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highest antiquity, and is to this day described as ^'the mother of
cities ;" it has in all ages been a great commercial entrepot for the mer-
chandise of eastern Asia ; Alexander visited it in the winter of B.C.
328-7. The conqueror erected a city, Alexandria, in this province,
probably at Khtdm, £. of Bactra. Drapta or Drapt&ea, was probably
at Anderdb, in the N.E. of the province.

Bactriana occupies a very conspicuous place both in the mythical and
historical annals of the Greeks. It was visited by Bacchus, according
to Euripides {Baceh, 15), and conquered by Ninus with the aid of Se-
miramis, according to Ctesias. The Bactrians aided at the destnictiou
of Nineveh, and for a while resisted the arms of Cyrus. Bactria formed
the 12th satrapy of Darius, and remained an integral portion of the
Persian empire until its overthrow by Alexander. It was placed under
satra^is by the conqueror, and after his death fell to the Seleucidse.
In the i-eign of AntiochusII., Theodotus threw off the Syrian yoke, and
established an independent sovereignty (b.c. 250). One of his suc-
cessors, Eucratides, about B.C. 181, extended his sway over the western
part of India, and auother, named Menander, advanced his frontier to
the Ganges. The power of this dynasty was overthrown by the ad-
vance of the ScyttuHn tribes, probably about B.C. 100. It ultimately
formed a portion of the Sassanian empire.

4. Bogdiana was bounded on the N. by the Jaxartes, and on the S.
by the Oxus; eastward it was limited by the lofty chain of mountains,
which under the name Comedarum Moutes, Muztagh, runs northwards
from Paropamisus ; westward it stretched away to the Caspian Sea.
It embraced Bokhara and the greater pftrt of Turkestan. The eastern
part of this province is mountainous, a considerable range of mountains
named Oxii Montes, Ak-tagl^^ penetrating westward between the upper
courses of the Oxus and Jaxartes ; while another, the Sogdii Montes,
Karortagh, emanated from the central range more towards the S. The
only important rivers are those which have been noticed as forming
the northern and southern boundaries : of the tributary streams which
joined them we need only notice the Polytimetiu, "the very precious"
river, as the Greek historians rendered the indigenous name, Bogd,
which waters the far-famed valley of Samarcand; the modem name of
the stream, Zar-asshan, means ** gold-scattering," and contains a si-
milai' allusion to the fertility which it spreads about its banks. It
flows into the Ijake of Karakoidt which probably represents the ancient
Oxia Palus.

The Sogdians were allied in race to their neighbours the Bactrians ;
many of the names of the tribes point to a connexion with India.
These are for the moat part devoid of interest ; we may, however,


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notice the Chommii as representing the modem Khar ism, or the desert
between the Caspian and the Sea of Aral. The towns of importance
were— Karacandai Samarcand, on the Polytimetus, which has been in
all ages a great commercial entrepot ; CyretclUlta or Cyropolis, on the
Jaxartes, deriving its name from the tradition that it was the extreme
limit of Cynis's empire ; Alexandria mtima, also on the Jazartes, enters
at or near Khojend, its name implying that it was the farthest town
planted by Alexander in that direction ; Alexandria Oxiana, probably
situatM at KurtHiee, 8. of Samarcand, where is a fertile oasis ; and
Tribaotra, probably representing the modem Bokhara,

§ 9. The countries, which we have just described as the northern
and eastern provinces of the Persian empire, derive a special in-
terest from the military expedition of Alexander the Great, which
gave occasion to the only satisfactory account of them that has reached
us. We therefore append a brief review of that expedition in as
far as its geographical details are concerned, commencing with the
departure of Alexander from Susa.

