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at a time when the difference between the Hamitic and Semitic
races were not so strongly marked as they were in later ages. Their



* Milton allades to this legend in the llne»—

** While smooth Adonin fitun his native roek
Ran purple to the sea, supposed with blood
Of Thanunuz yearly wounded."— Pororfue Lost, viii. 18.



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Chap. X. SIDON — TYKUS. 1 69

first settlements were on the shores of the Persian Qnlf. Traces of
their presence there survive even to the present day in the names
Arad^ Sidodona, and Szur or Tur, the prototypes of Aradns, Sidon,
and Tyre. The towns of Phoenicia were situated either on or adja-
cent to the sea-coast, and owed their importance partly to their
manu&ctures, hut still more to the trade which passed through them
from A sia to Europe. Sidon appears to have been the original capital,
but Tyre subsequently surpassed it both in beauty and celebrity,
and had the further advantage of being a strong military position.
Arftdus and Berytus enjoyed a certain amount of commercial pros-
perity. Ptolemais did not acquire in early times the reputation
which it now possesses, under the familiar name of Acre,

Sidon, Satda, was situated on a small promontorv about two miles S.
of the river Bostrenus. Its harbour was naturally formed by a low
ridge of rocks running out from the promontory, parallel to the line of
coast. It was famed m early times for its embroidered robes,' its metal
work,^ its dyee,^ and its manufacture of glass; but it was obliged to
yield to the growing prosperity of Tyre. It derives an interest to the
Christian from St. Paul's visit there. Tjmis, Sur, stood more to the S.,
and consisted of two separate cities — Pal»-T} rus ( " Old Tyre "), which
was on the mainland — and • New Tyre, subsequently built upon an
island about half a mile from the ooast, which now rises about twelve *
feet above the sea, and is three-quarters of a mile long by half a mile
broad, but which was probably larger in ancient times. A ntck
of sand about half a mile broad now connects the rook with the main-
land : this, however, has been wholly formed by the sand which has
aoonmulated about the causeway made by Alexander. The harbour
was formed at the N.E. end of the island, and there was a double road-
stead between the island and the mainland ; one (the Sidonian) facing
the N., the other (the Egyptian) fiacing the S. It was famed for its
purple dve,< which was extracted from shell -fish found on the coast.
The origm of Tyre, and the periods in which the New and Old Towns
ware respectively built, are unknown. Its subsequent history is, in
short, the history of Phoenicia itself. The present town contains about
4000 inhabitants, and is in a state of great decay, its commerce giving
employment only to a few crasy fishing-boats. For a graphic deeorip-



* Bi«#' ftfoy oi ir^Aoi ira^iro6eiXot* tpya ytrvauimr

*HY«ry« Siioi'iiftftv, Hom. Jl, vl. 289.

« 'Apyi^pcor icpi^pa Ttrwy^Aw* If 3* ^>4 fiirfta
XdMofCv, tarrdifi «cdAA«i iifixa wuatuf hr' alay

*o&ucn i' «yor oydptt «^ ftpowWci »diTor— How. 11. judll. 741.
■ pretiofaqoe murice Sidon. — Lve. iU. 317.



Qnare ne tiU sit tanti Sidonia rettia,

Ut timeaa, quoties nnbUiu Aaster erit. — Pkopkbt. ii. 16» 55
Non qui Sidonio ctmtendere eaUidus ostro
Nendt Aquinatem potantia rellera ftiooin. — Hoa. £p, 1. 10, 26.

* nie caput flarum laaro PanuMide vinetus
Yerrit humum, Tyrio saturata murioe paUa. — Or. Ifet, zi. 105.
ANC. GEOO. 1



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170 PHOENICIA. Book II.

tion of what Tyre wa$ and what it now is compare the 27th and 26th
dkwtere of Ezekiel.

llie less important towns were — Ar&dni, in the N., also built on an
island rock, about two milee firom the coast, a colony of Sidon, and
still a place of importance under the name of Ruad ; Anttr&dni, on
the mamland opj^te Aradus, as its name implies; TripfiUi, on a small
promontory, deriving its name from being the metropolis of the three
confedercUe towns. Tyre, Sidon, and Aradus; BjMni, the chief seat of
the worship of Adonis, or Thammuz, who was held to have been bom
there; the modem name Jubeil is derived from the biblical name
Oebal, the residence of the Oiblites ; Berytni, Beirut, the seat of a
famous Greek university from the third to the sixth century of our era,
and now the most important commercial town in Syria ; and Ptolflmiii,
the biblical Accho, whence its modem name Acre, at the northern ex-
tremity of the bay formed by Prom. Carmel. It was named Ptolemais
after Ptolemy Soter.

