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Beleuda, on the Tigris, near the junction of the Nahr-malcha, was
erected by Seleucus Nicator with materials brought from Babylon, and
became a place of great commercial importance : it was ruined in the
wars between the Komans and Parthians. Not far from it was Coehe,
a place of military strength in the later days of the Roman empire.
PenabOra was a very strong post on the Euphrates, perhaps at Anbar :
it is noticed in the history of Julian's wars. CiULaza, the scene of
the battle between Cyrus and Artaxerxes, B.C. 401, was situated in
the midst of the canid district, near the Euphrates. OrehoS on the
borders of the Arabian desert, W. of the Euphrates, was the principal



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Chap. XH. HISTORY OF BABYLONIAN EMPIRE.



215



seat of the Orcheni, a people who obtained celebrity both as an attro-
nomical sect, and for their hydraulic akill. Apamte, described as bein^

in Mesene, is of doubtful
position. Several to^ns
stood about the shores of
the Persian Gulf, whose
sites cannot be identi6ed
in consequence of the great
change that has taken place
in the cotat: among these
we may notice — Ampe,
~ whither the Milesians were
transported by Darius, b.c.
494 — ApoiSgi YieuMt a con-
siderable place of trade, pro-
bably at Old Botrah^Cht^
rax 8|MMXnii, near the mouth
of the Tigris, founded bv
Alexander the Qreat with
the name Alexandria, re-
stored by Antiochus Epi-
phanes vrith the name of
Antiochia, and occupif d by
Spasines, an Arab chieftain,
after whom it reoeived its
agnomen of Spasinu ; it was
a place r.f considerable trade
•~and Terddon, at the mouth
of the'Pasitigris.

History of the Babylonian
Empire. — ^Babylon remained
sunk in comparative insig-
nificance throughout tho
whole period of Assyrian
supremacy. It had never-
theless its own monarchs,
with whom the Assyrians
frequently carried on war.
The era of Nabonassar, B.C.
747, seems to mark a poli-
tical change, but its nature
is uncertsan. One of his
successors, Afardoc-empaduSy
is imdoubtedly the Mero-
dach-baladan of Scripture, who sent ambassadors to Hezekiah : he was
expelled from his throne b^ Sargon, and a second time by Sennacherib,
who appointed Belibus as his vicerov from n.c. 702 to B.C. 699, and after-
wards Asshur-nadin (Assaranadius) n*om B.C. 699 to B.C. 693. It is uncer-
tain whether the succeeding governors were viceroys or native princes.
Esar-haddon, the Assyrian monarch, assumed the crown himself, and
held his court there occasionally; but he appears in the later part of his
reign to have appointed a viceroy, Saosduchmus, from b.c. 667 to B.C. 647,
who was succeeded by Ciniladanus, b.c. 647-625. Nabopolassar was the
last of those viceroys or subject kings : he aided Cyaxares in the over-
throw of Nineveh, and established himself on the throne of Babylon,



Portions of Ancient Bsbylon distingalsbable In tbe
present Rnliis



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216



ASSTEIA.



. Book II.



which he occupied from B.C. 625 to B.C. 604. The Babylonian territory
tinder him consMted of the valley of the Euphrates as high as Carchemtsh,
Syria, Phoenicia, Palestine, and probably a part of Egypt. He car-
ried on war, in conjunction with the Medes, against the Lydians, and
afterwards against the Egyptians who had aided the Lydians. His
son Nebuchadnezzar gave the Egyptian king Necho a total defeat at
Carchemish. Nebuchadnezzar^ B.C. 604-561, was equally distinguished for
his martial achievements and for the gigantic works which he executed
in his country, and particularly at Babylon. He reduced Tyre after a
sicTO of thirteen years ; sacked Jerusalem, and carried ofif its izihabitants;
and invaded Egypt. There is little to record of his successors, Etil-
Morodachf B.C. 561-559; Nengiissar, B.C. 559-556; and Laborosoarchody
B.C. 556-555. Nabanaditts commenced his reign just as Cyrus was enter-
* ing upon his Lydian war : he entered into alliance with Croesus, and
forcified his own territory against the Medes. Cyrus commenced his
invasion of Babylonia B o. 540, and, having defeated the enemy in the
open field, he laid siege to Babylon, which was then under the care of
BU-ahar-uzWy the Belshazzar of the Bible, and, entering by the dry bed
of the Euphrates, captured the city. Nabonadius had retired to Bor-
sippa, where he was taken prisoner b^ Cyrus, B.C. 538. Henceforth
Babylonia formed a portion of the Persian empire.




