
with a steep and inaccessible coast. It was originally a portion of
Minos's kingdom ; it was afterwards colonized by Dorians, but seems
to have been dependent on Rhodes. It possessed four towns, of
which Nisyrus was the chief. The small island of Casnii ATcwo, lies
off it« southern extremity.

IV. Lycia.

§ 9. Lyoia was bounded on the N.W. by Caria, on the N. by
■Phrygia and Pisidia, on the N.E. by Pamphylia, and on the S. by
the Mediterranean, which also washes a portion of its eastern and
western coasts. It is throughout a moimtainous district, being
intersected in all directions by the southerly branches of the Taunis
range : it was, nevertheless, fertile in wine, com, and other pro-
ductions. The scenery is highly picturesque, rich valleys, wooded
ToQOuntains, and precipitous crags, being beautifully intermingled.
Among the pix)duct8 peculiar to Lycia we may notice a particularly
•soft kind of sponge found at Antiphellus, and a species of chalk pos-
sessed of medicinal properties. It also contained springs of naphtha,
which attest its volcanic character.

§ 10. The principal mountains in Lycia were named — DeedUaf on
the border of Caria— Cragns and Antiiar&gns, two loity peaks, sepa-
rated from each other by an elevated plain, and terminating in a
cluster of rugged heights on the western coast, Cragus being the most
southerly of the two— Ma«iicftui, in the centre of the province,
running from N. to S. parallel to the river Xan thus— and Climax.



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126 LYCIA. Book 11.

on the eastern coast, the name (meaning 'Madder") being originally
applied to a mountain which overhung the sea near Phaselis so closely,
that at certain times the road at its base was impassable, while the
mountain was surmounted only by a difficult pass : the name was
afterwards extended to the whole ridge between Lycia and Pamphylia.



Rock-cut LycUn Tomb (Texier's Asia Mioeure).

A portion of this mountain is the Chinunra, which Ctesias describes as
having a perpetual flame issuing from it : this is no doubt a reference
to the inflammable gas found in that neighbourhood. I'he ancient
poets • frequently refer to this phenomenon, the nature of which
they did not understand. To the S. of this range was a volcanic
mountain named Olympm or FhoBiiieiis* Numerous promontories
occur on the coast, the most conspicuous being — Prom. Baommi Tedy^
Booroon, at the termination of Cragus — and another at the S.E.
point, also called Baomm, but sometimes ChdUdoninm, Chelidonia^
off which lay a group of five rocky islands of the same name : the

ft Upitrov lUv pa Xt^Mupcu' afiaifLOK^rrir ixiKtvo-*
Tlc^i^ev* ^ £* op' o}v ^loi' y^yct^ ov^* aySfmirmv,
np6atf« Xdunff itriBtv H ^pojcwr, fi4mni M ^ifuupa,
Ativbv airovvtiovcra irvpJw fidvof aiBoniyoun — Hon. U. vi. 179.J
Vix iUiffatom tc tHformi

reguuB expediet Chimnra. Hor. Carm. I. 27, 28.

FlammiBquc armaU Chimera. Viao- jEn, vi. 298.

Kal XtfAotpoy wvp wptovo-aM,
K«i SoXvftovf lira^w. • Phcd. Olymp. xUi. 128.



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Chap. VIII. INHABITANTS— TOWNS. 127

promontory was regarded as the commencement of Taurus. ITie
most important river is the Zanthiif, Etchen, which rises in Taurus,
and flows in a S.W. direction through an extensive plain between
the ranges of Gragus and Massicytus to the sea : the name, meaning
" yellow," has reference to the colour of the water : this river
was known to Homer,* and was regai-dod as a favourite stream of
Apollo,^ to whom indeed the whole of Lycia was sacred. In the
eastern part of the province a smaller stream was named Limjhnut to
which the Arycandus, Fineka^ is tributary.

§ 11. llie most ancient inhabitants of Lycia were a Semitic race,
divided into two tribes named Sol^mi and TermiUe or TremiUe.
The Lycians entered from Crete before that island received its
Hellenic character, and subdued the Tei-milw on the sea-coast ^vith
ease, but had to maintain an arduous struggle with the SoljTiii,
who had retreated into the mountainpus district on the boi^der of
Pisidia, named Milyas. ITie Solymi api)ear to have assumed the
name of this district, as they were afterwards known as Milyas.
The Lycians, though " barbarians " in the Greek sense of the teim,
were an enlightened nation, enjoying a fi-ee constitution consisting
of a confederacy of 23' towns, cultivating the arts of sculptm-e and
architecture,* and probably having a literature of their own.