Hittory. — Th^ history of Phoenicia is well-nigh a blank, from the loss
of its archives and literature. The few particulars we have are gathered
chiefly from the Bible, Josephus, and the Assyrian Inscriptions. The
country appears to have been parcelled out into several small indepen-
dent kmgdoms, which confederated together as occasion reqiured, and
over which, at such periods, the leading town naturally exercised a
supremacy. Sidon held the post of honour until about B.C. 1200, when
it was attacked by the king of Ascalon-(who probably headed the
Pentapolb of the Philistines), and was reduced to the second rank, Tyre
henceforth becoming the metropolis. We know little of Tyre until the
time of Solomon's alliance with Hiram, the mutual advantages of
which were great; Solomon drawing from Phoenicia his supplies of
wood and stone for the erection of the Temple, as well as shipbuilders
and seamen for carrying on his commerce, and Hiram gaining in return
supplies of com and oil, and a territory in Oalilee containing 20 towns
( 1 Kings, V. 6-12, ix. 11). After the death of Hiram a series of revolu-
tions and usurpations followed, during which the only names of interest
are Pygmalion ^ whose sister Elisa, or Dido, founded Troy) and Ithobalus,
or Eth-baal, the father of Jezebel (1 Kings, xvi. 31), a priest of Astarte,
who gained the throne by assassinating Phales. In his reign the
Assyrians, under Sardanapalus I., first invaded the country, and ex-
acted tribute from Tvre, Sidon, Byblus, and Aradus. From the
intimations of the early prophets, Joel and Amos, we infer that the
Phoenicians carried on a vexatious warfare on the borders of Palestine.
Phoenicia was fiom henceforth subjected to constant invasions from the
Assyrian kings. On the fall of Nineveh Nabopolassar asserted his
authority over Phoenicia, and his son Nebuchadnezzar besieged Tyre for
13 years, after having previously captured Sidon. The result of the
Tynan siege is uncertain : from £z. xxix. 17, we may almost infer that it
was unsuccessful — a conclusion which is supported by the fact that the
liiid of kings was not then disturbed. Shortly after this Cyprus was
seized by Amasis, king of Egypt. Phoenicia seems to have declined from
this time, and to have gradually succumbed to the preponderating in-
fluence of the Persian empire without any actual conquest. It formed
along with Palestine and Cy pms the fifth Persian satrapy, and contributed
a contingent to the fleet of Darius in the Greek war. In B.C. 352 a vain
attempt was made to shake off the Persian yoke. Sidon, which was
again the chief city of Phoenicia, was taken, and her population almost
destroyed by Artaxerxes Ochus. At the approach of Alexander the



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Chap. X. HISTORY— COLONIES. 171

Qreat, Aradus, Byblus, and Sidon, received him, but Tyre held out,
and was not taken until after a laborious siege of seven months,
when its inhabitants were utterly destroyed, and a Carian colony intro-
duced in their place. Alexander formed Phoenicia, with Syria and
Oflicia, into a province. In the subsequent arrangement of his domi-
nions Phoenicia fell to the lot of Ptolemy of Egypt, but was shortly
after (B.C. 315) seized by Antigonus, and from this time formed a bone
of contention between the Egyptian and Syrian kings. In the year
B.C. 83, the Phoenicians obtained the aid of Tigranes, king of Armenia^
against the latter, and he held it for fourteen years. Ultimately it
fell, along with Syria, into the hands of the Romans.

§ 10. The commerce of Phoenicia was prosecuted on a most exten-
sive scale. The chief routes in the continent of Asia have been
already described ; it remains for us to give a brief account of their
maritime colonies on the coasts of Europe and A frica.

