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the sea, and about 14,350 above the valley, and terminates in a double
conical peak, the lower or Lesser Ararat being about 4-00 feet below
the other. The mountain is veiy steep, as implied in the Turkish
name, and the summit is covered with eternal snow. Until recently it
was believed to be inaccessible, but the sunimit was gained by Parrot
in 1B29, and the ascent has been eJSected since his time. A terrible
earthquake occurred in the year 1840, which shattered the northern
ride of the mountain and carried vast masses of rock into the valley,
doing immense damage.

It is important ta observe how admirably Armenia is adapted by
its geographical position to be the central spot whence the streams uf
population should pour forth on all sides of the world. The plateau
of Armenia is the most elevated region of Western Asia, some of the
plains standing at an elevation of 7000 feet above the level of the
sea. It is equidistant from the Caspian and Euxine seas in the
N., and from the Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf in the S.
Around those seas the earliest settlements of civilised man were
made, and they became the high' roads of commerce and colonization.
Armenia had oonmmnication with them by means of the rivers which
riae in its central district, the Euphrates opening the path to Syria
and the Mediterranean in one direction, as well as to the Persian
GKilf in the other ; the Tigris leading down to Assyria and Susiana ;
the Araxes and Cyms descending to the Caspian, the latter also
famishing ready access to the Euxine by the commercial route
which connected its valley with that of the Phasis. Westward the
plateau of Armenia merges into that of Asia Minor, and eastward it
is connected with the large plateau of Iran, the ancient Persis. If

6 2


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3ns, that in all directions the contrasts of
oductions, were such as to invite emigra-

the scene of the first dispersion of the

lents of any importance in the ancient
of Shinar" (Gen. xi. 2), the later Chal-
e of the Euphrates, and the shores of the
ion with these settlements the Bihlical
i to a time when " the whole earth was
speech " (Gen. xi. 1), and assigns to that
f those distinctive features of race and
lied in the tripartite division of Noah's
nites," and Japhetites.
ideed the only systematic statement that
ution of these three great divisions over
ntained in the 10th chapter of Genesis,
the form of a genealopj: but a large
information is contained in it, the inten-
to specify not only the nations, but the
d, and thus to present to his readers a
ted in his time. Some of the names are
itions : Aram, for instance, means ** high
ds ;" Eber, the land ** across " the river
g station ;*' Madai, ** central land ;" Miz-
the "twoEgypts;" Ophir, "rich" land,
ble that the three great divisions of the

a geographical meaning : Japheth, the
of the north ; Ham, the " black " soil of
nountainous " coimtry.

7orld appears to have been divided into
ral, and southern, which were occupied
lants of Japheth, Shem, and Ham. The
) in most cases identified with the classical

m, TonianSf in Greece and Asia Minor;
me countries; Dodanim, Dardani, in Illy-
Thrace ; Riphath, Bhipan Monies ^ more to

in Cjrprua ; Ashkenaz, near the Axiwis,
ria; Gomer, Cimmerii, in Cappadocia and in
J (?), in Cilicia, but at a later age tmdoubt-
>al/ Tibareni, in Pontus; Meshech, Moschif

:fi northern Armenia, the Biblical name

'H Ar'^®^'*^? *"d Madai in Media.

^tf.ffiais, in Siisiuna; Asshur, in Aast/ria;
^{uern Assyria; Lud, Li/dia ; Aram, in
^;'*^ndant8 of Joktan, in Arabia.
^^ gelation for the dark races, like the
V O^'f ^^^^ ^° Libya; Kaphttthim and


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Chap. 1.


LebftbiiD on the coast of the MediterraooaD, west of Egypt; Caphton'm
in Crete; Cafilahim fi-om the Nile to the border of Pdestine; Pathru-
sim in the Thebais; Seba in Meroc; Sabtah on the western coast of
Bab-el-Mandnb ; Havilah still moi-e to the south; Sabt^chah in the
Somanli country; the various tribes of the Canaanites in Palatine and
Phoenicia; Nimrod in Babylonia; Raamah and Dedan, on the south-
western coast of the Persian Qulf.

Map of the Distribution of thu Human Race, according to the 10th chapter of Genosia.