^^r*^



Mound of Niniroud. (I->un Layanl's ' ^' Ineveb.')
III. ASSYBIA.

f 8. AMyria was bounded on the N. by the range of Niphates ;
on the E. by that of Zagrus ; on the S.E. by Susiana ; on the W.
and S.W. by the Tigris. The northern and eastern portions of
Assyria are mountainous, the former being covered with ranges
emanating from the Armenian highlands, and the latter with the
secondary ridges of the Zagrus chain. The southern and western
districts, as high up as Nineveh, on the other hand, partake more
of the character of the Mesopotamian plain, though more diversified
with heights and river-courses. The plains of Assyria, as of Meso-
potamia, are alternately a garden and a wilderness, the excessive
heat of summer completely parching up the vegetation. ITie hilly
district varies in character, the rising groimd adjacent to the- plain
being well watered and productive, the intermediate hills of an arid



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Chap. XII. RIVERS - INHABITANTS — TOWNS. 2 1 7

character, and the higher elevations of Zagnu well wooded and
offering rich pastures during the summer months.

$ 9. The rivers which water Assyria all flow into the Tigris,
and have courses very nearly parallel to each other towards the
S.W. Most of them rise in Zagrus, but some penetrate tiirough
the central chain into the highlands of Media. The chief rivers
from N. to S. are — the Zab&tns or Ijew, Oreat Zab, which rises in
the angle where Niphates and Zagrus effect their junction, and,
doubling about among the parallel ranges that beset its middle course',
reaches the Tigris in 36^ of lat. — the Oapnis or ZerUi, Lesser Zaby
which rises in Media, and reaches the Tigris* near 35° lat. — the
PhTMiis or ToraadMufl, OcUirneh, which joins a short distance below
the Median Wall — and the Qjadm,* Duda, which joins a little above
Ctesiphon.

§ 10. The inhabitants of Assyria were a Semitic race, Asshur
being described in Gen. z. 2'2 as a son of Shem. There appears to
have been, as we have already observed, a close connexion between
the population of Babylonia and Assyria ; for we are told (Gen. x.
11), that " out of that land (». e. Babylonia) went forth Asshur," or
according to another rendering of the words, " out of that land he
(». e. Nimrod)went forth to Asshur.** Whichever of the two senses
we adopt, the general (act indicated remains the same, viz. that
there was an affinity between the two races— a view which is sup-
ported by indications both of language and history. The political
divisions were numerous : few of the names present any feature of
interest ; we may, however, specify Axrapaehltif in the N.E., which
is thought to represent the Scriptural Arphaxad ; AdiabSne, the
district about the course of the Great Zab ; Ataxia, about the me-
tropolisi Nineveh ; and Bittaoliie in the B.

§ 11. The remarks made in reference to the towns of Babylonia
apply in great measure to those of Assyria also. The banks of the
Tigris are lined with mounds, marking the sites of once flourishing
cities, whose histories and even names remain a matter of doubt.
It seems tolerably certain that Nineveh itself was not the earliest
capital; Scripture notices Besen as surpassing it in size, and places
Calah and Rehbboth on a par with it. We have already (p. 12)
endeavoured to identify some of these places : we will now add that
CaJah Shergai appears to have been the first capital, and to have
been built about b.o. 1273 — that the seat of government was thence
moved higher up the river to Nimrdd by Sardanapalus, B.C. 980 —



* Nee qua vel Nilna, vel regia lympha Choupet
Profluit, aut rapidns, Cjfri dementia, Gyndes
Badit ArecUeot band una per oetia campoa. — Tibvll. It. 1, 140.
—For the alloaion to CyruB see above, p. 83.

