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were resisted and defeated by Antiochus Soter in the first instance,
then by Attains of Pergamum in B.C. 238, afterwards by Prusias I.
of Bithynia in 216, again by the Roman consul Manlius in 189,
and finally by Eumenes of Pergamum in 167, after which they
settled quietly down in the district to which they gave their name.
This had been previously occupied by Phrygians, Paphlagonians,
and Greeks, of whom the latter were predominant in influence at
the time the Gauls entered, as their language was usually spoken,
and was adopted even by the invaders for literary purposes. ITie
three tribes ot the Gauls divided the country between them, the
Tolistoboii occupying the W., the Tectosages the centre, and the
Trocmi the E. Each tribe was divided into four parts, named
tetrarchies. The twelve tetrarchs formed a senate, and were assisted
by a council of 300 deputies, who met at Dryna?mStum. llie
Gauls adopted the Phrygian and Greek superstitions, and became
thoroughly Graecised, as their name Gallo-Graeci implies : but they
appear to have retained their native tongue down to the 4th
century a.d.

§ 15. The only important towns in Galatia were Pesslnus the
capital of the Tolistoboii, and Ancyra the capital of the Tectosages :
these were situated on the great high road of the Romans from
Ephesus to the E., and were places of great commercial importance :
at Ancyra the road from Ephesus fell in with that leading from
Byzantium. Tavium, the capital of the Trocmi, in the E. of the
province, was also a considerable place. The only Roman colony
was Germe.

Pafdniu was situated on the S. side of Mount Dindymus, and owed
its chief celebrity to the worship of Agdistis, or Cybele, whose temple
was magnificently adorned by the kings of Pergamum, and was visited
from all parts of the world : the ruins of a theatre and other buildings,

* Galatffi and KoltSB are but different forms of the same word : and OalatsB and
Galli are respectively the Greek and Latin designations of the come race.


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152 BITHYNIA. Book 11.

about 10 miles S.E. of Sevri-Hissar, show that Pessmus was a remark-
ably fine town. Aneyra was ceutrally situated to the N.E. of Pessious,
and appears in history as the place where Manlius defeated the Tectu-
sages in b.c. 1 89 : the most famous building was a temple of Augustus,
with an inscription, named Mamior Ancyranum, containing a record
of his achievements : this is still in existence, as also are various
sculptured remains of the citadel : Angora is still a very important
place. Tavinm was chiefly celebrated for its temple of Jupiter : the
position of the town is probably marked by the ruins of Boghaz Kieui,
at some distance from the E. bank of the Halys.

Of the less important towns we may notice— Genna, Yorma, between
Pessinus and Aneyra, a Aoman colony — Blnoiiim, belonging to the
Toli8toboii,*the residence of Deiotanis — OorbSni, S.E. of Aneyra —
and Daa&la, a town of the Trocmi, where Cn. Pompeius and Lucullus
had an interview. Some places have names of a more or less Celtic
character, as Eccobriga ana Di7naBmetura.

History, — The history of Qalatia commences with the time when one
of the tetrarclis, Deiotanis, was investe<l by the Romans with the
rights of sovereignty, not only over the Toliatoboii, but also over
Pontus and Armenia Minor. He was succeeded by his son Deiotarus,
Cicero's friend, and he by Amyntas, who received from M. Antony
Pisidia in B.C. 39, and Qalatia with other districts in 36. Amyntas died
B.C. 25, and his territories were formed into a province by Augustus.

St. Paul 8 I'raveU. — St. Paul visited Galatia in his second missionary
journey: his roxite through the province is piwely conjectural, no town
whatever being specified in the narrative (Acts xvi. 6) : he probably
entered it on the side of Phrygia at Pessinus, and visited Aneyra,
returning by the same route. He again visited Oalatia on his third
journey, probably entering it from 0%ppadocia, and leaving it by way
of riirygia (xviii. 23). He afterwaixls addressed an Epistle to tl\e
Galatian Church.


