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and for a cave' with a remarkable spring. In Campcstris two im-



I Utque uolet paiitcr totis se cffiindcre signia
Corycii pre«sura croci, sic omnia membra
Emiscre simul rutilum pro aangnine viruA. Ltro. ix. 808.
Hoc ubi confUsum secti* inferbuit herbis,
Corycioque croco sparsum stetit. Hoa. Sat. ii. 4, 67.

I Dcfleritur Taurique nemus, Pcrseaque Tarsos,
Corydumque pateas exe»iB rupibos antrum,
Hallos, et cxtcmas i-esonnnt naralibus £gie. — Lvc. ill. 225.
IV YTfWTi Tf KtAuc£»i' otin^Topa

*EffaroY««pifvoi' irpb« fiiav xtipovfitvov

Tv^ya BovfiW, naotv hi avritmi 9eoif,

l4t€p8raivt ycLfi^i^aurt avpi^r ^oyor. .&CII. Pi'ow. 351.



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Chap. VUI.



MOUNTAIN-PASSES.



133



Amanides P>i<e (See pp. 132, 136).



L Rdt^-Khdmxir, the promonuvy •< the MMitbcrn I

vBtnmc* of the Oulr of Imu*.
S. Beilan Ptu$ (Lower Paw of Amanut). I

S. Btuknu Pau.

4. Pom /torn SapoM (Upper Pus of AmaaoaV

5. BboMM. I
«. Alenndm {ItkeiuUrmm) I



7. Rhrer Ccnus (AferUt).

8. /Ttfya«.

9. River Pioanu.

10. RuiM of iHiu (T).

11. Phm of the CilkMn
Kmra Kaptt.



Abmbim, with Gale, now



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134 CILICIA. Book II

portant bays penetrate inland, divided from each other by the pro-
montory of Megamu* Karadaah : the western of the two is wide
and open, and received no specific name ; the eastern is the 8in«i
Iidoos* O, of Iskanderun, which runs up in a N.E. direction for 47
miles, with a general width of 26. The coast between the river
Irfunus and Prom. Megarsus is a bw sandy beach : this is followed
by a slightly elevated plain in the neighbourhood of ^gse, and this
again by a shelving coast at the head of the bay.

§ 20. The chief rivers are — the Oalyoadnm * Ohiuk-m, which rises
in the western part of Trachea, and pursues an easterly course
through a wide and long valley to the sea near Prom. Sarpedon —
the Cydnust Tersoos Chat, which rises in Taurus near the Cilician
Gates, and in a southerly coiurse traverses the fertile plain of Tarsus
to the sea ; its water, like that of the other streams which flow fipom
Taurus, is cold, and nearly proved fatal to Alexander after bathing
in it — the Samii Sihun, which in its lower course crosses the rich
Aleian plain — and the Pyr&must Jyhun, which holds a parallel
course more to the eastward : the two latter rivers have been already
noticed in the introductory section (p. 87).

§ 21. The Cilicians were an Aramaic race, and, according to Greek
tradition, derived their name from Cilix, the son of Agenor, a Phoe-
nician. They occupied the whole of the country imtil the days of
Alexander the Great, when the Greeks, who had previously made
some few settlements on the coast, gradually drove the Cilicians
from the plains into the mountains, where they maintained them-
selves in independence under the name of " Free Cilicians." The
inhabitants of Trachea belonged to neither of these parties, but were
connected ^vith the Pisidians and Isaurians, whom they resembled
in their freebooting habits.

§ 22. The towns of Cilicia belonged to various historical eras.
Tarsus was undoubtedly a Syrian town, and the other towns of
Campestris had probably a similar origin, though no evidence can be
adduced to thateflfect. Greek colonies were reputed to have settled
at the most favourable points, as Tarsus, Soli, Mallus, ^gas, and
CelendSris. The Seleucidae founded several new towns, as Seleucia
on the Calycadnus, Antiochia ad Cragum, and Arsino^. Lastly, the
Romans revived many of the old towns, and gave them Roman
names, such as Caesarea, 'Pompeiopolis, Claudiopolis, and Trajano-
pohs. Six cities are noticed as *' free ** under the Roman dominion,
viz. Tarsus, Anazarbus, Seleucia (which formed the capitals of the
three divisions of Cilicia in Constantine's arrangement), CorjfcuB,
Mopsuestia, and ^Egae. With regard to the position of the Cilician
towns, those in Trachea are for the most part on the coast, which
offered numerous strong and secure sites on the cliffs : Seleucia ou
the Calycadnus is the most marked exception. In Campestris, on



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Chap. Via TOWNS. 135

the other hand^ where the coast is low, they are on the rivers :
Tarsus on the Cydnus, Ad&na on the Saras, Mopsuestia and Ana^
zarbus on the Pyramus.