▲SC. GEOG. 2<



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218 ASSYRIA. Booh II.

and that this remained the capital until the time of Sennacherib,
B.C. 702, who again removed the seat of power to Nineveh. In
addition to these places, there are numerous mounds which un-
doubtedly mark the sites of large towns, such as Abu Khameera
and Tel Krmdh, on the western bank of the Tigris, Khorsahad,
Shereef-khan, and others on the eastern side of it. These towns
were mostly destroyed either before or at the time of the fall of
Nineveh : when Xenophon passed by their sites, he observed the
mounds, but heard little of the famous cities that lay buried beneath
them ; even the name of Nineveh is unnoticed, and the place is de-
scribed as Mesplla, while that of Resen appears under the Grsecised
form Larissa. Some few towns of a later date are found in the
southern part of Assyria, of which Cteslphon is the only one that
attained celebritv.



Vaulted Drain beneath the Palace at Nlmroud. (From T^yard's ' Nineveh.')

Tlie capital of Assyria was Kinuf or Kineveh ; it is described in the
book of Jonah as **a city of three days' journey" (iii. 3), and its
population (judging from the statement in iv. 11) must have amounted



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Chap. XII. NINEVEH. 219

to 600,000. Though it had disappeared before classical times, yet
the memory of its greatness was preserved. Both Strabo (xvi. p. 737)
and Diodorus (ii. p. 7^) give striking accounts of its size. The mounds
opposite Mosui, named Kouyunjik and Nebbi Funiw, represent the site of
Nineveh, or, at all events, a portion of it. The doubtful point is, how
far Nineveh extended on either side. It has been noticed that the four
mounds^ Kouyunjik, Khorsabad, Karamless, and Nimroud, stand at the



Subterranean Exoavationi at Kouyn^Jik. (FYom Layard's * Nineveh.')



* A brief description of the contents of these mounds will not be out of place
(1.) The mounds of Kouyunjik and Jiebbi Tunus stand in close proximity to each
other. The former contains the magnificent palace of Sennacherib, erected about
B.C. 700, covering an area of 100 acres. The chambers, of whi^h more than
seventy have been explored, were covered with bas-reliefs commemorating the
wars^of Sennacherib : many of these are now in the British Museum. On the
northern side of the mound a second palace was erected by Sardanapalus III.,
grandson of Sennacherib : the apartments were decorated with hunting scenes,
executed in the highest style of Assyrian art. Some of these also adorn the
British Museum. The mound of Nebbi Funtu derives its name fh>m an unfounded
tradition that Jonah was buried there. The whole enclosure of Kouyunjik cov ers

L 2



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220 ASSYRIA. Book II.

anklet of a quadrangle, the sise of which would oorre^wnd tolerably
well with the statements of Jonah and Diodorus: henoe it has been
conjectured that the whole of the space enclosed between these points
was termed Nineveh, the area being occupied by extensive gardens and
parks surrounding palaces, and temples, and private houses, much as is
the case in modem Oriental towns. This, however, must be remrded
as doubtful, particularly as Nimroud probably represents Kesen.
Nineveh was destroyed, B.C. 625, by the combined armies of the Medes
and Babylonians. Arbi^la, between the Zabatus and Caprus, has gained
notoriety from the battle between Darius and Alexander the Qreat,
which was fought, however, at OftOguniilft, about 20 miles to the N.W.
ApoUonia and ArtonXta are supposed to have stood respectively N.
and S. of the Delas in its mid course : more to the £., CSiala ana the
neighbouring CelfiiUB, on the banks of the JToZuKxn, commanded the
pass across Zagrus. On the banks of the Tigris, in the S. of the
province, were the important towns of Opii, probably at the junction of
the Physcus— Sitt&oa, further down the stream— and Cted^Mm, which
rose into importance after the decay of Seleuoia, and became the winter
residence of the Parthian kings: it was strongly fortified: its site is
now named Al Madain, **the two cities."

