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Xelitine was the most important town in the district of the same name :
it stood not far from the junction of the Melas with the Euphrates, at
MdUxLiyeh: it owed its first rise to Tn^an: it was afterwards embel-
lished by the emperors Anastasius and Justinian, and it became the
capital of Armenia Secunda : it was the station of tbe fSEunous Christian
Ligio XII, Fvlmmala : the Romans defeated Chosroee 1. near it, a.d,
577. In Armenia Minor, in addition to the border-fortresses of Claea,
Dascusa, and Satala, already noticed, VioopoUt mu6t be mentioned, as
founded on the spot where Pompey conquered Mithridates : its site is
probd^ly at DevrtkL The fortress of 8inoria, built by Mithridates, waa
somewhere on the frontier between Armenia Mdor and Minor. Though
Cappadocia only receives passing notices in the Bible (Acts ii. 9; 1 Pet.
L 1), it is famous in ecclesiastical history from its having given birth


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to Gregory of y«if>nini, in the wettem part of the province, of which
place he aifterwards became bishop, and to Basil, who became bishop of
his native town Csesarea. Vyia, in the K.W., was equally famous as
the see of Gregory.

HiHory.^C&ppeAocM formed a portion of the Assyrian, Median, and
Persian empires. Under the latter it was governed by satraps, who
had the title of kings. After the death of Alexander it was annexed to
the Syrian empire, but still retained a native dynasty, in which the
names of Ariarathes and Ariamnes alone occur, until about b.c. 93,
when the royal family became extinct. A new dynas^, in which the
name of Ariobansanes is most frequent, was then seated on the throne
nnder the patronage of the Romans : this terminated with Archelaus,
JLD. 17, at whose death Cappadocia was made a Roman province.

Armenia Minor is first noticed as a separate district after the defeat
of Antiochus by the Romans. It was then under its own kings, who
extended their sway at one time over Pontus. The last of them sui^
rendered to Mithridates; and it afterwards passed into the power of
the Romans, who transferred it fh>m one king to another, and finally
united it to Cappadocia in the reign of Trsjan.

VIII. Lyoaonia and Isauria.

§ 5. Lyosonia was bounded on the E. by Cappadocia, on the S. by
Cllicia, on the W. by Phrygia and Pisidia, and on the N. by Galatia.
Its limits, in reference to the adjacent provinces, were very fluctu-
ating, particularly under the Romans, who banded over portions of
Lycaonia sometimes to one, sometimes to another sovereign, and in-
corporated a large portion of it at one time with Galatia, at another
with Cappadocia. IianrU was regarded sometimes as a separate dis-
trict, sometimes as belonging to Lycaonia : it was the mountainous
district on the 8.W. border of the latter country, adjacent to Pi-
sidia. Lycaonia is generally a level country, high, and bleak, badly
watered, but well adapted for sheep-feeding. The central plain
about Iconium is the largest in Asia Minor. The soil is strongly
impregnated with salt. Lofty mountains rise both in the northern
and southern districts, none of which, however, received specific
names in ancient times. The lakes of Tatta on the border of Cappa-
docia, CorUis and Trogltii in Isauria, are the only physical objecU
worthy of notice.

§ 6. The Lycaonians were undoubtedly an aboriginal population,
and tho tradition which connected them with the Arcadian Lycaon
is void of all foundation. They were a hardy and warlike race,
living by plimder and war. llie Isaurians had a similar character,
but appear to have been rather connected \vith the Pisidians in point ^
of race. The towns were both few and small : Derbe was the early, '
and Iconium the later capital of Lycaonia, as Isaura was of Isauria :
Laodic^ owed its existence to Seleucus I.