The ExpeditUm of Alexander (ke Oeo^.— Alexander started on his
Asiatic expedition, m B.C. 834, from his Macedonian capital, Pella. His
early course lay along the N. coast of the JSgsoan Sea by the towns of
Amphipolis, Abdera, and Maronea : he reached the shores of the Hel-
lespont at Sestus, and, while his army crossed directly to Abydos, he
himself went to Elceus, and crossed to the harbour of the Achsnuis, the
old landing-place of Ilium. Having visited the most interesting spots
connected with the history of Troy, he rejoined his army, and advanced
along the coast of the Hellespont by Percote and Hermotus to the
river Granicus, where his first great victory over the Persians was
gained. From the banks of the G^nicus he turned southwards through
the interior of Mysia and Lydia to Sardis, and thence to Ephesus, both
of which surrendered to him without a contest. Miletus was the next
important point, and here he met with determined but ineffectual
resistance. Thence he advanced to the siege of Halicamassus, which
detained him for a considerable time. Having reached the S. angle of
Asia Minor, he turned eastward, and entered Lycia, following the line
of coast by Telmissus and Piuara to Patara, and thence crossing to
Phaselis. In advancing alon^ the coast N. of Phaselis, he traversed
with difficulty the dangerous pass at the foot of Mount Climax, and
reached Perge in Pamphylia, whence he advanced to Side on the sea-
coast, and to Syllium, a place of uncertain position between Side and
Aspendus. He returned to Perge, and struck northwards through the
denies of Taurus by Sagalassus to Cela}nse in Phrygia,and thence across
the plains of that province to Gordium in Bithynia, which he reached
in the early part of the year 333. He halted there for rome two or
three months, and resumed his course in an £. direction as far as
Anoyra, and then S. across Cappadocia to the Cilidan Gates of Taums,
which dangerous pass he traversed without molestation, and descended
on the S. side of Taiitus to the fertile plains of Cilicia. At Tarsus he
halted for sr>me time, and made an excursion thence to Anchialus and
Soli in the W. of Cilicia. Resuming his course from Tarsus in a S. E.
direction, he cro8«)ed the Alelan plun to Mallus at the mouth of the
Pyramu<i, and then followed the line of coast to Issus, and through
tlie gates of Cilicia and Syria to Myriandrus in Syria. Meantime


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Daiius was croflsing the Amanian range by the northern pass which
descends into Cilicia near Issus. Alexander therefore retraced his
steps, and met the enemy on the banks of the Pinanis, where he again
triumphed in the important battle of Issus. From this point Alex-
ander hastened southwards through Syria to Phoenicia, the chief towns
of which (Marathus, Byblus, Sidon) surrendered, with the exception
of Tyre, which sustained a siege of seven months. Thence (in 332) he
followed the coast southwards, and met with no further obstacle until
be reached Gkza, which held out against him for two months. In
seven days he crossed from Qaza to Pelusium on the frontier of Egypt :
he ascended the eastern branch of the Nile to Memphis, and descended
by the western branch to Canopus. After the foundation of Alex-
andria, he made his famous expedition to the oracle of Jupiter Ammon,
reaching it by way of Parstonium on the Mediterranean coast, and
returning to Memphis across the desert. In 331 he retraced his steps
to Phoenicia, and struck across from Tyre to Thapsacus on the Eu-
phrates, and having crossed that river took a northerly route under
the roots of Masius to the Tigris at Nineveh, and again succeeding in
the passage of the river, he advanced to meet the hosts of Darius on the
plain of Qaugamela. A decided victory awaited him, the fruits of which
ne reaped in the surrender of Babylon and Susa, which he visited in
succession, remaining a short time in each. Leaving Susa, he struck
across the mountainous region that separates Susiana from Persis,
defeating the Uxians at the defile that commands the western, and the
Persians at that which commands the eastern entrance to the "Persian
Gates/' and reached Persepolis. In 330 he went in pursuit of Darius
to Eubatana (Hamcidan)^ and Rhagse, and passed through the Caspian
Gates to Hecatompylus (^near Jah Jirm). The lofty range of EUmrz
was surmounted in the invasion of Hyrcania on the borders of the
Caspian Sea, and the forest haunts of the Mardians on the confines of
Qhnan and Jfeuanderan were scoured : Zadracarta (Sari) witnessed the
triumphal entry of the conqueror. From Hyrcania Alexander pro-
ceeded to Parthia, rounding the ridge of EWurz at its eastern extre-
mity, and reached Susia (near Meshed) ; Aria yielded, and he started
for Bactria ; but he was summoned to Artacoana in consequence of a
revolt, and passing through the plain of the Arius {Heri-rud), decided
on founding the city of Alexandna Ariorum, which still survives under
the name Herat. The next point was Prophthasia (near Fufrah)^ the
capital of Drangiana. In 329 Alexander passed up the valley of the
Etymander into Arachosia, where he founded another Alexandria,
now Candahar. The range of Paropanusus intervened between this
and Bactria : at the southern entrance of the pass of Bamian, about
50 miles north-west of Cabul, another Alexandria, sumamed "ad Cau-
oasum," was founded. Surmounting the lofty barrier, he descended
by Drapsaca and Aomus to Bactra, Balk, in the valley of the Oxus.
He crossed the Oxus, probably at Kili/^ and traversed the desert north
of that river to the fertile banks of the Polytimetus, Kohile, and the
town of Maracanda, Samareand ; thence on to Jaxartes, the farthest
limits of the known world, where another Alexandria, sumamed
'• Ultima," was planted, probably on the site o( Khojend. He crossed
the Jaxartes to attack the Scythians, and received homage, not only
from them, but from the distant Sacse. The disaster of his general,
Phamuches, recalled him to Maracanda, and led him in pursuit of the
enemy down the valley of the Oxus to the edge of the desert of Khiva,
He returned by the course of the Polytimetus, and passed the winter