§ 12. The towns of Lycia were very numerous ; Pliny states that
it once contained seventy, though in his day the numbers had simk
to twenty-six ; the higher estimate is justified by the numerous
ruins scattered over the face of the country, many of them repre-
senting towns, the very names of which are unrecorded. The six
largest towns of the confederacy were— Xanthus, PatSra, Pinfti-a,
Olympus, Myra, and Tlos. The first of these was the capital of
the country, and was situated in the rich plain of the Xanthus :
Pinara and Tlos were not far distant from it : the other three were
on the coast. PhasClis, on the eastern coast, though not a member
of the Lycian confederacy, rose to great impoi-tanQp as a commer-
cial town. The dates at which these and other towns were bxiilt
can only be conjectui*ed from the character of the aix^itecture,
which, in many cases, indicates a high antiquity. Their flourishing

* Tri^Mtv U AvKofi, Uav$ov avo Sun^frroc — Hox. 77. ii. 877.
*AAA* fire fHi Avkviiv Ife, MivBov rt ^kana^
TIpo^v4ut fuv Tt«r ea^ AvictV cvpcrqf. — Id. vi. 178.

7 PboDbe, qui Xantho lavis amne crines. Hok. Qann. iv. 6, 26.
Qui LyciaB tenet
Dmnetiiy nataleinqae silvum,

Delios et Patareus Apollo. Id. Oarm. 111. 4, 62.

• The architecture Is partly of a Cyclopean, partly of a Greek character, the
latter exhihitinff a high state of art. The monumental architecture has a pccn-
liar character, consisting in the use of a pointed arch, not very unlike that used
in Gothic architecture.



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128 LYCIA. . Book II.

period appears to have beeu about the time when the Romans first
became connected with the country; it terminated with the fall of
Xanthus, and the exactions imposed by Brutus. We shall describe
these towns in ordeik from W. to E. v

TelmetMiu stood on the shores of the Bay of Glaucus, and was once
a flourishing town, as the remarkable remains at Myes—B. theatre, porti-
coes, and sepulchral chambers in the solid rock — still testify : its in-
habitants were highly skilled in augury. Patara, the port of Xanthus,
w.as situated ueai- the mouth of the Xanthus, and possessed a fine har-
bour, as well as a celebrated temple and oi'acle of Apollo,^ hence siu*-
named Patareus. The harbour was much visited by vessels trading to
Phoenicia : St. Paul touched there (Acts xxi. I). The ruins are very ex-
tensive, particularly those of a theatre built in the time of Antoninus Pius;
but the harbour has become choked with sand. Xanthus, the capital,
was beautifully situated on the left bank of the Xanthus, about 6 miles
from its mouti). The city is famous for its determined resistance to
Hai'pagus in the reign of Cyinis, and again to Brutus — on each of
which occasions it was destroyed. The ruins near Koonih are magni-
ficent, consisting of temples, tombs, triumphal arches, and a theatre :
the sculptures on the tombs are in the best style of art, and very per-
fect. Tlot stood higher up the valley of the Xanthus : though tdmost
unknown to history, it was a splendid town, and strongly placed, its
acropulis being on a precipitous rock. The theatre still remains, with
highly worked seats of marble : the side of the acropolis rock is covered
with excavated tombs with ornamental entrances. Pinara stood on the
declivity of Mount Cragus, and was one of the largest towns in Lycia.
A rouud rocky cliff rises out of the centre of the town, the sides of
which are covei*ed with tombs ; the rock-tombs, as elsewhere, are highly
decorated, and the theatre is in a very perfect state : the ancient name
survives in Minara. Ant^heUns stood on a small bay on the southern
coast ; the remains are extensive : it served as the port of Phellni, ,
which was probably more to the N., at Tchookoorhye, Opposite Anti-
phellus is the. island of Hegiste,. KasteUmzo^ which is now the chief
place of business along this coast. Kyra, Dembre^ stood on a plain
about 2^ miles from the sea-coast, and at the entrance of a mountain-
gorge that leads into the interior : Andri&ca served as its port, and was
much frequented by vessels bound westward from Syria: St. Paul touched
there on his voy%e to Rome (Acts xxvii. 5). The theati*© at Myra is
one of the finest in Asia Minor, and the other ruins are very beautiful :
the bas-reliefs in some of the tombs still preserve their original colouring.
Limjh^ WHS more to the E., in the valley of the Limyrus ; its site is
marked by extensive ruins, some of the inscriptions on the tombs being
richly coloured, and the bas-reliefs representing stories from Greek
mythology. Olympus was situated at the foot of the mountain of that
name, at DeliktaBh. Lajstly, Phaselis, Tekrova, on the eaatem coasts
with three harbours, formed an entrepot for the ti-ade between Greece
and Phoenicia : it becafne the haunt of pirates, and was taken by Servi-
lius Isaimcus, after which it sunk.^ The light boats called plwsdi were

• Hob. Oarm. lii. 4, 64. See above, note ».