History of the Assyrian Empire, — We pass over the earliest kings, until
we come to Ttghth-Pileser 1, B.C. 1110, who extended his conquests
over Cappadocia, Syria, and Armenia,* and attacked Babylon without



about 1800 acres, and is about 7| miles in dronmiieraioe. (S.) Ehormh»d standi
about 15 miles N.E. of Koutn»\Jiff' it appears to have been named fiargktm after
the monarch Sargon, who established it as his capital about a.c. 720. His palace
is covered with a double mound nearly 1000 feet in length. It was rfehly adorned
with sculptures, representing^ for the most part processions of tribute-bearers,
sieges of towns, punishments of prisoners, and buildians. The Ltmvr* contains a
rich collection of these. (^.) Nimroud lies on the left bank of the Tigris, about
17 miles S. of Koujfui\fik. The great mound is 1800 fyei long by 900 broad, and
rises to a oonioal elevation at the N.W. angle. The buildings here were erected
by a succession of kings — Sardanapalus I., who founded the N.W. palace, b.c. 900,
in which the celebrated black dbelisk was found ; Shamat-ivtt, b.c. 850, and Iva-
L^sh (Pul), B.C. 800, who enlarged that palace ; JSIiar-AaiWoA, b.c. 680, who built
the -S.W. palace with materials plundered trom the other palaces ; and his son
Sardanapalus III., who built the 8.K. palace. (4.) KiUh-Shtrgat is situated
on the right bank of the Tigris, about 60 miles 8. of Kouyuojik. The mound is
of a triangular form, 60 feel high, and about 2\ miles round. The most remark-
able object discovered here is the cylinder, now in the British Museum, containing
the annals of Tiglath-Pileser I.

* The conquered countries are described on the Assyrian moi^uments by names
which are in themselves instructive, as illustrating both Biblical and classical geo*
graphy. It may be noticed that many of the nations with whom the Assyrians carried
on the most fluent wars sunk into comparative insignificance in after times.
Northwards we can identifjr the Mannai about Lake Urumiyeh with the Minni of
Scripture ; Ararat^ or Kkarkhar^ with central Armenia, as described in the Bible ;
Jftisr with Colchis, whose inhabitants were probably a Hamitic race, as described
by Herodotus, and as indicatod by the Assyrian name which answers to the Biblical
Mimruim, Westward of Armenia, the most important tribes were TStplait the Tubal
of the BiUe, the later T\bareni; and the Muduu^ Meseoh, the later Mosehi, in
Ci^ipadocia ; Khilak, Cilicia, is also noticed. On the northern and western fhmtier
of Mesopotamia were the Na'iri^ with whom the Assyrians were constantly engaged.
Along the course of the Euphrates lived the TWMi, probably the Shuhites of
Scripture ; and on the side of Syria the Kkatti^ the Scriptural Hlttites, of whom
a tribe named Pat«M evidently represents Padan-Aram. The town of Samaria is



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Chap. XJI. HISTOKY OF THE ASSYRIAN EMPIRE. 221

