Sir William Smith William Latham Bevan.

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Ethiopians, and constituted a Roman fortress (b.c. 23). There is a
temple of Hermes Trismegistus at Dakheh, founded by Ergamenes, a
contemporary of Ptolemy I'hiladelphus. WbnL Syoaminiis was an ex-
tensive mart on the southein frontier, probably at Wady Maharrakah,
The lesser towns in this district were — Parembole, Debot, a fortress on
the Egyptian border, with a temple of I sis founded by Ashar-Amun,
and adorned by Augustus and Tiberius, of which there are considerable
remains ; Taphis, Teffa^ with lai^ stone-quarries near it ; Tntiis, the
ruins of which are at Oerf Hossoyn, consisting of a rock-temple of the
reign of Rameses the Great, with numerotis figures ; Taehompeo, on an
island opposite Pselds, and hence named Oontra-Pfeloia, when the
latter place rose to importance : its position cannot be ascertained, as
no island exists opposite the site of Pselds : the lake noticed by Hero-
dotus (ii. 29) was merely a reach of the Nile.

(2.) In Ethiopia Proper. — Nap&ta, the northern capital, was situ-
ateid probably at the £. extremity of the great bend which the Nile
makes in about 19^ N. lat., and near Gebel-d-Birkely where are found,
on the left bank of the Nile, two temples dedicated to Osiris and
Ammon, richly decorated with sculptures, and some p2^ramids. The
two Egyptian lions which now adorn the British Museum were brought
from this spot. Judging from its ruins, Nap&ta must have been a
very wealthy place, in. consequence of its being the terminus of the
routes from Gagaudes in the N.W., and Meroe in the S.E. It was the
capital of Ethiopia under the Sabacos and Tu-haka, who extended
their sway over Upper Egypt ; and it was the most southerly point
that the Romans reached. It sunk after its capture by Petronius,
B.C. 22. The town of KeroS stood about 90 miles S. of the jimction
of the Astaboras with the Nile, at Dankalahf where its site is marked
by some pyramids. In addition to this, ruins of cities, whose names
have penshed, extend for a considerable distance near the Nile be-
tween 16^ and 17^ N. lat., consisting of numerous temples, colonnades,
and mounds of bricks. The architecture bespeaks a late age of Egyp-
tian art. MeroS was the seat of a powerful state, in which the priest-
hood exercised great influence, while the sceptre was often held by
females, with the official name of Candace. When the Egyptian mon-
archs extended their sway over Northern Ethiopia, Meroe remained
independent. In the time of the Romans, however, it was an unim-
portant place. In the same district wei*© two towns named Prixnii,
Parva, and ICagna, the former of which, also named Premnis, is placed
near the northern frontier at Ibrinit and was a fortress capturod by
Petronius, and afterwards retained by the Romans as an advanced post ;
the other was to the S. of Nap&ta, not far from Meroe. Anxftme stood
£. of the Astaboras, in about 14^ 7'.N. lat., and is represented by
Axum, the capital of Ttgre : it was a place of considerable trade, and
attained a high degree of prosperity arter the fUl of Meroe in the let


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or 2nd cent, of our era. From the fact of Qreek being spoken there,
it was not improbably a colony of Adule. The most interesting relics
of the old town are an* obelisk 60 feet high, and a square enclosure
with a seat, reputed to be the throne of the old kings. Auxume was
the seat of a bishoprick, as we learn from a rescript of Constantius
Nicophorus about a.d. 356.

(3.) Oh the Coast.— Adflle, ThuUa, on the bay of the Red Sea named
after it, is said to have been founded by fugitive slaves from Egypt.
Under the Romans it served as the port of Auxume, and it was then a
plaoe of extensive trade. It possessed a famous inscription, named
Monumentum Adulitanum, copied by Cosmas in the 6th cent, a.d., in
which the proceedings of Ptoletiay Euergetes are recorded. Ptolem&if
Tharon, originally a town of the Troglodytes on the Red Sea, was se-
lected by Ptokmy Philadelphiis (b.c. 282-246) as the spot wiienoe
elephant-hunting should be prosecuted : it hence became a plaoe of lai^
trade, both in elephants and in ivory. Its position is uncertain, but it
was probably not far from Adule. Equally uncertain is the position
of Babtt in the same neighbourhood, one of the places at which the
Sabseans of the Bible dwelt, while another place of the same name
.ptood on the opposite coast of Arabia.