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of 329 at Baotra. The visit of I^rasmaneB, king of the Choras-
miana, gavo him an opportunity of acquiring some information relative
to the extensive steppe about the Sea of Aral. In 328 Alexander re-
entered Sogdiana, and achieved the capture of a stronghold named the
" Sogdian Rock/' probably near the pass of Derhmd^ whence he re-
turn^ to Maracanda. He next visited the district of Xenippa, about
10 miles N. oi Bokhara, and returned to winter at Nautaca. In 327
Alexander invaded Parsetacene, somewhere eastward of Bactria, and
took the stronghold of Chorienes. He returned to Bactra, whence he
started for his Indian campaign. Having crossed Paropamisus, he
descended the course of the Cophen, Cabtd, by Nicsea, probably the
same as Ortospana or Cabura (the modem CahuD^ to its junction with
the Choes, also called Choaspes and Evaspla (the modem Kamah),
where he turned off into the mountain district intervening between
the Cabul and the Indus : the river Guneus in that district is probably
the Punjkoraf which runs parallel to the Choes; the towns (Jorydala
and ArigFDum stood at the foot of the Indian Caucasus, near the
sources of these streams ; descending the Gursus he seized Massaga
and the strongholds Ora and Bazira, between the Guneus and Indus ;
he returned to the Cophen at Peucela, a place not far westward of
the junction of the Cophen and Indus— -descended the stream to Em-
bolima — followed up the right bank of the Indus for a short distance
to attack the stronghold of Aomus, and having captured it, onwards
to Dyrta, probably at the point where the Indus forces its passage
through the Hindoo Koosh, whence he returned to the junction of
the Cophen. In 326 he crossed the Indus at this point and advanced
into the Punjab by Taxila (the ruins of which still exist at Manikyda)
to the banks of the Hydaispes, Jdum, one of the five rivers of the
district ; the spot at which he crossed that river, as well as the sites of
the towns Nicsea and Bucephala, which were built to commemorate,
the former his victory over Poms, the latter his passage of the river,
cannot be identified. Proceeding eastward, he reached the Acesincs,
Chenah, and the Hydraotes, Bavee, which he crossed to Sangala, the
modem Lahore, Proceeding still eastward, he reached the banks of
the Hyphasis, OharrcL, below the jimction of the Hesudms, Sutledj. '
This formed the eastern limit of his discoveries. He returned to the
Hydaspes, where a fleet had been prepared for his army, and dropped
down that stream to its jimction with the Acesines, turning aside to
the capture of the city of the Malli, 3fooftan— then down the Acesines
to its junction with the Indus, at which point he built an Alexandria,
probably at Mittun — and then down the Indus to Pattala at the head
of the Delta. In 326 he separated from his fleet, sending Nearchus
to explore the coasts of the Indian Ocean to the mouth of the Tigris,
while he himself took a land route through Gedrosia and Carmania.
His, intention had been to follow the line of coaKt, but finding this
impracticable from the excessive heat and sterility of that district, he
struck into the interior, and passing by Pura, probably Bunpur, he
reached the frontier of Carmania, his army having endured terrible
sufferings in the passage across the Gedrosian desert. His route through
Carmania and Persia was comparatively easy ; passing through Pasar-
gadse and Peraepolis in the latter province, he finally gained Susa. The
> voyage of Nearchus was successful, but presents few topics of interest
to us ; he followed the coast to the entrance of the Persian Gulf, put
in near the mouth of the Anamis, Ibrahim, a little eastward of the isle
of Ormuz, and thence reetuned his course to the mouth of the Tigris.