success. The celebrated Sardanapaliis I., B.C. 930, carried his arms suc-
cessfully from the shores of the Persian Qulf to the Mediterranenu, sub-
duing IVre, Sidon, Byblus, and Aradus in the latter direction, Babylon
and Chaldsea in the former. Shaimaneser, B.C. 900, conquered Armenia,
Media, Cappadocia, Babylonia, Syria, and Phoenicia. He also received
tribute from Jehu, king of Israel, who is named TaAtM, son of Khtunri,
t. e. successor of Omri. Shamas-ioaf B.c. 850, attacked the Syrians,
Mode?, and Babylonians, taking two hundred towns either belonging to
or confedei'ate with the latter. Ivc^Lmh III., b.c. 800, the Pul of the
Bible, received tribute from the Modes, Persians, Armenians, Syrians,
Samaritans, Tyre, and Sidon. The name of Menahem, king of Israel, ap-
pears in the list of his tributaries, as- recorded in 2 Kings xv. 19. Tiglath-
Pileser II., B.C. 747, carried on wars in Upper Mesopotamia, Armenia,
Media, and Syria, where he defeated Resdn, king of Damascus. He is
the monarch who invaded the northern districts of Palestine (2 Kings xv.
29). Shaimaneser, B.C. 730, is not noticed in Assyrian inscriptions.
He carried on war with Hoshea, king of Israel, and besieged Samaria
(2 Kings xvii. 3-5). He appears to have died before the city was taken;
for '* the king of Assyria " (2 Kings xviL 6) who actudly carried off the
Israelites was named Sargon, who came to the throne B.C. 721, and who
is recorded in the inscriptions to have transplanted 27,280 families of
the Israelites. Sargon waged war with Merodach-baladan, king of
Babylon, and invaded Susiana, Arm«nia, and Media : he also came into
contact with the Egyptian monarchs, one of whom, Sebichus, the second
of the Ethiopian dynasty, had formed an alliance with Hoshea (2 Kings
xvii. 4). In this war he took Ashdod (Is. xx. 1) and Gaza: he also
extended his expeditions to Cyprus. Sennacherib, B.C. 702, subdued
and deposed Merodach-baladan, appointing a viceroy over Babylon. In
the thurd year of his reign he defeated the Hittites, the kings of Tvre
and Sidon, and, descending southwards, subdued the towns of Philis-
tia, particularly Ascalon. He twice invaded Palestine, on the first
sion receiving tribute from Hezekiah (2 Kings xviii. 15), on the second
occasion besieging Lachish and Libnah, and shutting up Hezekiah in occa-
Jerusalem (2 Kings xviii. 17, xix. 8). The destruction of his army in
Egypt has been already referred to^ Esar-haddon, B;0. 680, renewed
the wars with Phcenicia, Syria, Armenia, Susiana, Media, Babylonia,
and Asia Minor : he also describes himself as the '' conqueror of Egypt
and Ethiopia." He is probably the king who carried Manasseh to
Babylon (2 Chron. xxxiii. 11). Sardanapalus III., B.C. 660, undertook
a campaign against Susiana, but was otherwise unknown for martial
deeds. Asehwr-emit'ili, B.O. 640, was either the last or the last but one
of the Assyrian kings, it being doubtful whether he is identical with
the Saracus of Berosus or not. With the latter monarch the Assyrian
empire terminated, Nineveh being destroyed by the conjoined forces of
the Modes under Cyaxares, and the Babylonians under Nabo-polassar.

desoribed as Beth Khumri (*'th« house of Omri**) ; Judeea as Jehuda; IdumsBa
88 Hudum ; and Mer5e as Mirukha, The island of Cypros is referred to luder
the name Taean (Javan). Eastward of the Zagrus range wore races, some of
whose names we cannot identify : the Eupuaka^ who lived eastward of Nineveh ;
the Namrif whose territory extended to the shores of the Persian Gulf ; the BUcni
in Parthia; the ParUu in Persia; Mada in Media; and Oimri, the Sac», or
Scythians. Sonthwards, Babylonia is termM Kan-Dumyat^ Susiana Nwakl, the
Karoon being noticed under the name Via (Ulai of Daniel, Bultmtt)^ and the
Shat-el-Arab as the " great salt river." Many of the towns of Phosnicia and Syria
are noticed under names but slightly varying ftrom the classical or Biblical forma.



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222 ARMENIA MAJOR. Book II.



The Town and Rock of Wan.



IV. Armenia Major.



§ 12. The boundaries of Annenia cannot be very accurately de-
fined : speaking generally, Armenia may be described as the high
mountainous country between the Euxine, Caspian, and Mediterra-
nean seas and the Persian Gulf, whence the mountain chains of
Western Asia radiate in various directions. On the S. the limit of
this district may be placed at the ranges which overlook the Meso-
potamian and Assyrian plains, viz. Masius and Niphates, and more
to the E., Caspius Mons, which separated it from Media : the eastern
boundary was formed by the converging streams of the Araxes and
the Cyrus ; and the latter river may be regarded as its northenj
boundary also, until it approximates to the Euxine, whence the
south-westerly direction of the mountain-chains carried the boundary
towards the upper valley of the Euphrates, which formed its limit
on the W. Armenia is an elevated plateau, forming the westerly
continuation of the great plateau of Iran, The general elevation of
its central plains above the level of the sea may be stated at about
7000 feet. Out of this plateau, as from a new base, spring moun-
tain chains of great elevation, the central range culminating in the
splendid conical peak of Ayhri Tagh (17,260 feet), to which the
Biblical name of Ararat has been more particularly assigned. The