Of the other towns on the coast we may briefly notice — ^Aninoii a
port in the country of the Troglodytes, once called Olbia; Berenice
ranehr^fiiflt in the Troglodyte countiy, named the *< All-golden,"
from the mines of Jebd Ollaki near it ; a second Ardnodi near the
entrance of the Red Sea; and Berenloe Epideiree, deriving its surname
from its position ** on a neck " of land at the Straits of Baihd-Mandeb :
it was also called Deixe : Ptolemy Philadelphus favoured it, and named
it after his sister Berenice.

(4.) On Oie Indian Ocean. — Ibdao, probably at Berhera, was a mart
for gum, cattle, slaves, and ivory. Bhapta was the collective name of
several villages (probably opposite the isle of Paia)^ so called from the
•* sewed" boats, i.e. fastened by fibres instead of nails, which were used
there : it was the most distant trading station known on this coast.

Hitbory. — Ethiopia was intimately connected with Egypt, and not un-
frequently was under the same sovereign. Among the predecessors of
Sesortasen were eighteen Ethiopian kings. Sesortasen himself is said
to have conquered Ethiopia. The 13th dynasty took refuge there
during the occupation of the Hyksos. The 16th and 18th dynasties also
oonquered it; and the monuments of Thothmes I., II., III., and IV.,
prove the extent of their sway to have reached as far as Na(4ita. In the
8th cent. b.c. an .Ethiopian dynasty extended their sway over Lower
Egypt, under the kings Sabaco, Sebichus (the So of Scripture), and
Taracus (Tirhakah\ In the reign of Psammetichus (b.c. 63o) the whole
of the war-caste of Egypt migrated to iBthiopia, and settled probably
in the district we have assigned to them. Cambyses endeavoured to
conquer Ethiopia, but fiedled : nevertheless the Persian occupation of
the Nile-vallev opened the country considerably; and subsequently,
under the Ptolemies, the arts and commerce of the Greeks were fully
introduced. In the reign of Augustus an Ethiopian army advanced
to the borders of Egypt : they were repulsed by Petronius, and piursued
as far as Nap&ta. The Roman supremacy was acknowledged from that
time (B.C. 23) until Diocletian's reign (a.d. 284-305). The frequent
notices of ^Ethiopia in the Old Testament have been already referred
to. In the New Testament, the only occasion on which the name
occurs is in ooonexion with t&e conversion of the eunuch of Queen


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Ruina of Cyrene. (From Hamilton.)


Marmaeica, Cyrenaica, Syrtica, Africa Propria, Numidia,
Mauretania, Lidya Interior.

I. Marmabica. § 1. Boundsiries ; inhabitants ; towns. II. Cybenaica.
§ '2. Boundaries and position. § 3. Promontories ; hills. § 4.
Inhabitants ; towns ; history. § 5. The Nasamones ; Oasis of
Aiigila. III. Syrtica. §6. Boundaries; physical features. §7.
Inhabitants ; towns ; islands. IV. Africa Propria. § 8. Bound-
aries. § 9. Position and physical character. § 10. Mountains ;
rivers. §11. Inhabitants; towns. §12. Carthage. §13. The
Roman divisions ; towns ; history. V. Numidia. § 14. Boundaries.
§ 15. Mountains; rivers. § 16. Inhabitants; towns; history.
VI. Mauretania. § 17. Boundaries. § 18. Mountains ; rivers.
§19. Inhabitants; towns; history. Vll. Libya Interior. §20.
Boundaries; physical features. §21. Inhabitants. §22. Islands
off the coast of Africa.

I. — Marmarica.

§ 1. Karmarioa was a barreD nnd sandy strip skirting the Medi-
terranean from the valley of the Nile in the E. to Cyrenaica in the
W. : it answers to the modem Desert of Barkah, It was divided by



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Ptolemy into two parts, Libycus Nomos in the E., and Marmaricus
Nomos in the W., the point of separation being at the Catabathmus
Magnus. The chief physical features in this district are the two
singular ** descents " (icord^a^fiot, Akdbah)^ where the land
slopes off from a considerable elevation on the shore down to the
interior : they were named Catabathmus. KagnnSf which rises to
900 feet, and which extends towards the Oasis of Ammonium in the
S.E. ; and 0. ICinor 500 feet high, more to the E. near Para^tonium,
The only river is the Palitims* Teminehy on the W. border. The
Marmarldse, after whom the district was named, are not noticed by
Herodotus,' but appear as the principal tribe in these parts ))etween
the age of Philip of Macedon and the third cent, of our era : the
limits assigned to their abode by the ancient geographers vary
considerably. The chief towns were TapoiIris> " the tomb of Osiris,"
about 26 miles from Alexandria, where Justinian constructed a
town-hall and baths ; Apis* about 12 miles W. of Parsetonium ;
and ParsBtonium or Ammonia* Baretotm, possessing a fine harbour.
Alexander started from this point to visit the oracle at Ammon,
B.C. 332 ; and Antony stopped here after the battle of Actium : it
was fortified by Justinian. There were numerous lesser ports, one
of which, Plynns* was probably the same as Panormus ; another
owed its name, MenelU Portiii> to the tradition that Menelaus
landed there ; while Chersonetns Magna stood near the promontory
of the same name on the border of Cyrenaica, and was named
•' Magna " in contradistinction to " C. Parva" near Alexandria.