§ 16. Bithynia was bounded on the N. by the Euxine, on the
N.W. by the Propontis, on the S.W. by Mysia, on. the S. by
Phrj'gia, on the S.E. by Galatia, and on the N.E. by Paphlagonia :
the limit in the latter direction was generally fixed at the river
Parthenius. It is throughout a mountainous district, but fertile,
IMirticularly the part W. of the Sangarius, which contains some fine
plains : wood was abundant, and extensive forests still exist in the
diatrict E. of the Sangarius. The scenery of the western district
ab(>ut the shores of the Propontis is magnificat. Among the special
products for which Bithynia was famed, we may notice the cheese
ot Saldna near Bithynium, aconite (so named from Acona% where it
was found), marble, and crystal.

§ 17. llie chief mountain range is Olympus, of which there are
two great divisions — one on the border of Mysia near Prusa, and
another on the border of Gaktia : the former is capped with snow
to the end of March. We have also to notice the lesser ranges of
ArfraBthonioit between the bays of Astacus and Gins, in the W. ;
and Onniniiun. in the N.E. of the province. The coast of the Pro-


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pontis is irregular : two bays penetrate far into the interior, sepa-
rated from each other by Arganthonius : they were named CUniu
Ci&rast and Sin. AstaoSnust after the towns of Cius and Astacus :
the mountain range terminates in Prom. Potidinm, C. Bozburun : a
second promontory named Aerltas, C, Akrita, stands at the northern
entrance of the Bay of Astacus. The northern coast runs nearly
due E. from the mouth of the Bosporus to some distance beyond
the Sangarius, the only marked features being the i)romontorie8 of
XeUena, C TshUi, near the Bosporus, and Calpe, with an adjacent
port, now Kirpe Liman, W. of the Sangarius.

§ 18. ITie chief rivers of Bithynia are — the Sangariiu, which
bisects the province from S to N., in an extremely devious course —
the BiUsBoi, Filyas, more to the E., which divides into two branches
in its upper course — and the Partheniai» Bartan-Su, on the eastern
frontier. Of the smaller streams we may notice — the Bhebai* which
joins the Euxine near the Bosporus, commemorated in the story of
the Argonauts' — the PtUif* more to the E. — the HypiiiSt E. of the
Sangarius, at the mouth of which the fleet of Mithridates wintered
— and the dales or Calext near Heraclea, the sudden rise of which
destroyed the ships of LAmachus, as they were lying off its mouth.
A large lake named Asoaoiat about 10 miles long by 4 wide, lies E.
of the Bay of Cius.

§ 19. The inhabitants of the western part of Bithynia were an
immigrant race from Thrace, who displaced the previous occupants,
the Mysians, Phrygians, and others. They were divided into two
tribes, named lliyni ^ and Bithyni, the former on the sea-coast, the
latter in the interior. The coast E. of the Sangarius was held by
the Mariandyni. The chief towns in Bithynia were situated either
on or adjacent to the shores of the Propontis. The Greeks occupied
with their colonies the most eligible spots on the coasts : thus the
Megarians settled at Chalc5don and Astftcus, and at Heraclea
Pontica on the Euxine ; the Milesians at Cius ; the Colophonians
at Myrl€a. The successors of Alexander founded the flourishing
town of Nicaea, and the Bithynian kings the future capital,

Svftpo^a vtrpAmv atncrfiit^ «r£o9i TL^trrwi^
AvTura l^iBwmv hri Scf id yauiy exorret

'PijjSoir iitvpAiiv vorofiby, Jicpifr re M^Xau^v
Frcifi^ayrtf , yrj^ov 9vin}t5oc 6pitov ticifcr^.

Apoll. Arffon, ii. 349.
Neo prins obseflsom scopnlis respexit ad ODqaor,
Aut sociiB tontata qaies, nigrmntia qnam Jam
Littora, longinqoiqae exirent flamina Rheb®.

Val. Flacc. ir. 696.

Thyni Thraces arant, qusD nunc Bithynia fertur.

Clavdiak. in Eutrop. li. 247.
H 3


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154 BITHTNIA. Book !!•

Nioomedia. The Roman emperors did much for the enUrgement
and adornment of these towns, attracted partly by the beauty of the
scenery, and partly by the convenience of the locality in respect to
their Eastern possessions : they also constructed an important road
from Byzantium to Ancyra, where it fell into the grand route from
Ephesus to Armenia. Hadrian particularly favoured this province.
The towns continued to flourish to the latest ages of the empire.