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Chap. XII. MOUNTAINS — RIVEK8 — INHABITANTS. 223

uplands, though exposed to a long and severe winter, afford most
abimdant pasture in the summer months, and have been in all ages
the resort of the shepherds of the Mesopotamian lowlands during
that season. A fine breed of horses roamed over the \Wde grassy
plains, and formed the nxwt valued production of the country.

§ 13. The mountain ranges have been already generally de-
scribed: we need here only repeat that three lines of mountain
chains may be traced through this country ; the most northerly
consisting of ParyadrM and its eastern continuations, which separate
the upper courses of the Araxes and Cyrus ; the central one consist-
ing of the chain, which under the name of Alms, first divides the
two branches of the Euphrates from each other, and then bounds
the upper course of the Araxes on the S., terminating in the twin
heights of the Greater and Less Ararat ; while the southerly one,
which is the most continuous and best defined of the three, in the
first place separates the upper courses of the Euphrates and Tigris,
then under the name of Kiph&tes' passes southwards of Lake Arsissa,
and after parting with Zagrus, proceeds imder the name of Caspius
Mons to the shores of the Caspian Sea. The yet more southerly
range of Maduf , which bounds the Mesopotamian plain, is an offset
from Niphates ; it strikes across from the Euphrates in a south-
westerly direction to the Tigris, and is continued on the eastern
side of that river \mder the name of GordieBi Kontet, which return
back in a northerly direction to the central chain. The chief rivei*s
are— the Suphiatet and Tigiiii which seek the Persian Gulf— the
Azazes and the Cynu , which seek the Caspian Sea, uniting, just as
the two former, previously to their discharge — and the Aoampiis*
which flows northwards into the Euxine, These rivers are described
elsewhere (p. 75, 77). There are, as might be expected in a
country where the watershed is so imdecided, several lakes. 0/
these the most important, named Anfoe or Thoipltif, Wan, is in the
S., while Lychnltis, Goutcha, is in the N.E.

§ 14. The Armenians were an Indo-European race, their country
having probably been the very cradle of that branch of the human
family. Of the tribes the Carduchi may be specially noticed, the
progenitors of the modem Kurds, and occupying the same country,
viz. the moimtain ranges eastward of the Tigris on the bordera
of Assyria. Armenia was divided into a large number of districts,
the titles of which are for the most part devoid of interest : we may
notice, however, the following — GogarSne, in the extreme N.,



* This name is sometimes referred to as equiralent to Armenia itself :

Addam nrbes Asiie domitas pulsamque Niphaten. — Viro. Oeorg. Iti. 30.
Cantemus Augusti tropiea

CflDsaris et rigidum Niphaten. — Hok. Carm, ii. 9, 19.



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224 ARMENIA MAJOR. Book 11.

probably the original seat of the people named Gog in Scripture :
Chontee, representing the modem name Kan : floplMit, a conader-
able district about the sources of the Tigris ; and OordTtiie, about
the Gordysei Montes, both of which names contain the elements
of the name Kurdistan, The towns are unnoticed imtil the period
when the Romans entered into the country. We need not infer
that the places which come prominently forward in the history
of their wars were the only or tiie chief towns in existence. We
have evidence in the inscriptions' found at Wan that an ancient
capital stood on the impregnable rock which rises on the eastern
shores of Lake Ajrsissa, and it is doubtful whether the Roman
historians have mentioned even its name. From the tenour of
the inscriptions it may be inferred that the flourishing period of
Wan lasted from B.C. 850 to b.c. 700: tradition assigns the
foimdation of the city to »Semiramis. It is hardly probable,
however, that the towns of Armenia attained any very great
importance: the only purpose that they would serve would be
as trading stations on the routes which have crossed the highlands



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