II.— Cyrenaica,
§ 2. The district generally called Cyrenaloa after its chief town
Cyrene, and occasionally Pentapdlii after the five confederate towns

' It is not improbable that the Giligammic of Herodotas are the same people
as the MarmaridoB of later writers : no subseqaent writer notices the Giligammoe.
The Marmaridn are fluently noticed by the later Latin poets :
Oens unica terras

Incolit a soiro serpentmn ir.noxia morsn,

Marmaridffi Psylli : par lingua potentibus herbis :

Ipse cruor tntus, nullumque admittere virus,

Vel cantn oessante, potest. Lvc. ix. 801.

Misti Garamante perusto

Marmaridfe volacres. Luc. ir. 679.

MarmaridiB, mcdioum valgra^ strepaere catervis :

Ad quopom eantus serpens oblita reneni,

Ad quorum tactum mites jacuere cerasto*. — Sil. Ital. iil. 800.
The Adyrmachidflo of Herodotus, whom we have already noticed (p. 38) as living
on the coast, appear to have retired into the interior : they are noticed by Silius

Yersioolor contra c®tra, et fUcatas ab arte

Ensis Adyrmachidis ac Icevo tegmina crure. — iii. 278.


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QD it, extended along the coast of the Mediterranean from Cher-
sonesQs Magnus in the £., where it touched Marmarica to Arte
Philenonim at the bottom of the Greater Syrtis in the W. The
portion of this territory which was actually occupied by the Greeks
consisted of the table-land and the adjacent coast, which here
projects in a curved form into the sea to the N.E. of the Syrtis.
The position and physical character of this region were highly
fevourable. It lies directly opposite Peloponnesus at a distance of
200 miles. Its centre is occupied by a moderately elevated table-
land, which sinks down to the coast in a succession of terraces, and
is throughout clothed with verdure and intersected by mountain
streams running through ravines filled with the richest vegetation.
Bain is abundant ; and the climate is tempered by the sea breezes
from the N., and by ranges of mountains, which shut out the heat
of the Sahara from the S. It produced com, oil, wine, dates, figs,
almonds, and other fruits, and especially the plant sQphium or
laserpittum, whence the medical gum called laser was extracted,
and which was the emblem of the country. Its honey and horses
were also famed.

§ 3. The most striking physical features in this district are the
promontories, of which we may notice from E. to W., ChenoneiiiB
Magna) Has et-Tin ; ZephyrlTuiiy O, Deme ; Phyonit Has Sem, the
most northern headland in this part of Africa; and BorSmn* Ban
TeyonaSy on the E. coast of the Syrtis. The range of hills, which
runs parallel to the coast of the Syrtis, was named Heroulis Ar8xi8B>
" the sands of Hercules ; " S.W. of these were the Velpl Mts.« and
more to the E., on the S. frontier, the BflBCoIXeiii Mi. The only
river was the small stream Lathon, which joins the sea N. of
Boreum. Near it wa^ the little lake called Triton or Laons Hei-
pwldum, which some of the ancients confounded with that at the
bottom of the Lesser Syrtis.

§ 4. The inhabitants of this district in the age of Herodotus were
the Libyan tribes of the Giligammae in the E., the Asbystae in the
centre, and the Auschisae in the W. These were driven from the
coast by Greek settlers who first entered under Battus, the founder
of Cyrene, B.C. 631, and who gradually gained possession of the
whole coast, erecting, in addition to Cyrene, Apollonia which served
as its port, Teuchira and Hesperldes on the coast of the Syrtis, and
Barca about 12 miles from the N. coast. These five formed the
original Pentapolis. Under the Ptolemies, various changes took
place : the name of Hesperides was supplanted by that of Berenice,
and Teuchira by Arsinoe. Barca sank and its port assumed its
position under the name of Ptolemais : Cyrene also waned before
the growing prosperity of its port Apollonia, Henceforward the
Pentapolis consisted of the cities of Cyrene, Apollonia, Ptolemais,



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292 CYRENAICA. Book 111.