S 6. The limits of the known world in the Mosaic age may be
fixed at the following points : in the N. the Euxine Sea ; in the S.
the Indian Ocean, and Ethiopia ; in the E. the range of Zagi-us,
which bounds the Mesopotamian plains and in the W. the Libyan


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Desert and -^Egfcan Sea. The knowledge of the Hebrews did not
extend much beyond these limits at any period of the Old Testa-
ment history; even within those limits, some districts, as Asia
Minor, were wholly unknown ; while others, as Armenia and Assyria,
were but partly known. The only countries with which the He-
brews had intimate acquaintance were those immediately adjacent
to them — Egypt, and (in connexion with Egypt) Ethiopia, the
northern part of Arabia, Syria, Phoenicia, Mesopotamia, Assyria,
and Babylonia.

§ 7. Egypt was the land with which the Hebrews were best
acquainted : it was at the earliest period of the Bible history the seat
of a powerful emjnre, high civilization, and extended commerce.
Active communication was maintained between Canaan and Egypt
in the time of the Patriarchs, as evidenced by Abraham's visit (Gen.
xii. 10), the journey of the Ishmaelites (Gen. xxxvii. 26), and the
trade in com (Gen. xlii. 1). The lengthened residence of the an-
cestors of the Hebrews in Egypt before the Exodus, the alliance which
subsisted between the two countries in the time of Solomon, and
the asylum which was afforded to a vast number of the Jews at the
time of the Babylonish captivity — all combined to establish an inti-
mate relation with it, and account for the numerous references to it
in the Bible.

(1.) Names. — The Scriptural name ''Ham" seems to be identical
with the indigenous name of Egypt, as it appears in hieroglyphics,
" Khemmi," and refers to the black colour of the soil: the name was
retained in that of the town Chemniis. The special name in Scriptural
geogi'aphy was "Mizraim," a noun in the dual number signifying the
ttco {i.e. the Upper and Lower) Misr, the name by which Egypt is still
designated by the Arabs: it means ''red mud." Occasionally the name
occurs in the singular number, " Mazor/' in which case it is more
strictly appropiiate to Lower EgypKls. xix, 6; 2 K. xix. 24, "besieged
places," A. V.). "Mizraim" is occasionally used in the same restricted
sense (Is. xi. 11; Jer. xliv. 15). We must also notice the poetical
name, *'Rahab*' (Ps. Ixxxvii. 4, Ixxxix. 10; Is. li. 9), an image of the
strength (comp. Is. xxx. 7) or violence of the nation.

(2.) Dicisions; Vie Nile.— On this subject our ' information at an
early period is scanty. The name " Mizraim " implies that the same
twofold division, which existed in later historical times, existed in the
(earliest period^ being based on the natural features of the country.
These divisions were named by the Hebrews " Pathros " and '» Mazor,"
the former representing the Thebaid, or Upper Egypt, which the
Hebrews regarded as the " land of birth," •'. e. tne mother country of the
Egyptians (£lz. xxix. 14) : it was the abode of the Pathrusim (Qen. x. 14).
The Nile is occasionally named " Shihor" (Is. xxiii. 3; Jer. ii. 18"); but
more commonly ** Yeor" (Gen. xli. 1 ; Ex. i. 22), after the Coptic varo^
"river;" the Hebrews also applied to it sometimes the term yom^
" sea" (Is. xix. 5; Ez. xxxii. 2; Nah. iii. 8).

(3.) Toums and Districts noticed in the Bible.— The district of Goshen
or Ramises {Qen. xlvii. 11), in which the IsraeUtes were located, was