Their colonies lined the shores of the Mediterranean to its western
extremity. We can trace their progress to Cyprus, where they founded
Citium and Paphos; thence to Crete (the scene of the myth of Europa)
and the Cycladee, which were chiefly colonised by them; thence to
Euboea, where they once dwelt at Calchis, and to Qreece, where
Thebes claimed connexion with them. Chios, Samos, and Tenedos,
were united to Phoenicia by ancient rites and myths, as also Imbi'os
and Lemnos. The mines of Thasos and of Mount Pangseus, on the
opposite coast of Thrace, had been worked by them. They had settled
in greater or less force on the southern and western coasts of Asia
Minor, and on the coast of Bithynia, where they founded Pronectus
and Bithynium, which were doubtless but stations for carrying on
trade with the shores of the Euxine Sea. Proceeding yet farther to
the west, we find them stretching across to Sicily, Sardinia, iEbusus
(Toica), and Spain (the Tarshish of Scripture), where they founded
Qadeira {Cadiz) and numerous other colonies. The northern coast of
Africa was 'thickly sown with their colonies, of which Utica, Hippo,
Hadrumetum, Leptis, and more 'especially Carthage — the centre of an
independent system of colonies —were ^e most important. Outside
the Pillars of Hercules, they possessed, according to Strabo (xvii. p.
826), as many as 300 colonies on the western coast of Africa. They
are supposed to have traded to the SciUy hies and the coasts of Eng-
land for tin, and even beyond this to the shorea of Cimbria for amber ;
and thus, as Humboldt {Kosmos, ii. 132) remarks, ''the Tyrian flag
waved at the same time in Britain and the Indian Ocean.'' How far
their knowledge of the world extended, beyond these limits we have no
means of ascertaining. It is stated that they circumnavigated Africa
under the direction of Necho, king of Egypt (Herod, iv. 42). The
truth of this has been questioned ; Herodotus Iiimself disbelieved it,
but the reason he gives for his disbelief, via. that the navigators alleged
that the sim was on their right hand, is a strong argument in favour of
its truth.

III. — Arabia.

§ 11. The peninsula of Arabia is bounded on three sides by

water, viz. on the N.E. by the Persian Gulf and the Sinus Omana,

Chdf of Oman; on the S.E. and S. by the Erythraeum Mare, or

Indian Ocean ; and on the W. by the Ajrabicus Sinus. In the N.



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172 ARABIA. Book U.

its boundary is not well defined. The peninsula itself may be
regained as terminating at a line drawn between the heads of the
Persian and ^lanitic gulfs, distant from one another about 800
miles ; but it was usual to include in Arabia two outlying districts,
viz. the triangular block of desert ' to the N. of this line, interven-
ing between Palestine and Babylonia, and the peninsula of Sinai,
between the arms of the Red Sea. Arabia was, therefore, contigu-
ous to Egypt in the W., Palestine in the N.W., Syria in the N.,
and Mesopotamia in the N.E. Its physical character is strongly
marked : it consists of a plateau of considerable elevation, sur-
rounded by a low belt • of coast-land, varying in width according
as the mountains which support the plateau approach to or recede
from the sea. In modem geography these portions are distinguished
as the Ncfdf " highlands," and the Tehama^ ** lowlands," but no cor-
responding terms occur among ancient writers. The country,
though generally arid and unfit for cultivation, nevertheless
abounded in productions of great commercial value,' such as
spices,' myrrh,' frankincense," silk,* precious stones, and certain
kinds of fruits. An extensive trade was carried on between the
southern coasts of Arabia and the shores of India and southern
Africa, and hence various productions were assigned to it by
ancient writers which really belonged to those latter countries.

§ 12. The physical features of Arabia were but little known to
the ancients. The ranges of Palestine may be traced down to the
head of the JElanitio arm of the Red Sea, on either side of the
remarkable depressed plain named Akdba. 1'he high ground on

' The name as oMd in St. Paul's Ep. to the Gal. i. 17 has reference exdosiTely
to this northern district.