, Commencing with the towns on the coast from W. to E. — Ooraceiiiuii,
Alaya^ on the border of Pamplijlia, was a place of remarkable natural
strength, and had a good harbour : it was the only town that held out
against Antiochus, and it became the head-quarters of the pirates.
SeUnnf ^ was equally strong in position, being placed on a cliff jutting
out into the sea: Trajan died there, ad. 117, after which event the
name was changed* to Tr^janopolis : remains still exist of a mausoleum,
agora, theatre, &c., at the mouth of the Selenti, CelendSris is also
described as a strone fortress on the coast, with a small but sheltered
port, now called Giunar:
originally a Phoenician
town, it received a Sa-
mian colony: its coins
were remarkably fine.
Seleneia, on the west
bank of the Calvcadnus,
a few miles from its
mouth, was founded by

Seleucus Nicator, and „ . ^ ^ , ^ .

attained a speedy emi- Coin of Cdenderi..

nence, rivalling even

Tarsus : it was much frequented on account of the annual celebration
of the Olympia, and for an oracle of Juno : it was the birth-place of the

* Peripatetic philosophers Athenseus and Xenarchus : the town still
exists under the name of SeUfkieh^ and has remains of an ancient
theatre, temples, and porticoes. %oVL was a highly flourishing mari-
time town in the western part of Campestris, founded by Argives : it
was destroyed by Tigranes, king of Armenia, but restored by Pompey,
and thenceforth* named Pompeiopdlii : the philosopher Chrjrsippus
and the poets Philemon and Aratus were bom there: the town denves
its chief notoriety, however, from the term "solecism," originally
descriptive of the corrupt Qreek spoken by the Solians : its remains
at MezeUu consist of a beautiful artificial harbour, an avenue of 200
columns, of whicli 42 still stand, and numerous tombs. Tarsus,
TenooBf stood on both sides of the Cydnus, about 8 miles from its
mouth, where a lagoon served as its port: its situation was most
favourable, being central

in regard to the means
' of communication in
Cilicia, and surrounded
by a fertile and beauti-
ful plain: originally a

• Syrian town, it was early
colonized by Greeks, and
was in the days of Cyrus
the Yoimger the capital

of the country: it was Coin of TaiBos.

visited b^ Alexander :

in the civil wars it sided with Caesar, and was hence named Julio-

polis: Antony received Cleopatra there, and Augustus constituted

* One porta mittitque rates recipitqae Seliniw. — Lvc. viiL S60.

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i36 €ILICIA. Book H.

it a ** libera civita«/' It was a seat of philosophy, and produced
many eminent men, particularly the Apostle St. Paul. XaUiifl
was situated on an eminence near the mouth of the Pyramus, and
was visited by Alexander : its port was named Me^rsa. JEgm stood
on the K. coast of the Issicus Sinus at Kalauy : in Strabo's time it
was but a small city, with a port. IssTifl stood near the head of the
Issicus Sinus, and is memorable for the great battle fought here between
Alexander and Darius, u.c. 333: the precise position of the town is
uncertain, being by some fixed S. of the river Pinarus (9), but probably
being to the N (See Map, p. 133). Epiphania was probably near the
head of the bay ; BaiflB was at Bay(u {S\ on the eastern shore : Alezaadiia
ad iMnm and Xyriandnu were probably the same place, the latter
being the earlier name ; they stood at or near Iskenderun (6). In the
interior, MopfOortaA, on the southern slope of Mount Taurus, was the
place where the Emperor Constantius died, a.d. 361. AdSna was
situated on the military road from Tarsus to Issus, and on the W.
side of the Sartis. Moptiieftia, Messis, was on the same high road,
at the point where it crossed the Pyramus. Anasarbns, or Omarea, was
higher up the Pyramus, near a mountain of the same name : its site is
now named Anatooiy.