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mtoated between the Delta and the Arabian Desert, on the eaatecn ride
of the Pelosiac branch of the Nile: the valley now called UWi /-
Tameylah appears to be the exact locality: Rameses may be the name of
the name in which Goshen was situated. The towns noticed are— Migdol
(Ex. xiT. 2), Magdoltan^ on the border of the desert, the most northerly,
as Syene was the most southerly of the towns of Egypt (Ez. xxix. 10,
margin); Sin, Pelasium, well described as the ** strength of Egypt"
(£z. xxz. 15), not only from its natural position and fortifications, but
as commanding the entrance into Egypt fW>m the north ; it was situated
at the mouth of the Pelusiac branch of the Nile : Tshnpanes { Jer. ii.
16), Tabpanhes (Jer. xliv. 1), or Tehi4>hnehe8 (Ee. xxx. 18), Daphne^
in the same neighbourhood, possessing a royal palace (Jer. xlui. 9), and
evidently a place of importance (Ez. xxx. 18} : Zoan (Num. xiii. 22),
Tmis., on the Tanitic branch of the Nile, surrotmded by a fine allu-
vial plain, "the field of 2>>an" (Ps. Ixxriii. 12), the residence of the
21st and 23rd dynasties, and regarded in the time of the Prophets as
the capital of Lower Egypt (Ek.* xxx. 14); Pi-beseth (Eb. xxx, 17),
BabiHis, higher up the course of the river: Pithom, Patumusj and
Raamaes, fferoopolis (Ex. L 11), on the eastern ride of the Pelusiac arm,
which were built by the Israelites as treasure-cities, probably for
Rameses II.: On (Gen. xli. 45), or Aven (Ex. xxx. 17), "Ei-n-re** in
hieroglvphics, meaning '* abode of the sun," and hence rendered Beth-
shemesh (Jer. xliii. 13; by the Hebrews, and Ifeiiopolis hy the Greeks;
the magnificent Temple of the Sun, of which Poti-pherah was priest
(Gen. xH. 45), was approached by an avenue of sphinxes, terminated
by two fine obelisks, the '* images or rather columns to which Jeremiah
refers (xliii. 13): Moph (Hos. ix. 6\ or Noph (Jer. ii. 16), Memphis,
the city of "princes'* (Is. xix. 13), as being the capital of Lower
Egypt; it waa rituated on the left bank of the Nile, near the head of
the Delta; the "idols and images," with which it was once lavishly
adorned, have now utterly dist^peared (Ez. xxx. 13): Hanes (Is. xxx.
4), probably another form of the name Tahpanhes: No (Ez. xxx. 14;
Jer. xivi. 25), or No Ammon ("populous,** Nah. iii. 8),- ThebcSf the
ciq>ttal of Upper Egypt, " rituate among the rivers** (Nah. iii. 8), bring
probably surrounded by artificial canals communicating with the Nile :
lastly, Syene (Ez. xxix. 10, xxx. 6), on the borders of Ethiopia. Of
the above-mentioned towns, Migdol, Tahpanhes, Noph, and No were the
chief abodes of the Jewish exiles (Jer. xUv. 1).

§ 8. To the south of Egypt, the kingdom of Gush, or Ethiopia, was
one of high antiquity, possessing two capitals, Meroe (near JDqtI'
kalah) in the south, and Nap&ta (Oebel Birkel) in the north, which
owed its importance to its proximity to the border of Egypt.
Active intercourse between Egypt and Ethiopia was maintained
from the earliest ages. A large portion of the caravan-trade, from
Libjra on the one side, and the Red Sea on the other, converged to
the banks of the Nile in this district, and was thence conveyed to
Egypt. The two nations were frequently united under one sovereign :
Herodotus (ii. 100) records that eighteen Ethiopian kings ruled Egypt
before the time of Sesortasen ; and we have undoubted evidence
that in the latter part of the 8th century B.C. an Ethiopian dynasty
held sway over Egypt. Two of the kings of this dynasty are well


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known to us from Scripture : So, or Sebichus, the ally of Hoshea
king of Israel (2 K. xvii. 4), and Tirhakah, or Tarachus, who cre-
ated a diversion in favour of Judiea when Sennacherib was besieging
Jerusalem (2 K. six. 9): the latter appears not to have held undi-
vided sway, Sethos being contemjxjraneously the ruler of Lower

The Notices of Cmh in the 5i We.— These are numerous, but 4t ia
difficult to apply them all to the Ethiopia of elflBsical geography. In
the Prophets, indeed, the African Ethiopia is distinctly defined as to
the Routh of Syene (Ez. xxix. 10), the district intended being that
which surrounded the northern capital of Napata, while the moro
8o\ithem territory of MeroS is described as "beyond the rivers of
Ethiopia " (Is. xviii. I). The African Ethiopia is undoubtedly referred
to in 2 K. XIX. 9; Ps. Ixviii. 31; Is. xx. 4; Ez. xxx. 4, G. In other
passages, however, the term is extended to all the dark races of the
south ( Jer. xiii. 23) ; and in some the Asiatic or Arabian Gush seems
more particularly intended (Qen. ii. 1J3; Job xxviii. 19 ; Hab. iii. 7).