M 3


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250 INDIA, Book II.

§ 10. India was a term used somewhat mdefinitely for the
country lying eastward of the river Indus. Down to the time of
Alexander, it was confined to the districts immediately adjacent to
that river ; under the Seleucidae, it was extended to the hanks of
the Ganges ; in Ptolemy's geography, it comprehends all the coun-
tries between the Indus and the Eastern Ocean, which were grouped
into two great divisions, India intra Gangcm, and India extra Gan-
gem. The details of ,the geography of these vast regions are for the
most part devoid of interest to the classical student ; but they have
their special interest both for those who are acquainted with Indian
topography, and in connexion with the history of geography and
commerce. It would be out of our province to go into the former
subject, and therefore we shall confine ourselves to a general sketch,
with a si^ecial reference to the latter subject.

(1.) In addition to the more important physical features already
noticed/ we may further adduce the following as being known to the
ancient geogi-aphera : (1 .) Mountains— Beitigo (the OhaU), and Vindius
(VindJiya). (2.) Promontories — Comaria (Comorin)^ Cory or Calligi-
cum (near the S.W. end of the peninsula), Prom. Aure» Chersonesi,
the southern termination of the Sinus Sabaricus ; Malaei Colon, on the
W. coast of the Golden Peninsula ; and Prom. Magnum, the western
side of the Sin. Magnus. (3.) Gulfs and Bays- 8. Canthi ((?. of
CuMi), S. Barygazenus (G. of Cambay), S. Colchicus {B. of Ma9iaar\,
and S. Argaricus, opposite Taprobane (probably PaVt's Bay). (4).
Rivers — Namadua (Nerbudda), Nanaguna {Tapty), along the shores of
the Indian Ocean; along the W. side of the Bay of Bengal, Chaberis
(Caveri), Tyudis (Kistna), Maesolus {Godavery), Dosaron {Mahanadt),
and Adainas {Brafimini).

(2.) The principal states on the coast from W. to E. were — Pat-
talene {Lotoer Scinde), with its capital Pattala (Tatta) ; Syrastrene,
W. of the G. of Cambay; Lance, along the Indian Ocean from the
Nerbudda to the G. of Cambay^ with Ozene {Oujein) as its capital;
farther S., Ariaca, with Hippocui-a {Ilydrabad) ; Dachinabades {Dee-
can) ; Limyrica, near Mangalore, with Corura {Coimbaiore) for its
capital; Cottiara (CWtm) and Comaria, at the end of the x>enin8ula ;
Pandionis Regnum, on the S.E. coast with Modm-a {Mathura) for its
capital ; then in order up the eastern coast, the Arvami with Malanga
(Madras) ; Mtesolia, in the part of the coast now called Ciroars ; the
Calingse ; and the Gkugarida;,' with Gauge (somewhere near CalaUta)
for their capital. In the interior, commencing from the W., a race of
Scythians occupied in the days of Ptolemy an extensive district on the
banks of the Indus, comprising the modem Scinde and Punjab ; Cas-
piria [Cashmir), lay moi*e to the N. ; the Caspirroi between the Hyphasis
and the Jomaues : on the course of the Ganges, the Gangani ; the