Qftte of Ntccft (Texier*! • Asia Mineore ').

PmsA, Bnniamed '' ad Olympum," stood at- the northern baae of
Olympus, and is said to hrive been named after King Pnisias, who
founded it by the advice of Hannibal : it was celebrated for its warm
baths : it is now, under the name of Brusa, one of the most flourishing
towns of Asia Minor. Vieaa was situated at the E. end of Lake
Aacania, on the edge of a wide and fertile plain : it was built by Anti-
gonus on the site of an earlier town, probably after his victory over
Eomenes in b.c. 316, and it received the name of Antigonia, for which
Lyaimachus substituted that of Nicsea in honour of his wife : it soon
rose to eminence, and the Bithynian kings often resided there : it vied
with Kicomedia for the title of metropolis : it is chiefly famous for the
Council held there, ▲.d. 325, in which the Nioene creed was drawn up :
having suffered from earthquakes, it was restored by Yalens in a.d. 368 :
the remains of its walls are still visible at lanik. (^s stood at the
I ead of the inlet named after it, and on a river of the same name,'

'a)*^' 'Afrfav$mvno¥ 5pov, vpoxoaf re Kiioco.

Apoll. Argon, i 1178.


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Chap. IX. TOWNS — HISTORY. 1 55

which communicated with Lake Aflcania : the town was taken by the
Persians, B.C. 499, and again bv Philip, son of Demetrius, who de-
stroyed it : it was soon after rebuilt by Prusias, who gave it his own
name. Kiflomedia, on the N. coast of the Bay of Astacus, was founded
by Nicomedes I., b.c. 2(54, and peopled with the inhabitants of Astacus;
under the native kings it became the capital of Bithynia: the Roman
emperors frequently resided there, especially during their eastern warii :
it was a Roman colony, the birthplace of Arrian the historian, and the
place where Hannibal died:' the modem I$mid, whirh occupies its
site, contains many ancient remains. ChiUiiadon stood near the junction
of the Bosporus with the Propontis, and nearly opposite to Byzantium :
it was founded by Megarians, about b.c 674, and was a place of con-
siderable trade: it was taken by the Persians after the Scythian expedi-
tion of Darius, and in the Peloponnesian War anpears to have sided at
one time with the Athenians, at another with the Lacedemonians : in
the Mithridatic War it was occupied by the Romans, but was taken by
Mithridatee; it afterwards became a free city : on its site the village of
Kadi-Kioi now stands. The Megarian colony of Hemelea Pontica was
the most important place in the £. of Bithynia, possessing fwo good
harbours, and exercising a supremacy over the whole adjacent coast:
it sunk, however, imder the kmgs of Bithynia, and received its death-
blow in the Mithridatic War, when it was plundered by the Romans
under Cotta. In the interior, to the S. of Heraclea, stood Bithynium
or dandiopolil, as it was probably named in the time of Tiberius ; it was
reputed to have been founded by Qreeks, and noted for the rich pastures
about it : it was the birthplace of Hadrian's favourite, Antinous. Still
more to the S. was the ancient town of CtordiTUiif the residence of the
Phrygian kings, and well known as the place where Alexander severed
the " Qordian knot : '* it was rebuilt in the time of Augustus, with the
name of Juliopolis.

Among the less important towns of Bithynia we may briefly notice
— ^DaaeyUmn, on the border of Mysia, where, in the time of Xenophon,
the Persian satraps hod a residence and park— l^lSa, on the shore of
the Bay of Cius, presented by Philip of Macedonia to his ally Prusias,
who changed its name to ApamSa ; it was afterwards a Roman colony
— Drvpkiie, on the S. coast of the Bay of Astacus, the birthplace of
Helena, the mother of Constantino, by whom it was enlarged and
named HdanopdUB — ^Aft&eu, at the hdd of the bay named after it,
a Megarian colony, destroyed by Lysimachus in his war with Zipoetes
— lAbymtkf between Nicomedia and Chalcedon, the burial-place of
Hannibal — Ohryiopdlii, Scutari^ opposite to Byzantium, the spot where
the Athenians, by the advice of Aicibiades, levied toll on all vessels
passing in or out of the Euxine, and the scene of the defeat of Licinius
oy Constantine the Great, ▲ d. 323.