I 9. Arabia bounded Palestine on two of its sides, viz. the south
and east. Its inhabitants were in some instances connected with the
Hebrews by the ties of a common descent, and in others by the
commercial relations which from an early period existed between
the two countries. The character both of the country and of the
inhabitants prevented the Hebrews from penetrating into the country,
and making themselves acquainted with the localities : still they
must have known much relating to its physical features, its natural
productions, and its wandering tribes.

(1.) yame. — The name of "Arabia" does not occur until the time
of Solomon, and even then refers olily to a few wandering tribes in the
northern districts. The special name applied by the Hebrews to the
northern part of the country was Eretz-Kedem, i. c. " Land of the
East" (Gen. xxv. 6 ; Matt. ii. 1), while the remainder of the country
was broadly described as "the South" (Matt. xii. 42). The district
immediately S. of Palestine was named Eklom or Tdnmaa.

(2.) Places and 7b'r»w.— The notices in the Bible are chiefly confined
to the commercial districts of Arabia. Active trade was carried on
between Tyre and the tribes on the shores of the Persian Gulf, Dedan
and Haamah, as well as with Sheba and Uzal in the S. (Ez. xxvii. 15,
19, 20, 22); the "travelling companies of De<lanim" (Is. xxi. 13) were
evidently the carriers who monopolized the caravan trade of Central
Arabia: their trade consisted in ivory and ebony, which were Indian
prodtictions, and embroidered stuffs, which they probably manufac-
tured themselves. The notices of Sheba are numerous : its productions
were spices, frankincense, "the sweet cane from a far country** (Jer.
vi. 20), gold and precious stones (1 K. x. 2; Ps. Ixxii. 15; Is. Ix. 6;
Ez. xxvii. 22). The queen who visited Solomon was undoubtedly from
this country : "the comimnies of Sheba" (Job vi. 19) traded north-
wards as far as Petra. Uzal is probably noticed in Ez. xxvii. 19, as
trading with Tyre from its port Javan in "bright iron (i.e. steel),
cassia, and calamus;" the same Javan is noticed in Joel iii. 6 as import-



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Chap. I. ARABIA — SYRIA. 9

ing elaves from the N. Ophir is mentioned in connexion with the
commerce of Solomon ; if it wak on the coast of Arabia, as seems to
be implied in Qeu. x. 29, it was probably in the neighbourhood of the
modem Aden. The positions of Mesha and Sephar, which are given as
the limits of Arabia (Gen. x. 30), are uncertain; the former may be
identical with Mtua, near the entrance of the Red Sea, and the latter
with Saphar, the modern Daphar, on the southern coast. The Midiau-
ites were active traders in the N. of Arabia; they were the merchant-
men who took Joseph into Egypt (Qen. xxxvii. 28): their "camels and
dromedaries " (Is. Ix. 6) were the means by which the northern trade
wtm carried on: their wealth is noticed in Judg. viii. 26. Other tribes
adopted the pastoral nomadic life which still prevails throughout the
greater pai*t of Arabia : the '* flocks of Kedar and the rams of Nebaioth"
(Is. Ix. 7) wandered over the deserts to the E. of Palestine, and supplied
the markets of Tyre : the dark tents of the former people were so
familiar to the Jews (Ps. cxx. 5; Cant. i. 5), that the name seems to
have been adopted for the whole of Arabia (Is. xxi. 17), or perhaps
rather for the nomadic tiibes (the Bedouins) as distinct from the
dwellers in villages, whose districts were named Hazor (Jer. xlix. 28;.
The Nebaioth seem to have roamed as far as the Euphrates, for they
are noticed in the Assyrian inscriptions of Sennacherib, under the name
IfabatUy as having been defeated by him. At a later period they became
active traders, and seem to have transferred their residence to the
neighbourhood of Petra (Strab. xvi. p. 779; Diod. Sic. ii. 48). The
Hagarites (1 Chron. v. 10), or Hagarenes (Ps. Ixxxiii. 6), the Agrcsi of the
geographers, were a roaming tril^ of Ishmaelites occupying a portion of
Northern Arabia to the £. of Palestine; they are noticed in the Assy-
rian inscriptions, under the name Hagaranu, as having been defeated
by Sennacherib. The towns that deserve notice are few. Elath, jEiamt,
stood at the head of the .£lanitic Gulf; David secured it (2 Sam. viii.
14), and Solomon thence fitted out his fleet for Ophir (I K. ix. 26) : it
was subsequently lost to the kingdom of Judah in the reign of Joram
(2 K. viiL 20), regained by Uzziah (2 K. xiv. 22), and again lost through
its conquest by Rezin (2 K. xvi. 6). Ezion-Geber, on the other side of
the channel, was the port whence the fleet actually sailed. Petra is
undoubtedly noticed under the name of Selah, each of these names
meaning **rock:*' it was taken by Amaziah (2 K. xiv. 7), and after-
wards by the Moabites (Is. xvi. 1) ; its position and its natural strength
rendered it an important acquisition for military purposes; equally
great was its commercial importance, as the central spot whither the
routes from Babylon, the Persian Gulf, Southern Arabia, Egypt, and
l^re oonveiged. Bozrah was another important town of the Edomites
(Qen. zxxvL 33), whose destruction was frequently predicted by the
Prophets (Is. zzxiv. 6, Ixiii. 1; Am. i. 12): it was situated to the N.
of Petra, at Bmairah, The positions of the other ancient capitals of
the kings of Edom, Dinhabah, Avith, Rehoboth, and Pau (Qen. xxxvi.
32, »5, 37, 39), cannot be identified.