* This belt appears to hare been once covered bj the sea, and has been gradn-
ally elerated : the process of elevation is still going on, and the increase of land
on the W. coast is very obserrable within historical times. Miua, which Arrian
describes as on the sea-coast, is now sererai miles inland.

* Hence the wealth of the Arabs passed into a prorerb among the Romans :

Plenas ant Arabom domoe. Hoe. Carm* U. 12, 24
Intaotis opolentior

Thosaoris Arabom. Id. ilL 24, 1.

* Sit dives amomo,
Cinnamaqne, costnmque soam, sodataqne ligno
Thura ferat, floresque alios Panchaia tellos ;

Dum ferat et Myrrham. Tanti nova non f^it arbos.

Ov. Met X. 307.
< Non Arabo noster rore capillus olet. Ov. Her. xv. 76.

Et gravida) madnere com», qaas rore Sabno
Nutrierat, Val. Flacc. vi. 709.

* Urantor pia tora fbds : nrantar odores

Quoe tener o terra divite mittit Arabs. Tibull. ii. 2, 8.
Indis mittit ebor, molles sua tora Sabni. Viao. Oeorg. i. 57.
Totaqne thurifleris PanchaYa pingois arenis. Id. U. 189.

* Neo si qoa Arabic lucet bombyce paella. Pkopkbt. iL 3, 15.



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Chap. X. PHYSICAL FEATURES — INHABITANTS. 1 73

the W. side gradually rises towards the S., and terminates in a
confused knotty mass of lofty mountains, near the point where the
two arms of the Red Sea separate. The general name for these
mountains in classical geography was Kigri llontas; they are now
called El Tor^ the most conspicuous heights in the group heing
named Um Shomer (8850 feet high), Jebel Catharine (8705), Jebel
Mouta, " Moses* Hill," a little to the E. of Jehel Catharine, the
reputed scene of the delivery of the law, and Jebd Serhal (6759
feet), which stands apart from the central group, near the W. arm
of the Red Sea. On the E. side of the Akaba are the mountains of
Idumsea, or Edom, composed of red sandstone, the most conspicuous
height of which is the Mount Hor of the Bihle, near Petra, the
scene of Aaron's death. Of the other chains in Arabia we have
notice in Ptolemy of Zamfithus* Jehel Aared, in the interior ; the
Mazithi Kontas, near the Persian Qulf ; and the Vigri KontM, near
the Gulf of Oman.

' § 13. llie Arabians were mainly a Semitic race, though there
appears to have been a Hamitic element mixed with it. The most
important tribes known to ancient geographers were, the Scenitaj,*
" dwellers in tents," the progenitors of the modem Bedouins ; the
Nabathsei,* in Arabia Petrsea, about Petra and the ^lanitic Gulf;
the Thamydeni, or Thamyditaa, more to the S. ; the MinaBi, in the
S. of Eedjaz ; the SabsBi' and Homeritffi, in the S.W. angle ; the
ChatramotitBB and Adrainitae, in Hadramaut ; the Omanitae on the
shores of the Gu^ of Oman ; the Attasi and Gerrhaei, on the Per-
sian Gulf.

§ 14. Arabia was originally divided into two parts : Deserta, the
northern extension, to which we have already adverted, and Felix,"
which comprised the whole of the proper peninsula. To these a

> The name SaraoSni ytu afterwards applied to them, though originally re-
stricted to a trihe on the borders of Petreea.

* The Nabathsi were well known to the Romans in conseqnenoe of their
proximity to the Rod Sea and their piratical habits : the name Is used as equiva-
lent to Arabian.

Et quos deposoit Nabatheeo bellua saltu

Jam nimios capitique graves. Juv. Sat. xi. 136.

Eurus ad Aororam Nabathoeaque regna reeetsit. Ov. Met. i. 61.
' The SabiBans were the chief traders in frankincence :
Thnris odoratse cnmulis et metse Sab<Ba

Paoem conciliant anc. Claudiax. de Laud Stil. i. 58.

— — nbi templnm illi centumque SabsDO
Thnreealcnt arss, sertisqne recentibos halant. Viho. J?». i. 416.