« P. 76.
* The conquest of this remote people was attribated to Aognstiu in the most
ftil*^nne ftyle of adulation —

In foribuB pugnam ex auro solidoque elephanto
Gangaridum faciam, >*ictorisqae arma Qoirini.

YiBo. Oeory, iii. 27.


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Mandalao with the town Palimbothra {Patna) ; and the liarundsd, thence
to Calcutta,

(3.) The chief commercial towns were — along the western coast of
Hindostan, Pattala {Tatta), Barygaza {Baroeh^, Calliene {OaUian\
Muziris {Mcoimdor^y and Nelkynda {Ndiceram) ; while there were
three principal emporia for merchandize — Ozene {Oujein), the chief
mart of foreign commerce, and for the transmission of goods to Bary-
gaza, Tagara ^probably Deogkir in the Deoaan), and Plithana {PuUa-
nah on the Uodavery). Along the Eegio Paralia, and on the Coro-
mandel coast were several important ports ; in the kingdom of Pandion,
were extensive pearl-fisheries. Further to the N. were— Msesolia {Ma-
mtUwUam), famous for its cotton goods ; and Gange, near the mouth
of tne Ganges, a mart for muslin, betel, pearls, kc,

(4.) The productions of India best known to the Romans were its
ivory, its gold and gems,^ its frankincense,* and its ebony.*

§ 11. The important island of Taprob&nei otherwise called SaUoe,
CeyUm, has been frequently noticed in connexion with the history
of geography. It was well known to the ancients from its com-
mercial importance.^ According to Pliny it contained no less than
500 toMms, the chief of which was named Palttdmimdiimi probably
the same as is elsewhere called Anurogrammon, which remained
the capital from B.C. 267 to a.d. 769. The island is but seldom
alluded to in classical literature.*

§ 12. The Bins occupied a district of undefined limits to the
N.E. of India extra Gangem, stretching to Serica in the N. It
probably included the moder^ districts of Tonguin, Cochin-China^
and the southern portion of China* This district is first described
by Ptolemy, who evidently had but a very imperfect knowledge of
it. The towns of most importance were— Thlnat either Nankin^
or Thsin in the province of Schensi ; and Cattigara* perhaps Canton.

{13. Serloa was a district in the E. of Asia, the position of
which is variously described by ancient writers, but which is gene-
rally supposed to have occupied the N.W. angle of China, The
name of Serica as a country was not known before the first century
of our era, but the Seres as a people are mentioned by Ctesias and
other early writers. It is uncertain whether the name was an indi-

* India mittit ebur. ^Yieo. Georp, i, 07.
Indum sanguineo yeloti riolarerit ostro

81 qais ebur. lo. JSn. xii. 67.

NOn anrom, ant ebnr Indicom. Hoa. Carm, i. 81, 6.

Gemmis et dentibos Indis. Ov. MeL xi. 167.

* Et domitas grates, thnrifer Inde, toas. Or. Fast. iii. 720.
Thura neo Euphrates, nee miserat India costom. Id, i. 341.

1 Sola India nigrum

Pert ebennm. Vnio. Oeorg. IL 116.

* It consisted of pearls and precious stones, especially the ruby and the emerald.

* Ant ubi TM>robanen Indica eingit aqua. Or. fx Pont, I, 5, 80.


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genous one, or was transferred from the silkworm to the district in
which the insect was found. The country is described as very
fertile, with an excellent climate, its most valuable production being
silk.** The method by which oonunerce was carried on with this
distant people has been already described (p. 80).