S 10. Syria was contiguous to Palestine on its northern and north-
eastern border. The Hebrews were familiar with it from an early
period : the patriarchs had passed through it on their journeys to
and from the land of Mesopotamia, and Abraham had a native of
Damascus as his steward. At a later period, in the early days of
the monarchy, David extended his domini<Hi over the whole of

B 3


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Syria to the banks of the Euphrates : Solomon retained it for the
greater part of his reign, and carried on an active tratle along its
southern frontier with Babylon and the East. Still later, tl^e
Syrians were constantly engaged in wars with the Hebrews, until
they were themselves carried into captivity by the Assyrians.

(1.) Name, — ^The Biblical name of this district was "Aram," which
extended to the " highlands ** on both sides of the Euphrates. The
name "Syria " appears to be an abbreviation of Assyria, mtroduoed by
Greek writers.

(2.) Districts and T<wms, — Syria was divided into several districts, of
which we may notice Aram-Maachah (1 Chron. xiz. 6), between Pales-
tine and Damascus; Aram. of Damascus (2 Sam. viii. 5; Is. vii. 8, zvii.
S), the district surrounding the town of that name ; and Zobah (1 Sam.
xiv. 47 ; 2 Sam. viii. 3), an extensive district to the north of Damascus,
reaching from Phoenicia to the Euphrates. Of the towns, Damascus
and Hamath were the most important. The first was beautifully
situated on the banks of the Abana {Barrada) and Pharpar (2 K. v.
12), and is noticed as early as the time of Abraham (Qen. xiv. 15,
XV. 2). Hamath was situated on the Orontes, aud commanded the
pass into Palestine between the ranges of Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon :
"the entering in of Hamath" (2 K. xiv. 25; 2 Chron. vii. 8) was the
key of Palestine on the north; hence Hamath, with Riblah, which
was in its territory, is frequently noticed in connexion with military
operations (2 K. xiv. 28, xxiii. 33, xxv. 21), and its conquest was a
subject of pride to the Assyrian monarcbs (2 K. xviii. 34, zix. 13).
llie district of Hamath was regarded as the extreme northerly limit of
the promised land (Num. xxxiv. 8 ; Ez. xlvii. 17). In addition to
these we may notice Tiphsah (IK. iv. 24), Thapsacusy an important
point, as commanding one of the fords of the Euphrates; Helbon
(Ez. XX vii. 18), near Damascus, famed for its wine ; Tadmor, Palmyra,
built, or, more probably, enlarged, by Solomon (1 K. ix. 18), as a com-
mercial entrepdt for the caravan-trade between Palestine and Babylon;
and Berothai (2 Sam. viii. 8), or C^un (1 Chron. xviii 8)~perhap8
Birtha on the Euphrates.