• The title of Felix, *' happy," though not inappropriate to certain parts of
Arabia, and particularly to the S.W. angle, may have originated in a mistaken
interpretation of the Semitic Temen^ which signifies primarily the riffht handt and
seoo&darily the mw/A, but which the Greeks understood in the secondary sense of
fortunaU^ iuift as the Latins used dexter. CerUinly the title of Felix is a perfect
misnomer for a great portion of the peninsula.



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174 ARABIA. Book II.

third was subaequently added, of which the earliest notice occurs in
rtolemy,, named Petraa, applying to the district surrounding the
town of Petra. The towns of ancient Arabia possess few topics of
interest. ITiey occupied the sites of the modem towns, and corre-
spond with them in great measure in name : thus, in Macoraba we
recognise Mekka Rahha, " the great Mecca ;'* in Jambia, Yemho ;
in Mariaba, Mareb ; in Adana, the modem Aden, at present a Bri-
tish possession, and serving the same purpose to which it owed its
ancient celebrity, as a station for Indian commerce ; in Jathrippa,
Jathrel, the earlier name of Medina. The modem Jeddah is sup-
posed to be represented by the ancient ThebsB ; Mokka, however,
stands on ground which was not in existence in ancient times, and
has supplanted Muza as the chief port of that part. The only
towns of which we have any special knowledge were situated in the
N. of the country, such as Petra, iElana, and a few othera.

Petra, the capital of the Nabathasi, was bv far the most important
town in northern Arabia. It was situated oetween the head of the
iElanitio Oulf and the DeaA Sea, and was the central point whence the
caravan-routes radiated to Egypt, the Persian gulf, Syria, and southern
Arabia. Its position is remarkable : a ravine ( Wady Jfusa) of about a
mile in length, about 150 feet wide at its entrance, and only 12 feet at
its narrowest point, conducts to a plain about a square mile in extent:
on this pliun stood the town, while the ravine itself served as a necro-
polis, the tombs being excavated out of the sides of the cliflfis, and adorned
with sculptured facades^ which are still in a high state of preservation.
The remains of a tneatre, hewn out of the rock, are also a remarkable
object. ■ These buildings were probably erected during the period that
the town was held by the Romans, commencing in the reign of Trajan,
in whose reign it was subdued, and lasting for about a couple of cen-
turies, fftlana, which we have already noticed under the Biblical name
of Elath, remained a port of commercial importance under the Romans.
The names of the other important ports on the Red Sea from N. to S.
were ~ Jambia, Yembo^ Zabram, Bedeo, and Muza : the last was iden-
tical with Moushid. Sapphar was an important town in the interior, E.
of Muza, probably at a spot named />/i<'/i/v Baba ranked as the capital
of the south, but its position is quite uncertain ; it was probably iden-
tical with Kari&ba in the interior, and is further noticed unaer the
names 8ab5tha or Sabtha. Mariaba was famed for its enormous reser-
voir, which received the water of no lees than 70 streams for the pur-
pose of irrigation : the bursting of the ^at dam was regarded as so
great a catastrophe that it became an em in Arabic history ; it occurred
probably about the time of Alexander the Great. The remains of this
reservoir have been discovered at March. Adiaa was the chief port on
the southern coast, and hence received the name of Arabia Felix; it
was the emporium of the trade between Egypt, Arabia, and India.
JEX\\XB Oallus destroyed it, but it soon reviv^i. On the Persian Gulf
Slu^gma and Oherra may be noticed as places of importance in con-
neidon with Indian trade.

Isl»md8. — Off the Arabian coast were the islands Biosooiidis, SocotrOy
and SarapXdis, Massera^ in the Arabian Sea; and Tylus, or Tjrras, BaK-
reira, and Arftdus, Arad, in the Persian Gulf. The two latter are of



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Chap. X. HISTORY. 175

interest in connexion with the history of the Phasnicians. Tylus is
also described as abounding in pearls.