§ 14. l^e .vast regions lying between Serica in the E., Sarmatia
Asiatica in the W., and India in the S., were included under the
general name of Soythia, the limits to the N. being wholly unknown.
The modem districts of Tibet^ Tartary^ and a large portion of
Siberia, may be regarded as answering to it. Very little was known
of these remote regions : Herodotus was only acquainted with the
names of the tribes to the N. of the Euxine and Caspian Seas, and
no succeeding writer adds much to his information until we come
down to the age of Ptolemy. By him the country was divided into
two parts, Scythia intra and S. extra Imaum, in other words
Scythia W. and E. of Imaus, by which he designated the northern
ranges of Bdor and its continuations. The mountains and rivers,
which received special names in ancient geography, have been
already noticed (pp. 74, 77).

§ 15. The origin and ethnological affinities of the Scythians are
involved in great obscurity. Into these questions it is un-
necessary for us to enter, particularly as we have no i-eason to
suppose that the name, as applied by Ptolemy, indicated any one
special race, but rather included all the nomad tribes of Central
Asia. It is a matter of more interest for us to know that these
tribes have left traces of their existence amid the gold mines of the
Altai ranges, and in numerous sepulchres and ruined buildings, the
high antiquity of which is undoubted. The conclusion drawn from
these remains is that those nations had attained a higher degree of
civilisRtion than we should have expected : their skill in metallurgy
is particularly conspicuous. Of the special tribes we may notice —
the Aoni* between the Daix and the Jaxartes, a people who carried
on an extensive trade with India and Babylonia ; the MassagStae,
who frequented the steppes of Independent Tartary about the Sea of
Aral ; the 8ao9. who occupied the steppes of the Kirghiz Khasaks
and the regions both E, and W. of Bdor, through whom the trade
was carried on between China and the west, as already described ;
the Argipptti* the progenitors of the Calmucks, who Uved in the
Altai ; and the IstedSnM* in the steppes of Kirghiz qf Ichim,

« Quid, quod UbelU Stoici inter Sericon
Jacere pulvUlos amant! Hob. J^jpotf. Tiii. 16.

It was suppoaed at one time that the Seres obtained the sabstanoe from the
Icavoa of treea. Virgil ailudes to this in the line —

** Velleraqne at foliis depectant tenuia Seres r—(7tfor^. IL 121.


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The Mile doling tlie Inundation, with the t^o OdIossI of Thebes (Wllkltuon).




§ 1. Boundaries; Name. § 2. Seas. § 3. Natural divisions. § 4.
Mountains. § 5. The Nile. § 6. The Oases. § 7. Commerce.
§ 8. Productions. § 9. Commercial routes. § 10. Ethnology.
§ 11. Political divisions.

§ 1. The contiDcnt of Africa, as known to the ancients, was
bounded by the Marc Internum on the N. ; the Oceanus Atlanticus
on the W. ; and Hie Isthmus of Arsinoe, the Arabicus Sinus, and the
Marc Erythraeum on the E. Its southern limit was unknown:
Herodotus indeed oorrectly describes it as surrounded by water, but
the progress of geographical knowledge tended to weaken rather
than confirm this belief, and the latest opinion was, that below the
equator the coast of Africa trended eastward, and formed a junction
with the coast of Asia, converting the Indian Ocean into an inland
sea. How far the continent may have extended to the S. does not
appear to have been even surmised ; the actual knowledge of the
interior was limited to the basin of the Niger^ while the E. coast
had been partly explored to about 10® S. lat., and the W. coast to
about 8® N. lat , or the neighbourhood of Sierra Leone. But even


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254 AFRICA. Book III.

the greater part of the continent within these limits was, and still
is, a terra incognita. The portion of the continent of which the
ancients possessed any adequate knowledge was restricted to the
districts contiguous to the N. coast and the valley of the Nile.

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