History — Tiie early annals of Cilicia are lost to us : we know that
it formed a part of the great Assyrian empire, and that, after the fall
of Nineveh, its king Syennesis was sufficiently powerful to act as
mediator between Croesus and the Modes. It remained independent
until the rise of the Persian empire, and even under that it enjoyed
its own princes. It was traversed and subdued by Alexander the
Great, and after his death it fell to the Seleucids. As the power of ^
the Syrian monarchy decayed, the Oilicians rose to independence, and
cairied on a nefarious system of piracy and slave-bunting over the
whole of the neighbouring coasts. War was prosecuted by the Roman
generals, M. Antonius, b.c. 103, Sulla, 92, Dolabella, 80-79, P. Ser-
vilius Isauricus, 78-75, and finally Pompey, 67, with a view to
extirpate these pirates, and under Pompey the eastern part of the
country was organized as a Roman province. The western district
remained independent until the time of Vespasian. In the period after
Constantine, Cilicia wafe divided into three parts. Prima, the southern
portion of Campestris, Secunda, the northern portion, and Isauria
embracing Trachea.

St. PauV$ Travels. — St. Paul visited Cilicia very shortly after his
conversion (Acts ix. 30), entering it probably by way of Antioch (comp.
Gal. i. 21): he went to Tarsus, and is supposed to have founded the
churches in Cilicia. In his second journey he visited these churches,
entering again from Syria, probably following the coast-road by Issus
to Mopsuestia and Tannis, and thenee crossing Taurus by the Cilician
Gates into Lycaonia (Acts xv. 41).

1 23. The important island of Cypma lies midway between the
coasts of Cilicia and Phoenicia, nearer to the former in point of
actual distance, but more connected with the latter in regard to
race, history, and the character of its civilization. The length of
the island from W. to E. is about 150 miles : its greatest breadth
about 40 : the principal or S.W. portion has the form of an irre-
gular parallelogram, which terminates in a long narrow peninsula
running in a N.E. direction. The surface of the country is almost



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Chap. VIII. ISLAND OF CYPRUS. 137

entirely occupied by the elevated range of Mount Olympus, which-
descends on each side in hold and rugged masses, divided from each
other by deep picturesque valleys. The island produced copper
(358 Cyprium), as well as gold and silver and precious stones. The
lower ti-acts were eminently fertile, and are described as flowing
with wine, oil, and honey, while from the abundance of its flowers
it received the epithet of tv^rft. The whole island was regarded
as sacred to Venus.*

§ 24. The range of OlympoB runs from W. to E., and attains an
elevation of 7000 feet. Numerous promontories run out into the
sea, of which the most important are Ao&mat, Haghios Epiphanioi,
in the W. ; Grommyon, -CormacAtYt, in the N. ; Dinar^tiimt St, Andre^
in the E., with the small group of islands named Cleides, " the Keys,"
just ofif it ; Pedaliiinit Delia Grega^ at the S.E., above which rose a
hill named Idaliiun, with a temple saci'ed to Venus f and Onriai,
Delle Qatte^ at the extreme S. The chief river is the Pedifleoi* which
has an easterly course, and waters the plain of Salamis ; the other
numerous streams are unimportant. The chief plains were those of .
Salamis and Citiimi.

§ 25. The oldest towns of Cyprus (Citium, Am&thus, and Paphos)
were colonies from Phopnicia : the two former bear Phoenician names,
while the latter was the chief sanctuary for the worship of the Phce-
nician Venus. The Greek colonies hold the next rank in point of
age, and a higher rank in point of importance : Salamis, on the S.E.
shore, was the most flourishing commercial city in the island ; Soloe,
on the northern coast, was well situated for the Cilician trade ; New
Paphos became a frequented port, and at one time the seat of govem-

5 At£o«i|v xputrwrri^aa'ov xoXtfir 'A^poStnTV
*A(rofAa4, ^ w&ayfi Kvvpov KpiiUfiva A^Aoyx'i'
£ivaAn}f, oBt. iiiv ^c^vpov fUvot vyp^v aivTOt
*Hv(uccv Kara leviia voAv^Aour^oto tfoAaotriff,
*A^p^ ivl fiaXtuc^' Hon. JTjfmn. in Vm, 11.