History. — The history of Arabia in ancient times is well nigh a blank.
No conqueror has ever penetrated the interior to any distance. Anti-
gonus made some unsuccessful attempts to conquer the Nabathsei in
the years 312, 311 b.c. The next expcnlition was undertaken by iEUus
Qallus in the reign of Augustus, B.C. 24. Starting from Myus Hormus
he landed at Leuoe Come, and proceeded by an overland route to a
place named Marsyabse,' whence he returned under pressure of the
extreme heat and drought. In a.d. 105 the district adjacent to Pales-
tine was formed into a Roman province by A. Cornelius Palma under
the name of Arabia.



* The scene of this expedition was probably quite in the north of the peninsula :
as Lence Come was only two or three days' sail from Myus Hormus, it could not
haf e been S. of Moilah : Marsyabs cannot possibly be identified with the southern
Mariaba of the Sabroi, but was perhaps on the site of Merab^ at the eastern base
of the Neijd mountains. The following passages relate to this expedition :
Icci beatis nunc Arabum invides
Oasis, et acrem militiam paras
Non ante dcvictis SabtcsD »
* Kegibus. Hoa. Cai-m. i. 29, 1.

India quin, Auguste, tuo dat colla triumpho,

Et domus intactie te trcmit Arabiss. Propkkt. ii. 10, 19.



Mount Hor.



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Jenualem.
CHAPTER XI.

PALESTINE.

§ 1. Boundaries; names. § 2. Position and general character. § 3.
Mountains. §4. Plains. §5. Rivers and lakes. §6. Inhabitants.
§ 7. Territorial divisions. I. Judaea. § 8. Physical character of
Judsea. §9. Simeon. § 10. Judah. § 11. The maritime plain;
Philistia. § 12. Dan. § 13. Benjamin. § 14. Jerusalem. II.
Samaria. § 15. Boundaries and character of Samaria. § 16.
Ephraim and Manasseh. III. Galilee. § 17. Boundaries and
character of Galilee. § 18. Issachar ; the plain of Esdraelon.
§ 19. Zebulun ; the Sea of Galilee. § 20. Naphthali. § 21. Asher.
lY. Perjea. §22. Physical features of Pereea; Reuben, Gad, and
half Manasseh. § 23. Moab. § 24. Batansea, Trachonitis, and Itursea.
§ 25. Towns. § 26. History.

§ 1. Palettine was bounded on the W. by the Mediterranean or
*• great " sea ; on the S, and E. by the desert of Arabia, and on the
N. by Syria. Its boundary in the latter direction is not well de-
fined ; it ran somewhere N. of Sidon (Judg. i. 31), and along the
southern extremity of Hermon (Deut. iii. 8), or Hor (Num. xxxiv.
7, 8) : on the S. a range of heights extends from the southern end
of the Dead Sea to the Mediterranean : on the E. the limit is again
undefined ; in the northern part it extends as far as Salcah (Josh,
xiji. 11) in nearly the 37° of long., and thence returns to a range



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Chap. XI. GENERAL CHARACTER — NAMES. 177

of Mils skirting the desert, which it follows towards the S. to
the junction of the two branches of the Jabbok, and thence to the
Amon. The surface of Palestine is greatly varied. The greater
part of the interior is a highland district, diversified in some places
with hills, in others with broad undulations. Low plains intervene
between this district and the sea, and a remarkable sunken plain,
in some parts below the level of the sea, cleaves the highlands from
N. to S., along the course of the Jordan. The temperature varies
with the varying altitude. While the plains suffer from a tropical
heat, the highlands, in which the bulk of the population has in all
ages been settled, enjoy a tolerably moilerate and equable climate.
The productions are consequently equally varied. The palm-tree
and the walnut, the balsam and the cedar, find temperatures adapted
to their several natures. That the soil, vmder the most careful
cultivation, was pre-eminently fertile,* not only the glowing descrip-
tions of the Bible, but the statements of classical writers also
inform us. In addition to wheat, barley, and other cereals, a pro-
fusion of fruits — the vine, olive, fig, pomegranate, date, almond, &c.
— ripened in great perfection. In the highlands, {)articularly in
those on the other side of Jordan, the finest pastures abound.

Names. — Palestine formed a portion of the " land of Canaan," which
extended, as we have already snowu, beyond the borders of PhcBnicia :



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