Phoebe parens, seu te Lycioo Pataraea nivosis

Exercent dumcta jugis. Stat. Theb. i. 696.

* Te primum, parva Phaselia

Magnus adit. Luc. Phart. viii. 251.



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Chap. VIIT.



PAMPHYLIA.



129



said to have been built here, and were the usual device on the coins of
the place.

History. — The Lycians appear as allies of the Trojans in the Homeric
poems, but are not again mentioned until the time of Croesus, who
failed in his endeavour
to subdue them. Cyrus
was more successful, and
added Lycia to the Per-
sian empire. Alexander
traversed a portion of it,
and easily conquered it.
It then passed succes-
sively to the Ptolemies,
the Selencidse, and the Goln of PhMelis.

Romans, who handed it

over for a time to the Rhodians, but afterwards restored it to inde-
pendence. The coimtry sufifered severely from Brutus on suspicion of
its having fav«)ured his opponents, and never recovered its prosperity.
Claudius made it a Roman province in the prefecture of Pamphylia,
with which it remained united until the time of Theodoeius II.




Ionic Lycian Tomb ( Texier's Asia Mineure).



V. Pamphylia.
5 13. Pamphylia waa bounded on the W. by Lycia, on the S. by
the Mediterranean, on the E. by the river Melas separating it fipom
Cilicia, and on the N. by Pisidia. It consists of a narrow strip of

a 8



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130 PAMPHYLIA. Book II.

land, skirting in a semicircular form the coast of the Pamphylium
Mare. The name was extended by the Romans to Pisidia on the
northern side of Taurus. The country is generally mountainous,
the spurs of Taurus pressing closely on the sea : the most extensive
plain is that which surrounds Attalia.

§ 14. The rivers have a southerly course through the lateral ridges
of Taurus, and fall into the Pamphylian Sea. Following the line of
coast from W. to E., we meet with the OatarriiaetM, Duden-m, de-
riving its ancient name from the manner in which it precipitates
itself over the cliffs into the sea near Attalia: its lower course across
the plain is continually changing, and hence some difficulty has
arisen in fixing the sites of the towns — the OettniSi Ak-su^ which
was formerly navigable up to Perga, but has its entrance now closed
by a bar — the XurymidoAi CaprisUy which has undergone a similar
change : at its mouth Cimon defeated the Persians, B.C. 466 ;
lastly the Xelas* Menavgat-su, in the eastern part of the district.
The coast is regular, the only promontory being Lenootheiuii* near
Side.

$ 15. The inhabitants of this district were a mixed race of abori-
gines, Cilicians, and Greeks: hence their name "Pamphyli** (from
vas and <^vXij), resembling in its origin the later " Alemanni." Of
their history we know little : they were chiefly devoted to maritime
p^lr8uits, and joined the Cilicians in their piratical proceedings. The
chief towns were either on the sea-coast or on the navigable rivers.
In earlier times the Greek colonies of Side and Aspendus were the
more important ; but at a later period Attalia, which was founded
by Attains II. of Pergamus, when this province was attached to his
kingdom. Perga was also a considerable town, situated on the road
between Phaselis and Aspendus.

OlUa was the most westerly of the Pamphylian towns, and appears
to have been about 3^ miles W. oi AdaLia,' neKt the coast: it has
been by some geoffraphers incorrectly identified with Attalia. Attalia
wad situated at the inmost point of the Pamphylian Bay, near the
shifting course of the Catarrhactes : it was founded by Attains, pro-
bably 'M'ith a view to command the trade of Egypt, and even to this
day It retains its ancient name and importance. Perga was beautifully
situAted between two hills bordering on the valley of the Oestrus, and
was the seat of a famous temple of Diana : the ruins of a theatre, sta-
dium, aqueduct, and other buildings mark its site. Aspendus was on a
hill near the Eurymedon, about 8 miles from the sea ; it was visited by
Alexander in his Asiatic expedition, and appears to have been a popu-
lous place. Syllimn was a fortified place between the Eurymedon and
the Ceetrus. Side, on the coast, was a colony from Cyme in iEolis : it
possessed a ^;ood port, which became the principal resort of the pirates
of this district : it retained its importance under the Roman emperors,
and became the metropolis of Pamphylia Prima : its ruins at EtHcp
Adalia are extensive, the most remaixable being the theatre, on an enu-
nenoe in the centre of the town : the harbour is choked up with sand.



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Chjlp. VIII. CILICU. 131

tftstory.— The Pumphylians never acquired any great political im-
portance. Tliey were subject to Persia, Macedonia, and Syria, in suc-
cession. After the defeat of Antiochus they were handed over to Uie
Idnffs of Pergamus. At the death of the last Attalus they were in-
cluded in the province of Asia, but were afterwards attached to Cilicia.
In the reign of Augustus, Pamphylia became a separate province, in-
cluding a portion of Pisidia, and uuder Claudius a part of Lycia fdso.