O, quae beatam, DIto, tcncs Cyprnm.— Hob. Carm. 111. 26, 9.
O Venus, reglati. Cnidi Paphique,
Sperne dilect^m Cypron. Id. 1. 80, 1.

Tunc Cilkum liquere solum, Cyproqufi citatas
Immisere rates, nullaa cui prstulit aras
TJndflB diva memor PaphisB, si numina nascl
Credimus, aut quenquam fas est ccepisse deorum.

Lvo. TiU. 456.

« Ac<nroiv% A ToA-yw* rt koX UiXioy c^cXao-a«,

Thkock. Idjfl. XT. 101.
Ht\lio ^;o sopitum somno, super alta Cythera,
Aut super Idalium, sacrata sede recondam.— Vibo. JSn. 1. 680.
Qualis Idalium colens
Vcnlt ad Phryglum Venus
Jndicem. Catull. Ixi. 17.



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138 CYPRUS. Book U.

ment. The Egyptian monarchs added some towns, to three of which
they gave the name of Arsinoe. Little is known of the history of
the towns of Cyprus : they owe their chief celebrity to the worahip
of Venus. We shall describe them from W. to E. along the northern
shore, and from E. to W. along the southern.

Aninoe stood on the K. coast, near the western promontory Acamas;
it was destroyed by Ptolemy Soter. Soli or 80I0S was the most im-
portant port on the northern coast, and had valuable mines in its
neighbourhood; it was said to be an Athenian settlement. gaiyw»ff
stood at the mouth of the Pediseus on the E. coast; it was an im-
portant town in the 6th century B.C., and under an independent
dynasty: a famous sea-fight took place off its harbour between
Menelaus and Demetrius Poliorcetes, b.c. 306 ; it was partially
destroyed in Tmjan*s reign and wholly by a subsequent earthquake ;
it was rebuilt by a Christian emperor, with the name of Constantia.
On the S. coast the principal town was (Ktinm, the remains of which
are still visible near Lamika^ consisting of a theatre, tombs, and the
foundations of the walls : the death of Clmon the Athenian, b.c. 449,
and the birth of the philosopher Zeno, are the chief events of interest
connected with it. Am&thns stood more to the W., and was celebrated
for the worship of Venus, ^ Adonis, and the Phoenician Hercules or
Meikart, -as well as for its wheat and mineral" productions. PapliOf
was the name of two towns on the S.W. coast: the older one, named
Palaepaphus by geographers, but simply Paphos by the poets, stood on
a hill ^ about 1^ miles from the sea, on which it had a roadstead : it
was the most celebrated seat of the worship of Venus, ^ whose fane
there is mentioned even by Homer. The foundations of the later
temple erected by Vespasian are still discernible, and its form is
delineated on the coins of some of the Roman emperors. New Paphos,
Bafa, was on the coast, about 7 J miles N.W. of the old town, and
took a prominent part in -the reverence paid to the goddess Venus :
it was the residence of the Roman governor in St. Paul's time ; the
harbour is now almost blocked up. Of the less important towns we
may notice— LapSthns, on the northern coast — Golffi, whose position is
unknown, also famous for the worship of Venus ^-—Kaiiimi, between

7 Est Amathus, est celsa mihi l^aphM, atque Cythera,

IdaliflBque domus. Vibo. .^n. x. 51.

Culte paer, pueriqne parens Amathusia cnltl ;
Aarea de eampo vcUite signa meo. — Or. Amor. ill. 15, 15.

' Fecondam Amathunte metalll. Or. Met. x. SSO.

• CelM Paphos. Viao. jEm, x. 51.
1 *H S* Spa Ki^oof ucav« ^tAofAfict^ *A^po<iTi),

Hox. Od, Till. S6S.
Ipsa Paphvm sobUmls adit, sedesqae rerisit
Lieta suas : abl templom flli, oentamque SabsBO
Thore calent ar«, smisqae recentibos halant.— Vnu». Mi, i. 415.
Qu» Cnidon
Falgentesqae tenet Cjcladas, et Paphon
Jnnctis yisit oloribos. Horn. Oarm. ill. S8, IS.

* Xtme, o ceBroleo ereata ponto,

Qnn sanotom Idalinm, Syrosqne apertos,

Qneeque Ancona, Cnidomque anmdinoMua

Colls, qu»qae Anaathonta, qosque Golgoe.— Catuix. xzxtI. !!•



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Chap. VHI. HISTORY OF CYPRUS. 139

Amathiia and Citium — and Tamamis, on the northern slope of
Olympus, supposed to be identical with Homer's Temesa.'