History. — The history of Bithvnia commences with the accession of
Doedalsus to the sovereignty about b.0. 435, aAd terminates with

> 'Post ItaU beUa

AMyrlo fiuniiluB regl, fgdsasque cnpiti
AasonisB mota«, dabio petet SDqaora velo ;
Donee, Prosiacas delatos aegniter oras,
Altera serritia imbelli patietor in sdvo,
Et latebram, mtmoB n^gni, Perstantilrafl inde
.Sneadis, reddiqae stU posoenttboB hoetem,
Pocula fortlvo rapiet properata veneno,
Ae tandem terras longa formidine folvet.— Sn^ Ital. xiii. 885.


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Nicomedes III., who bequeathed his kingdom to the Romans, b.c. 74.
Of the eight kings who intervene between these, the most illustrious
were Nicomedes I., who founded the capital; Prusias I., who received
and betraved Hannibal; and his son Prusias II., who carried on war
with the king of Pergamus. After the death of Nicomedes III. the
Romans reduced Bithynia to a province, and, after the death of
Mithridates, annexed to it the western part of the Poniio kingdom.
Under Augustus Bithvnia was assigned to the senate ; out Hadrian
gave Pamphylia in exchange for it.

In the Bible Bithynia is casually mentioned in two passages (Acts
xvi. 7 ; 1 Pet. i. 1 ), from the first of which we learn that Si, Paul
designed to enter it, but failed to do so. It derives an interest from
the correspondence of its governor Pliny with Tr^an, in relation to
the persecution of the Christians, as well as from the great council of
Nicsea, to which we have already adverted.

XIII. Papblaqonia.

§ 20. ^aphlagtmia was bounded on the W. by Bithynia, on the
N. by the Euxino, on the E. by Pontus, and on the S. by Galatia ;
it thus occupied the coast-district between the rivers I'arthenius
and Halys, and extended inland to the range of OljTupus. At one
time the Paphlagonians appear to have advanced beyond the Halys.
Paphlagonia is on the whole a rough and mountainous country, but
contains in its northern parts some extensive and fertile plains, on
which even the olive flourished. Its hills were well clothed with fo-
rests, and the boxwood of Mount Cyt5nis was particularly celebrated.*
Paphlagonia was especially noted for its horses, mules, and antelopes.
A kind of red chalk was found there in abundance.

§ 21. The chief mountain range, named Olgasfyt, Ulgctz, extends
from the Halys towards the S.W., and sends its ramifications some-
tiroes to the very shores of the Euxine ; of these, CytSmi %vas the
one best known to the ancients. The coast protrudes northwards
in a curved form, and has two promontories, Oarambis, C. Kerempe^
and i^rrias, C. IndjCy more to the E. The only important rivers
are the border - streams Halys and Parthenins, which have been
already noticed : numerous small rivers intervene, of which we may
enumerate, from W. to E., the Ses&mus, Amastris, Ochosbftnes,
Evarchus, and ZalScus. The Amniai, a tributary of the Halys, is
noted for the engagement that took place on its banks, in which
Nicomedes was defeated by the generals of Mithridates, B.C. 88.

§ 22. The Paphlagonians, who are noticed even in the Homeric
poems,* appear to have been allied in race to the Cappadocians.
They are described as a superstitious and coarse people, but brave,

* £t Jurat ondantem bnxo spectaro Cytomm,

Naryciieqae picU locos. Vibo. Georg. ii. 437.

8«ipe Cytoriaco dedndt pectine orines. Ov. Mel. iv. 311.
Amastri Fontica et Cytore baxifcr. Catvll. It. 13.

5 Ila^Aaytfrwr ^icyatfv||M>v ianx/rrifiiv, II, T. 577.


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Chap.IX. towns— history. 157

and particularly noted for their cavalry. In addition to the Paph-
lagonians, the more ancient races of the Hendti and Caucones con-
tinued to occupy certain districts. The towns lined the coast, and
were for the most part Greek colonies, such as Amastris and Sindpe,
the latter of which was by far the most important in the country,
together with the lesser towns Cromna, Cytorus, Aboniteichos, and
Carusa. In the interior Gangra and PompeiopoUs were at different
eras leading towns.