§ 11. Phoenicia wa£ contiguous to Palestine on its northern
frontier along the sea coast, and was familiar to the Hebrews partly
from the enterprise of its merchants, and partly from the alliance
which existed between the two countries in the reigns of David
and Solomon. Wars occasionally occurred at a subsequent period,
and nimierous prophecies were directed against the capital, Tyre.

(1.) iVomtf.— No general name for this country appears in the Bible:
it was regarded as a portion of the land of Canaan, as being a maritime

(2.) Towns and Districts. — The following places may be regarded as
the abodes of the tribes noticed in the Mosaic table (Gen. x. 15-18), in
their order from N. to S. : — Arikius, of the Arvadites, whose skill in
seamanship is mentioned by Ezekiei (xxvii. 8, 11); Sinna, a mountain
fortress of no historical note, of the Sinites; Simyra, at the mouth
of the Eleuthenia, of the Zemarites ; Area, of the Arkites ; and
Sidon. which may, perhaps, be intended as the name of a district


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rather than of the town, in the sense in which Homer usee Sidonia
(0(/. ziii. 285), Sidon is frequently noticed; it was in the earliest
ages regarded as the "border of the Canaanites" (Gen. x. 19); a
Uttle later Jacob speaks of it as " the haven of the sea, the haven of
ships" (Qen. xlix. 13). Although nominally within the limits of the
pronused land, it was never conquered by the Israelites (Judg. i. 31 >.
It was emphatically the "great Sidon" (Josh. xi..8), whose mer-
chants " passed over the sea *' (Is. xxiii. 2). At a later period we have
notice of Btfbiiis as the abode of the Oiblitee (Josh. xui. 5), the bent
shipbuilders in Phoenicia (Eb. xxvii. 9). and the " stone-squarers '*
employed in the building of Solomon's temple ( 1 K. v. 1 8). Zarephath,
or Sarepta (I K. xvii. 9; Obad. 20; comp. Luke iv. 26), was a small
town about midway between Sidon and Tyre. Tyre is not noticed
until the time of Joshua (xix. 29), though probably an older town than
Sidon, and, subsequently, of much more importance in relation to
Palestine; the prophets expatiate upon its "perfect beauty** (Ez,
xxvii. 3 ; comp. Hoe. ix. 13) and its commercial grsatness— " the city
whose merchuits are princes, whose traffickers are the honourable of
the earth " CIs. xxiii. 8); Ezekiel (xxvii.) in particular gives a detailed
account of the countries with which it interchanged its wares. Achzib,
the later Ecdippa^ was on the sea-coast (Josh. xix. 29); Acco (Judg. L 31 ),
afterwards called Ptolem&is (Acts xxi. 7), a little to the N. of Carmel;
and Dor, or Dora^ to the S. of it (Josh. xL 2, xvii. 11).

§ 12. Mesopotamia was situated eastward of Syria between the
Euphrates and Tigris. The close coDnexion between the Hebrews
and the Aramaeans of this district is marked by several circum*
stances : here Abraham sojourned on his passage to Canaan (GcD.
xi. 31); here Isaac's wife, Rebecca, spent her early days (Gen.
xxiv. 10) ; here Jacob served Laban (GenT xxviii. 6) ; and here the
ancestors of the Israelitish tribes, with the exception of Benjamin,
were bom,

(1.) Name. — The Biblical name of this country is " Aram-naharaim,'*
I. tf. "Aram of the two rivers" (Tigris and Euphrates) (Gen. xxiv. 10).
The term "Aram," i.e, "highlands," would restrict the original appli-
cation of the name to the mountainous district about the upper courses
of the rivers. A portion of it was called " Padan-Aram," •". e, "the
cultivated land of the highlands " (Gen. xxv. 20, xxviii 2), being probably
the district immediately adjacent to the Euphrates ; and another portion
"Aram Beth-rehob" (2 Sam. x. 6), the position of which is tmcertain.

(2.) To»rn8 and Place*. — These are connected either with the history
of Abraham or with the Assyrian wars. Haran (Gen. xi. 3n was
situated in the N.W., on the river Belias; it was identical with the

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