Hittory. — Cyprus appears to have been subject to tlje Syrians as
early as the time of Solomon. Under Amasis it became attached to
the Eg^tian kingdom. On the invasion of Egypt by Cambvses it
Burrendei*ed to the Persiaos. It took part in the Ionian revolt, but
was subdued by Darius. After the battle of Salarais the Athenians
reduced the greater part of it. The brilliant period of its history
belongs to the times of Evagoras, king of Salamis. It again fell under
the Persians until Alexander s time. In the division of the Maoeduuian
empire, it was assigned to the Egyptian Ptolemy, and it remained the
most valuable appendage of the Egyptian kingdom until it was annexed
to the Roman empire in B.C. 58.

iR. Paul's Trails. — Cyprus was visited by the Apostle in his first
missionary toiu*. He crossed the sea from Seleucia in Syria to Salamis,
and then probably followed the Roman road to Paphos, whence he set
sail for Pamphylia (Acts xiii. 4-13). In his voyage to Rome he " sailed
under Cyprus," t. e. kept under the N. coast of the island (Acts
zxvii. 4).

* Nvv f &3« (vv nfi Kan^vBov ^ frapocoa,

HA^i' ^l otfoira wivrov iw* oAAo^poouv u^ptivovf ;

Hon. Od. i. 182.
Est ager, indigensB Tamaseum nomine dicnnt ;
TelluriB Cyprise pars optima : quern mihi prisoi -
dacrarere scnes, tcmplisque aooedere dotem
Hanc Juascre meis. Ov. Met. x. 644.



Oopper Coin of Cypnis ander the Emperor Claudius.



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Mount Argteus, Cappadocia (From Texier).

CHAPTER IX.

Asia Minor, contimied,

VII. Cappadocia. § 1. Boundai-ies. § 2. Natural features. § 3
luhabitants ; divisions. J 4. Towns ; history. VIII. Lycaonia
and ISAURIA. §5. Boiiudaries ; natural features. §6. InhabitAnts
towns ; history. IX. Pisidia. § 7. Boundaries ; natural features
§ 8. Inhabitants ; towns ; history. X. Phrygia. § 9. Boundaries.
§ 10. Natural features. § 11. Inhabitants : divisions. § 12
Towns ; history. XI. Galatia. § 13. Boundaries ; natural
features. §1-1-. Inhabitants. §15. Towns ; history. XII. Bithy
NIA. § 16. Boundaries, &c. § 17. Mountains; promontories
§ 18. Rivers. § 19. Inhabitants; towns; history. XIII. Paph
LAOONIA. § 20. Boundaries. § 21. Natural features. § 22. In
habitants ; towns ; history. XlVi Pontus. § 23. Boundaries
§ 24. Natural features. § 25. Inhabitants ; towns ; history.

VII. Cappadocia.

§ 1. Cappadocia was an extensive province in the eastern part of
Asia Minor, bounded on the E. by the Euphrates, on the S. by
Taurus, on the W. by Lycaonia, and on the N. by Galatia and
Pontus, from the latter of which it was separated by the upper part



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C9AP. ;X. CAPPADOCIA. 1 41

of the range of Antitaurus. These limits iDclnde the district named
Armenia Minor, but exchide the extensive province of Pontus, which
formed a portion of Cappadocia in the time of Heixxlotus (p» 36).
The northern part of the province is mountainous ; the central and
southern parts consist of extensive plains lying at a high elevation,
bare of wood, in some places fertile in wheat an! wine, and else-
where affording fine pastures for cattle and horses. Among the
mineral products we may notice a species of cr}'stal, onyxes, a white
stone used for sword-handles, and a translucent stone adapted for
>vindow8. There are extensive salt-beds near the Halys.

§ 2. llie chief mountain-range is Antitaanu . which intersects the
coimtry in a north-easterly direction, and attains its highest eleva-
tion in the outlying peak of Argsns (p. 86). The chief river is the
Halys (p. 87), whose middle course falls within the limits of this
province, and which receives the tributary streams of the Melat*
Kara-9u, flowing by the roots of Argieus ; and of the Cappftdoz» sup-
posed to be the small river of Kir-Shehrf on the border of Galatia.
llie OarmiUui in Cataonia is a tributary of the Cilician Pyramus,
while a second Melat* Koramas, in the eastern part of the province,
seeks the Euphrates. The great salt lake of Tatta falls partly within
the limits of Cappadocia.