Amattris, in the W., occupied a peninsula, on each side of which
was a harbour: its name was originally Ses&mus, which was changed in
honour of Amastris, niece of the last Persian kin^ Darius, and which
appears to have extended beyond the old town of Sesamus to a tetra-
polis of which Te'ium, Cytorus, and Cromna were the other members.
Amastris was a handsome city, and flourished until the 7th century of
our era. Sinope^ was situated on a peninsula E. of Prom. Syrias: its
foimdation was attributed to the Ai^onauts : it was colonized by the
Milesians, seized from them by the Cimmerians, and recovered by the
Ephesians, b.c. 632 : in the time of Xenophon it possessed a fine fleet,
and was mistress of the Euxine: it was unsuccessfully besieged by
Mithridates IV. in b.c. 220, but successfully by Phamaces in 183:
thenceforth it was the residence of the kings of Pontus, and gave birth
to Mithridates the Great : Lucullus Cf4)tured it, and restored its inde-
pendence : it became a Roman colony in the time of Julius Caesar. It
IS further known as the birthplace of Diogenes the Cynic : the modem
8ifwb is still an important place, and contains a few relics of the old
town. Pompekpolif, on the Anmias, probably owed its name and exist-
ence to Pompey the Great. Oaagra was S. of Moimt Olgassys, and was
the residence of Deiotarus the last king of Paphlagonia : it was made,
after the 4th century a.d., the capital of the province, with the name
C^rmanicopolis. We may further briefly notice — Aboniteichos, the
birthplace of the impostor Alexander, at whose request the name was
chuiged to lonopolis — and the small harboiu>s of fflmftlii, Steph&ne,
Pot&mi, ArmSne which the 10,000 visited, and Carflaa: all these were
trading stations.

History, — Until the time of Crcesus, Paphlagonia was under its
native princes : it was then annexed to the Lydian empire, and passed
with the rest of it to the Persians, under whom the native princes
regained their independence. After Alexander's death Paphlagonia
fell to the share of Eumenes, but again reverted to its princes, imtil it
was incorporated with Pontus by Mithridates. Under the Romans it
was imited first to Bithynia, and afterwards to Galatia, but in the 4th
century ▲.D. was made a separate province.


§ 23. Pontioi bordered in the W. on Paphlagonia, in the S. on
Cappadocia, in the E. on Armenia and Colchis, and in the N. on

* Moz etiam CronmoD Juga, pallentemque Cytoron,
Teque cita penltus oondont, Eiythea, carina.
Jamque redoeebat noctem polos : alta Carambis
Raditur, et magiUD pelago tremlt umbra Slnopes.
Aisyrios eomplexa fdnos stat opima Sinope.

Val. Flacc. v. 106.


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]fi^ rONTUS. Book II.

the Euxine : the Halys, the ranges of Antitaurus and Paryadres,
and the Phasis, formed its natural boundaries in the three former
directions. It derived its name from the " Pontus,** i,e, the Euxine,
on which it bordered. Though this district is surrounded with
lofty mountains, which send their ramifications to the very shores
of the Euxine, yet the plains on the coast, especially those in the
western parts, were extremely fertile, and produced, in addition to
grain, excellent fruit. Honey, wax, and iron were among its most
valuable productions.