Isonium was situated in the midst of an extensive plain in the western
part of the province . Xenophon assigns it to Phryg^ : Strabo deacribea


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i44 PISIDIA. Book 11,

it as a small place, but it soon rose to importance, and both Pliny and
the Acts of the Apostles represent it as very populous : H became the
metropolis under the Byeantine eiuperors, and is still a large place
under the name of Koniyeh. Laodicea lay to the N.W. of Iconium,
and received the surname of Comlmsta, probably from ha\'iug been
burnt down : numerous remains at Ladih^ consisting of altars, columns,
capitals, &c., show that it was a fine and large town. , Derbe was a forti-
fied town in the S. of the province, probably at or near Divle^ and not
far &om the base of Taurus : it was the residence of the robber Anti-
pacer, and subsequently of Amy ntas. Lystra was near Derbe, but its
position is quite undecided : it may be at Bm-bir-Kdisseh, on the N.
of the mountain called Karadaght where there are extensive ruins of
churches. lAranda, in the S.W., is known only for its destruction by
Perdiccas, and as a subsequent resort of the Isaurian robbers. Isanza
was a large town at the foot of Taurus, which was twice ruined^
firstly by Perdiccas, and afterwards by Servilius, when it was rebuilt
by Amyntas of Qalatia : the new town became the residence of the rival
emperor Trebellianus.

Iff story.— The Lycaonians never submitted to the Persians, but
they yielded to Alexander the Great, and mssed successively to the
Seleucidse, Eumenes of Pergamus, and the Romans : the only period
when they became ait all powerful was under the rule of Amyntas, just
before their annexation to Cappadocia. The Isaurians offered a pro-
longed resistance to the Romans, to whom their marauding habits
made them particularly obnoxious. Servilius (ii.c. 78) attacked them
with success ; and subsequently the Romans found it necessary jo sur-
round them with a cordon of forts, but they repeatedly broke out, asxd
remained the terror of the surrounding countriea.down to a late period.

8L Paula Travels. — Lycaonia was visited by St. Paul in his first and
second missionary tours. In the former he entered it from Pisidia,
and first visited loonium, then much frequented by Jews ; and ^ter-
wards Lystra aud Derbe, whence he retraced his footsteps to Pisidia
(Acts xiv 1-21). On the second occapion he entered it on the side of
Cilicia, and passed through Derbe and Lystra to Iconium, and thence
continued his course probably to Antioch in Pisidia (xvi. 1-5). On the
latter occasion he took away with Iiim Timothy, whose birth-place was
probably Lystra, though it may have been Derbe.

IX. Pisidia.

§ 7. PiBidia bordered in the E. on Isauria and Cilicia, in the S.
on Pamphylia, in the W. on Lycia, Caria, and Phrygia, and in the
N. on Phrygia. The limits with regard to these provinces were
fluctuating, particularly the northern portion, which was sometimes
attached to Phrygia, with the title of Phrygia Pisidica. Tlie country
is rough and jnountainous, but contains several fertile valleys and
plains. The momitain-ranges of Pisidia emanate from Mount Taurus^
and generally run from N. to S. : the only one to which a specific
name was assigned was Sardemlsot in the S.W. The upper courses
of the Catarrhactet* Cestnu* and Bnryxnedon, fall within the limits of
Pisidia, and flow through the heart of the Taurian range into the
Pamphylian plain. These rivers are fed by numerous mountain


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torrents, which after rain rush down the ravines with extraordinary
violence. The districts of Xiljras and Cabalia, which we have already
noticed in connexion with Lycia, extended over the south-western
portions of Pisidia. <

§ 8. The Pisidians were a branch of the great Phrygian stock,
intermixed with Cilicians and Jsaurians, the latter of whom they
resembled in their lawless and marauding habits of life. The towns
were situated eitheir on or ajaid inaccessible cliffs, and were so many
natural fortresses ; such was the position of Termessus, which
alarmed even the skilled warriors of Alexander's host ; (jf Selge and
Sagalassus, which played a conspicuous part in the Roman wars with
Antiochus the Great; and of Cremna, as its name (" the precipice**)
implies. Antioch, which in accordance with Scriptural notices
(Acts xiii. 14) we shall regard as a Pisidian town, though assigned
by Strabo to Phrygia Parorios, was situated in the northern plain,
and was a Greek rather than a pure Pisidian town, having been
founded by Seleucus Nicator. Most of these towns survived to a
late period, as the character of their remains proves. Antioch and
Cremna became Roman colonies.