8t Paul's TraveU. — St. Paul visited Pamphylia in his first apostolical
journey: having sailed from Cyprus, he disembarked at Perga, and
thence crossed the range of Taurus, probably by the course of the
Oestrus, into Piddia. He returned to the same point, but instead of
taking ship at Perga, he crossed the plain to Attalia, and thence sailed
for AjatiocQ.

VI. Cilicia.

1 16. GOida was bounded on the W. by Pamphylia, on the N. by
the range of Taurus separating it from Lycaonia and Cappadocia, on
the E. by the range of Amanus separating it from Syria, and on the
S. by the Mediterranean. Within these limits are included two
districts of an entirely different character — the western being moun-
tainous, and hence named Trach^ or " rough ;" the eastern con-
taining extensive plains, and hence named Pedias, or Campestris,
" level :** the river Lamus forms the division between them. ITie
second of these districts is naturally subdivided into two, viz. the
plain of Tarsus and Adana, and the plain of Issus. The province
is inclosed on the N. and £. by a continuous wall of moimtains,
and possesses a lengthened line of coast on the S. The length
from E. to W. is about 250 miles ; the breadth varies from 30 to 50
miles ; the length of the coast-line is about 500 miles.

§ 17. llie position and physical character of Cilicia bring it into
frequent notice in ancient geography. Situated between Syria on
the one side, and the rest of Asia Minor on the other, it became the
highway between the East and the West, and was of special value to
the rulers of Syria. The extent of its seaboard and the supplies of
timber which it yielded rendered it a valuable acquisition to Egypt.
The beauty of its scenery and its luxurious climate attracted the
wealthy Romans thither, and were the indirect means of elevating
Tarsus into a seat of learning. Lastly, the fertility of its soil was
so great that it was independent of all other countries in regard not
only to the necessities but the luxuries of life : in addition to com,
wine, and oil, it was famed for its saffron, and for the goats*-hair
doth named cUicium.

§ 18. The chief mountain-ranges of Cilicia are Tauroi in the N.,
and AmAavf in the E. The former fills the western district with
lateral ridges extending to the very edge of the sea. Eastward of
the Lamus the mountains recede from the coast, and attain such
an elevation that their peaks are covered with snow even in June.
Between them and the sea-coast intervenes the broad and fertile



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132 CILICU. Book II.

-plaiu of Tarsus. Amaniis consists of a double range, which may be
distinguished as the Cilician and Syrian branches : the former de-
scends to the sea in a S.W. direction, between the Py ramus and the
Bay of Issus ; the latter takes a due southerly direction parallel to
the eastern shore of the bay, and terminates abruptly in the pro-
montory of Rhosus at the southern entrance of the bay: these
branches unite in the N., and enclose the plain of Issus.

The passes across these mountains deserve special notice. The most
frequented pass across Taurus, named Cilioin Tjlm or PortSB, now Golek
Boghrast was situated at the head of the valley of the Cydnus, and led
across to Tyana : it is a remarkable fissure in the mountain, and easily
defensible at several points. It was crossed by the younger Cyrus, and
by Alexander the Great, and was selected by Niger as his point of re-
sistance against Septimius Severus. In the western part of the province
a pass crosses from Laranda in I ycaonia to one of the lateral valleys of
the Calycadnus. The Cihcian Amanus had a pass named by Strabo
AmanTdfMi Pylss (It), between Mallus and Issus : this is now named Kara
Kapu. The Syrian Amanus was crossed at two points, to each of which
the name of Atnanldftit Pyl» was again applied : one of these, which
may be termed the lotoer pass, answers to the Pa$i ofBeilan (2), between
the Gulf of Issus and Antioch ; while the other, or upper pass, lies £.
of Bayas (,4) : it was by the latter that Darius crossed before the battle
of Issus. Lastly, at the point where the mountain approaches the coast
most nearly, and where the little stream Cersus, Merkez (7), reaches the
sea, a double wall with gateways was thrown across, one on each side
of tho Cersus: these were the *' Cilician and Syrian Gates" described
by Xeuophon {Anah. i. 4), through which Cyrus passed, and which
Alexander passed and repassed before the battle of Issus.

§ 19. The coast is varied both in outline and character : in Trachea
it assumes a convex form, and presents a jagged outline with nume-
i-ous small bays and promontories : it is here rock-bound and dan-
gerous. The chief promontories are — ^Aiieiimriiim, Anamour, the
most southerly point of Cilicia — SarpMon, Lman el Kapeh^ near the
Calycadnus — Zephyriuin, which is perhaps close to the mouth of that
river — and Coij^ouSi' more to the E., celebrated for its beds of saffron,



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