§ 24. The chief mountain ranges are ParTadres in the N., and
8e<BdlMf in the E., which have been already noticed. The former
sends out two branches, Lithms and Ophllnms* to the N., which
form the eastern boundary of the fruitful plain of Phanaroca : the
position of TheohM cannot be fixed with certainty ; it must have
been considerably E. of Trapezus, as no distant view of the Euxine
can be obtained from any point due S. of that place. The most
important headlands from W. to E. are — H*''^^^", which bounds
the bay of Anusus on the E. ; Jasoninmt near Side ; Zephyrivnif
near TripoUs ; CoralU. near Cersasus ; and HUnm* more to the E.
Two bays occur on this coast, the Siniu Amitinns, O. of Samsun,
between the mouth of the Halys and Prom. Heracleum ; and Sin.
Cotyomnii between the promontories of Jasonium and Coralla. The
most important rivers are — ^the Halyii which both rises and
terminates in this province — the Iris, Kascdmakf which rises in Anti-
taurus in the S. of Pontua, and flows at first to the N.W. as far as
Comana ; then to the W. until it receives the Lycus, Kulei Hissar^
a stream almost as large as itself, from the mountains of Armenia
Minor; and finally to the N., in which direction it traverses the
plain of Themiscyra to the sea — the ThennSdon, Thermehf which
rises near Phanorcea, and joins the sea near lliemiscyra, famed for
its connexion with the Amazons^ — the Aiw^mpftf or Apiirnf*
Tchortik, which rises in Armenia, and joins the sea at its 8.E. point
—and the Phasis, on the border of Colchis. The less important

' Qualis Amasonidam nadatis beUica mmmmis

ThennodontiacUi torma Tagatnr agrif. — Pxopkst. iii. 14, 15.
Et tn, flBmineos Thennodon cognite tarma».

Ov. ex JPont, ir. 10, 61.
'Aarpoye/rovov M xP'h

B^KOi KdXwvOoif, ivtt *Afia^<(rMF crparby
*I^( <rrvyd[vop*, at OcfUtncvpoy irort
KaTOucunkriy ofi^ %tpitMoi¥^t *>^

'Ex^ofcvot ronhwt^, Mfi'pvul ¥m»v. JEacn. Prom, 7fL.

Qnales ThreYeUD cum flnmina Thermodontia
PalMnt, et piotii beUantur Amazonet armis.

ViKO. JSn. xi. 659.


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streams from W. to £. are — the Lycastus, near Amisus; the
Chasidias, near lliemiscyra ; the SidCnus, near Side ; the TripOlis,
near the town of the same name ; and the Hyssus, more to the E.

§ 25. The popidation of Pontus consisted of a nmnber of tribes,
whose mutoal relations are very obscure. Among the more promi-
nent names appear the Leucosyri, who were the same as the
(jappadocians ; the Tibarfini, identical with the Tubal of Scripture ;
the Chalybes,' who occupied the iron districts of Paryadres ; the
Colchi, about Trapezus, allied to the proper Colchians ; the Mticrdnes
or Sanni, who lived S.E. of Trapezus ; and the Bechlres, on the
sea-coast in the same neighbourhood. The chief towns were of two
classes — the commercial ports on the coast, in most of which the
Greeks settled, such as Amisus, Trapezus, Cotyora, and others of
less importance ; and the towns of the interior, which were either
strongholds of the Pontic kings, or entrep6ts of trade with Central
Aisia : these were in many instances enlarged by the Romans. In
the latter class we have Amasia and ComSna in the valley of the
Iris, Cabira on the Lycus, and Sebastia in the upper valley of the
Halys. The period at which the coast-towns became known dates
from the return of the 10,000 : the interior was first opened to the
world by the Mithridatic wars. The history of the towns is com-
paratively uninteresting, and they do not appear to have possessed
much architectural beauty.

Amiros stood on the W. side of the bay named after it, on a pro-
montory about 1 ^ miles N. W. of the Btill flourishing town of Sarmun :
its origin is uncertain, but it became, next to Sinope, the most
flourishing of the Qreek settlements, and was occasionally the residence
of liithridates Eupator : it was captured by Lucullus, B.C. 71, and
again by Phamaces, but restored to freedom by Csesar after the battle
of 2^1a : remains of the ancient pier, and of Hellenic walls at E$ki
8am8un, merk its site. Polemoniiim was placed at the mouth of the
Sidenus, and probably owed its name and existence to Polemon, king
of those parts, who made it his capital. Pharnada was founded by
Phamaces, grandfather of Mithridates VI., and peopled with the
Cotyorseans : it was prosperous from its commerce, and from the
neighbouring iron- works : it is now named KeraamU, from the idea that
it occupied the site of Cerasus. Irap«nu, a Sinopian colony, was built

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