Antioch was situated on the S. side of a mountain range on the
border of Phrygia : originally it belonged to Syria, but after the battle
of Magnesia, B.C. 190, it was annexed to Pergamus : it afterwards be-
came the capital of the Roman province : its remains at YaJobatch ai*e
numerous, consisting of a temple of Dionysus, a theatre, and a church,
flelaneia, sumamed SidSza, probably from ironworks in its vicinity,
stood S.W. of Antioch, at Ejerdir : it was perhaps founded by Seleucus
Nicator. SagalaMva, in the N.W., was situated on a terrace on the
side of a lofty mountain, with a fertile plain stretchitfg away below
it : Alexander took it by assault ; Manlius reduced it by ravaging
the plain * the ruins at Aglasoun are very fine, consisting of a theatre,
a portico, &c., with innumerable tomhs hewn out of the perpendi-
cular face of the cliff. CSremna, S.E. of Sagalassus, occupied the sum-
mit of a mountain, three sides of which were terrific precipices : it
was taken by the Galatian king Amyntas: there are remains of a
theatre, temples, &c., at Gcrme. Beige was situated near the Eury-
medon, in the S. of the province, on a lofty projection surrounded
by precipices and defiles : it was so populous a place that its soldiers
number^ 20,CK)0 ; it was besieged and taken by Achsdus : the supposed
ruins of Selge, near Boojaky are magnificent, and extend for more than
3 miles : about 50 temples, with innumerable tombs and other build-
ings, have been noticed. TermeMiii was situated on a precipitous
height near the Catarrhactee, at Karabunar Kiui^ and commanded the
ordinary road between Lycia and Pamphylia. Cibjfra was the chief
town in Cabalia, and the head of a tetrapolis, of which Bubon, Bab-
bura, and CEnoanda were the other confederates: it stood on a tii-
butary of the Calbb, and overlooked a wide and fertile plain : it was
visited by Manlius, and became subsequently a place of great trade,
particularly in wood and iron :' the ruins at Honoom consist of a
Uieatre and some temples. The exact positions of Cretopolii and of

1 Ne Cibyratica, no Bithyna negotia perdas.— Hos. £p, i. 6, 33.


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140 PHRYGIA. Book II.

Ifionda are unknown : they were somewhere in the S.W., on the bor-
ders of Pamphylia.

History. — The PiHidiana resisted all attempts at permanent subjection.
Even the Romans failed : for though they conquered the inhabitaiitii,
and handed over the province to Eumenes of Pergamus, and afterwanls
adjoined it to their province of Pamphylia, yet they never really re-
pressed its lawless mhabitants, nor did they ever introduce a provincial

St. Pauls rrare2«.— St. Paul visited Pisidia in his first journey,
crossing Taurus from Pamphylia to Antioeh, where the Jews appear to
have been numerous, and returning by the same route after having
visited Lycaonia (Acts xiii. 14; xiv. 21; : he probably visited Antioeh
again m his Second journey, though the place is not specified (xvi. 4).

HlerapoliB Iq Phrygfa (Laborde).

X. Phrygia.
§ 9. The iiTiix)rtant province of FhrygiA* or, as it was more fully
termed, P. Major* to distincruish it from P. Minor in Mysia, bordered
in the E. on Galatia and Lycaonia, in the S. on Pisidia, in the
W. on Caria, Lydia, and Mysia, and in the N. on Galatia. Its
boundaries cannot be fixed with any degree of precision, as they
varied at different historical ei-as : it may be described generally as
the western jmrt of the central plateau, and as coextensive with the
limits of the plateau itself. The country is mountainous and well


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wsiterod : some portions, particularly the valleys of the Hennus and
Meander, were very fertile and produced the vine .•■ the other parts
wsre adapted to sheep-feeding. The chief productions were wool, which
was of a very superior qaality, and marble, especially the species found
near Synn&da. The western district was much exposed to earthquakes ;
and the presence of volcanic agency is attested by hot springs.