§ 3. The inhabitants of this district were regarded by the Greeks
as a Syrian race, and were distinctively named " White Syrians."
The name "Cappadox" is probably of Persian origin; and some
ethnologists regard the Cappadocians as an Arian and not a Semitic
race. ITie Cataonians were deemed a distinct people. The political
divisions varied at different eras : the eastern district, between Anti-
taurus and the Euphrates, was divided into three parts — Armenia
Minor, Melit^ne, and Cataonia ; the western was divided into six
portions in the time of the native dynasty. Under the Romans
Cataonia was subdivided into four, and Aiinenia Minor into five
districts, the names of which need not be specified. The emperor
Valens (about a.d. 371) divided Cappadocia into two provinces named
Prima and Secimda, to which Justinian subsequently added Tertia.

§ 4. 'Jhe towns of Cappadocia offer few topics of interest in con-
nexion with classical literature. The country was so shut out from
the great paths of commimication that the Greeks were wholly
unacquainted with it ; and it was only in the century preceding the
Christian era that the Romans had occasion to cross its boundaries.
The information which we have respecting its towns belongs almost
wholly to the period of the Roman empire, when the provincial orga-
nization was introduced. We may assimie that in most instances
the sites of the towns which the Romans built had been previously
occupied by the Cappadocians, as we know to have been the case in
some instances, where the change of name indicates the change of



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142 CAPPADOCIA. Book II.

masters. Thus the old capital, Mazftca, in the valley of the Halys,
became Caesarea ; Mocissus, Justuiauopolis ; and Hal&la, Faustino-
polis. ITie chief towns were Cajsarea in the N., Ty&na in the 9.,
and MelitSne in the E. The latter was situated on the great mill*
tary road which led from Asia Minor to Armenia and Mesopotamia.
Many of the towns were of importance as military positions : this
was particularly the case with MelitSne, which commanded the
passage of the Euphrates ; CiSca and Dascusa, which were on the
same river ; and Sat&la, which was the key of Pontus. All these
were stations of Roman legions.

Commencing in the western part of Cappadocia Proper, we meet first
with KodsiiiSi on the borders of Galatia, which was enlarged bv the
emperor Justinian, and made the capital of Cappadocia Tertia, with the
name JnitiniaiiopdUf. Kai&ea was situated at the foot of Mount
Argseus, and was the residence of the old Cappadocian kings : it was
taken by Tigranes, and again by Sapor in the reign of Valerian. The
emperor Tiberius enlarged it, constituted it the capital of the province,
and changed its name to OBBsarea. The town is still important, and
retains its ancient name in the form Kaitariyek. AroheUUi was situ-
ated on the borders of Lycaonia, probably on the site of the older
Garsaura ; and owed its name to its founder, Archelaus, tbe last Icing.
It was made a Roman colony by the emperor Claudius. The chief town
of the southern district was TjinM^ N. of the Cilicion Gates, and thus,
from its position in reference to that pass, as well as from its natural
strength, a place of great importance. It became a Roman colony under
Caracalla : afterwards, havmg been incorporated with the empire of
Pahnyn^ it was conquered by Aurelian, a.d. 272, and was raised by
Valens to the position of capital of Cappadocia SecMnda. The famous
impostor ApuUonius was bom there. There are considerable ruins of
the town at Ktz-hitiar, particularly an aqueduct of granite about 8 miles
li'ng. Qybistra, S.W. of Tyana, was once visited by Cicero when he
was proconsul of Cilicia. Vora, on the borders of Lycaonia, was a
strong fortress in whioh Eumeues was besieged by Antigonus for a
whole winter. Taoitinopolis, S. of Tyana, derived its name from
Faustina, the wife of the emperor M. Aurelius, who died there, and
was deified, a temple being built to her honour. In Cataonia, the chief
town was OomAna Anrea, at the eastern base of Antitaurus, famed for
the worship of Enyo, which was traced back to Orestes : it was made a
colony by CaracalU : a considerable town, AUBodan, occupies its site.



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