$ 10. The mountains of Phrygia consist of irregular offsets from
the border ranges of Olympiui in the N., Taoms in the 8., and
Oadmni in the S.W. The only name applied specifically to any of
the Phrygian hills is BiAdjhniixn, which appears to have been equally
given to a hill about the sources of the Hermus, and to a second near
Pessinus.' Phrygia contains the upper courses of the Hermnt and
Maander. which seek the ^gamn, and the Bangariw, which flows
northward to the Buxine : the ThymlvM and Alander* tributaries of
the latter, belong wholly to Phrygia, as also do the Karsjrms ftnd the
Lyenf* tributaries of the Mseander : the Marsyas joined the Mseander
almost immediately after ita rise t* it was connected in mythology
with the victory of Apollo over Marsyas.* Several large salt lakes
occur in the southern part of the province, of which Anaaa has been
identified with Cha/rdaky and Af^nift with Buidur to the S.E.,
though not improbably it may be only another name for Anana.

§ 11. The inhabitants of this province came of the same stock as
the Thracian tribes, and were in early times the masters of the
whole western part of Asia Minor. The affinities that existed be-
tween them and the surrounding nations have been already pointed
out (p. 89). They were deprived of portions of their territory by
the advance of the Semitic races in the S. and W., of the Cappa-
docians in the E., and finally of the Galatians in the N. From
being a warlike race, they became, .after the conquest of their
country by Persia, purely agricultural, and were regarded with con-

3 fVhf Kiu *pwyCriv cio^Av^K afAvcA<S«avuK. HoM. 77. iii. 184.
* The latter of the two wa« the mountain known to the poetf as being sacred
to Cybele, who is hence called Dindymene : —

O vere Phrygiw, neque enim Phryges ! ite per alta
Dindyma, ubi assuetis biforem dat tibia cantum.

ViRo. ^n. ix. «17.
Non Dindymene, non adytis quatit
Mentem eacerdotom inoola Pythins,

Non liber «qae. Hoa. Corm. i. 16, 5.

Agite, ite ad alta, Qalln, Cybeles nemora simul ;
Simul ite, DindymensD domin» Taga peoora.

Catvll. IxiiL 12.

* Icarltun pelagus Mycalnaqne Uttora Jnncti
Marsya Mnanderque petnnt : sed Maraya relox.
Dam Buus est, flexnqae oarens, Jam flnmine mixtos,
MoUitor, Mvandre, tuo. Clavdiam. in Sutrop. ii. 265.

* Quiqne colunt Pitanen, et qum tua monera, Pallas,
Lugent damnate Phoebo rictore Cel»n». Lvc. iii. 205.



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148 PHRYGIA. Book II.

tempt, the Phrygian names of Midas and Manes being given to
slaves. Phrygia was divided into four portions — Balat&iii, the
central and kro^est ; Paoati&na. on the borders of Caria ; EpietStni
(i, e. " acquired") in the N. ; and ParorioB» the mountainous region
in the S. Epictetus was so named as having been transferred from
the Uithynian to the Pergamenian kings about b.c. 190 : the two first
designations did not come into vogue until the 4th century a.d.

§ 12. The foimdation of many of the Phrygian towns was car-
ried back to the mythical ages ; such was the case with CelsBnie,
Hierapolis, and Metropolis. Cekenae appears to have ranked as the
capital in the time of Cyrus the Younger, and Colossas was then an
important place. These towns waned with the rise of those foimded
by the Syrian monarchs, viz. Apamea and Laodicea. Many of
the Phrygian towns were places of extensive tra4e under the Romans,
particularly the two just mentioned. Some important roads passed
through Phrygia : the great lines of communication between Ephesus
and the East centred at Synnada, whence roads led to Cilicia, to
Caesarea in Cappadocia, and thence to Armenia, and again northwards
to Dorylaeum and Bithynia.

Commencing in the N.E. of the province, Dorylsram, Eski-Shehr,
was centrally situated on a small stream which flows into the Thym-
bres, with hot baths in the neighbourhood ; LyBimachus made an in-
trenched camp there. Synn&da stood on a plain in the centre of the
province, and was particularly famous for its marble, which was
streaked with purple veins :* ruins of the town exi^t at Eeki-Kara-Hissar.
Igmu lay S.K of Synnada, and is only famous for the great battle
fought there in B.C. 301, between Antigonus and Demetrius on the one
side, and Cassander, Lysimachus, Ptolemy, and Seleucus on the other.
Philomellum was on the high road between Synnada and Iconium, not
far from the Pisidian Antioch : its ruins are at AhShehr. OelsenflB was
situated at the source of the Ms&ander, with an acropolis on a hill to
the N.E. : Cvrus the Younger had a palace and park there, and the
sources of the Mssander are said to have been in the palace: the
Catarrhactes, which Xenophon describes as risluK in the agora, was the
same as the Marsyas : the inhabitants, and probably the materials, of
Celsense, were removed to the neighbouring Apamea, and the place dis-
appeared. ApamSa, sumamed ClbStns, was founded by Antiochus
Soter, and named after his mother Apama : it stood a little lower down
the Moiander at Denair^ where are the ruins of a theatre and other
buildings; the name "Cibotus" (from «ci/3»t<{s, "a coffer") may have
referred to its wealth as a commercial emporium, for which its posi-
tion on the great high road adapted it : it was much damaged by earth-
quakes, particularly in the reini of Claudius, but it continued a flou-
rishing place to a late period. ColosMB, on the Lycus, was an important

< Sola nitet flaris Noipadmn dcdsa metallis

Purpura, tola, cavo PhrygiflD quam S.nmados antro

Ipse cruentarit maculis lucentibuB Attys.— Stat. /^h. i. 5, 86.

Pretiosaque picto
Mannore, purpurds oedit oul Synniuia renlB.

Ci^UD. in Etitr, 11. 272.



Chap. IX. TOWNS. I49

place at the time when Xerxes visited it in B.a 481, and Cyrus in
B.C. 401 ; but it fell as the neighbouring city of Laodicea rose, and
was but a small place in Strabo's time; it was finally supplanted by
a town called Chonise, about 3 miles to the S., which still eziets as
CtionoB: at Colossae the Lycus is said by Herodotus to have disappeared
in a chasm for about half a mile : a gorge still exists, which is probably
the chasm referred to, the upper surface having fallen in -J Colossse was
one of the early Churches of Asia, to which St. Paul wrote an Epistle.
Laod ic M, lower down the Lycus, was so named after Laodice, the wife
of Antiochus Theos, its reputed founder : it suffered severely in the
Mithridatic war, but soon revived, and became one of the greatest com-
mercial towns of Asia Minor, especially as a mart for wool : it was also
the seat of one of the Seven Churches, to which St. l»aul addressed an
Epistle (Col. iv. 16) : it was then a very wealthy town, and continued to
flourish dovra to the middle ages : the ruins of it at Eski-Hiasar consist
of a stadium, gymnasium, theatres, and aqueduct, erected for the most
part dunng the Roman period. Hieorapolis was 5 miles N. of Laodicea
on the road to Sardis ; it was famous for its hot springs, and for a cave
whence issued mephitic vapours : a Christian Church was planted there
CCol. iv. 13), and at a later period it claimed to be the metropolis of
Phrygia : it was the birthplace of Epictetus : extensive ruins of it exist
at Pambuk-KcdeMi.

Azani (Texier's • Asia Mineure').

Among the less impoi-tant towns we may briefly notice — If idaTum,
in the S.K., on the road between Dorylaeum and Pessinus, where
Sextus Pompeiua was captured by the genei-als of M. Antony — Metro-
polis, N. of Synnsda, at Pismesh Kalasi, the capital of the ancient kmgs

Sic ubi terreno Lycus est epotun hiatu,

Kxsi.«tit procul hinc, alioque renascitur ore.— Ov. Met. xv. 273.


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150 GALATIA. Book IL

of Phrygia, and the place whera Midas was buried— Pdte, near the
source of the Mseander, but of uncertain position, visiled by Cyrus tbt-
Younger — Cerftmon AgSra, on the borders of Mysia, probably at Vshak —
CayitfiOampQii a place noticed by Xenophon on Cyrus's route, not con-
nected with the well-known river Cayster, but on the E. border of
Phrygia, near the lake named Eber GAteuZ— Enmeiiia, N.W. of Apamea,
so named by Attains II. after his brother Eumenes — Blaandnf, pro-
bably the ancient name of a town the ruins of which are seen at
Suleimafdi, consisting of an acropolis, theatre, gateway, and a beautiful
temple — ^Ane^ntt a small town in the N.W. angle, near the lake of
Simault near which also stood Synaus — and Ai&ni, a plaoe on the
Hhyndacus, historically unknown, but from its remains evidently an
important place : a beautiful Ionic temple, theatre, and other buildings
at Tchavdour-Hissar, mark its site.

Hiitory. — Phrygia was the seat of a vei^ ancient dynasty, in which
the names of Qordius and Midas are promment. This was terminated
in B.C. 560 by Croesus, who incorporated Phrygia with his kingdom.
Thenceforward its history is merged in that of the surrounding coun-
tries, as it never afterwards attained an independent position. The
Romans indeed declared it a free country after the death of Mithri-
datee V., in B.C. 120, but soon afterwards they divided it into juris-
dictiones, and in o.c. 88 they assigned the districts of Laodioea,
Apamea, and Synnada, to Cilicia, from which they were at length
permanently transferred to the province of Asia in b.c. 49. In the
new division of the empire in the 4th century a.d., Parorios was added
to Phrygia, and a district on the Mscander to Caria: the rest was
divided into Salutaris and Pacatiana.

St. Paul*s TraveU.St, Paul visited Phrygia in his second journey
as he pftssed firom Lycaonia into Galatia (Acts zvi. 6) : the route he
followed is purely conjectural, as no particulars are given in reference
to it : he probably followed the course of the Roman road which
diverged from Synnada to Cilicia, and passed through the towns of
Laodicea in Pisi(Ua and Philomelium, whence perhaps he diverged to
Antioch, and struck into ihe high road again near Synnada : thence he
took the high road to Ancyra in Galatia. On his return from Galatia
he probably traversed the northern district by Cotyaeum and Azani to
Mysia. In his third journey he again visited Phi^sia (Acts xviii. 23);
on this occasion he passed out of the province to Epnesus, probably by
the valley of the Hermus.

XI. Galatia.

§ 1'?. Galatia, or Oallo-ChnBda, bordered in the W. on Phrygia, in
the N. on Bithynia and Paphlagonia, in the E. on Pontus, and in
the S. on Lycaonia and Cappadocia. ITie northern portion of the
province is rough and mountainous : the southern is also uneven,
but has extensive and fertile plains, adapted for sheep-feeiling.
The eastern district was regarded in ancient times as the most
fertile. The chief mountain ranges of Galatia are Olympus in the
N. and Dindjhnns in the W., both of which have been previously
noticed. A range named ICag&ba rises in the central district near
Ancyra, and another, named AdathUf Elmah Doufh^ on the border
of Phrygia. ITie river Halyi in its middle course bisects Galatia


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from S. to N., and then skirts its northern larder for some distance,
receiving several unimportant feeders. Galatia also contains the
upi^er course of the Sangarins, with its tributaries the SiWris, which
rises W. of Ancyra, and joins the main stream near Juliopolis, and
the Soopas, Aladan, which has a parallel course more to the W.

§ 14. The inhabitants of Galatia were a Celtic race, who migrated
westward from their settlements in Gaul," and entered Asia Minor
under the chieftainship of liconorius and Lutarius in three bands
named Tolistoboii, Tectosftges, and Trocmi. They were engaged by
Nicomedes I. king of Bithynia, B.C. 278, to act as mercenaries in his
army against his brother Zybcetes. Having succeeded m this war,
and having received some land as a reward, they divided into three
bands, and ravaged the whole of the surrounding districts, lliey

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