ArsinoC, and Berenice. The country continued to flourish under
the Romans until the time of Trajan, when the Jews who had
settled there in large numbers under the Ptolemies, rose and mas-
sacred the Romans and Cyrenajans. From this time it declined,
and the ruin of the Greek towns was completed by the Persian
Chosroes in a.d. 616.

Ruins of Ptolemaia, the port of Barca. (From Hamilton.)

Taking the towns in order from E. to W., we first meet with Apol-
lonia, originally only the port of Cyrene, but afterwards the more
important town of the two : it was the birthplace of Eratosthenes, the
geographer. It^'site at Marsa Soumh is marked by the splendid niins
of several temples, the citadel, a theatre, and an aqueduct. Cyrene,
founded by colonists from Thera,^ stood on the edge of the upper of

" The foandation of Cyrene is described in the following lines, Calliste being ■
the poetical designation of Thera : the city is dignified with the title *' divine,"
and its tutulary goddess represented as seated on a golden throne : —
Kal, AoKtiai'
IJLOvCnv inixBimt^ av^pStv
HBtoxv, iv WOT* KoA-

AioToi' ds-^mfo-ay XP^^ *

Vaaw' ivdtv V vfi^xi Aaroi-

6at inop€v Axfivas mSioy
Ivy Otitv rtfMUf o^A-

Acif, offTv xf'Vfrotfpoi'Ov
^lavtiitiv $tiov Kvpdvaf
'Of>96fiov\ov iirrriv e^pofAcVoif.— PlM>' P^th. It. 457.



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Chap. XVI. TOWNS. 293

two terraces apme 1800 feet above the sea, from 'which it was 10 miles
distant ; the spot was selected in consequence of a beautiful foimtaiu,
named Cyre,*' which bursts forth there and which the Greeks dedicated
to Apollo. Its commerce
was considerable, particu-
larly in 9ilphium,* and it
held a distinguished place
in literatiu^, as the birth-
place of Aristippus, the
founder of the Cyrenasan I
school ; of Carneaides, the
founder of the New Aca-
demy at Athens ; and of

the poet Callimachus. Its Gof n of Cyrene.

ruins at Grennah are very

extensive, and contain remains of streets, aqueducts, temples, theatres,
and tombs. In the fetce of the terrace, on which the city stands, is a
vast subterraneous necropolis. Cyrene was governed by a dynasty,
named the Battiadse,^ in
which the kings bore alter-
nately the names of Battus
and Arcesilaus, from b.c. /
630 to about 430, after
which it became a repub- I
lie. It was made a Ro- ^
man colony with the name
of Flavia. FtolemaiB was
erectied by the Ptolemies,

and was peopled with the Coin of Barca.

inhabitants of Barca on

the former site of the port of that town. Its ruins are in part covered
by the sea. Barea stood on the summit of the terraces which overlook the
W. coast of the Syrtis, in the midst of a well-watered* and fertile plain.

In another passage of the same poet we have other characteristicfl of the place
noticed — its fertility, the white colour of its chalk cliffy, and the celebrity of
its horses : —

X/y^ow oucurr^pa Bdrrov
Kopiro^opov AtjpvcuSt itpav
NeUrov <iK ifiii \jLrrit¥
Krurcreiei' ndpfiarov

UoKiv ip apyitf6€itn /awMrry.— Id. Pyth, iv. 10.
* Oi ^ ovrw m/y^ Kvpi^ iSvvoMTO vtkava-at
Awpc^cv. Callix. Hymn, in Apoll. 88.

^ Quam magnos nnmerus LibyssfD arenee
Laserpieiferi* jacet Cyrenis,
Oraculum Jovis inter eestncMi,
£t Batti veteris sacrum sepulcrum. — Catull. vii. 3.
2 Et iniquo e Sole calentes

Battiadas late imperio sceptrisque regebat. — Sil. Ital. ii. 60.
• Nee non Cyrene Pclopci stirpe nepotis

Battiadas praTos fldel Btiniula%it in arma. — Sil. Ital. iii. 252.
* The epithet arida in the following passages must be held to refer, not to the
actual site of the town, but to the neighbouring desert table-land : —



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It was founded aboat B.C. 554, by some disaffected citizens of Oyrene
joined by some Libyans, and it soon became so powerful as to deprive
Cyrene of her supremacy over the western district. In b.c. 510 it was
besieged by the Persians at the instigation of Pheretima, mother of
Arcesilaus III., and after a siege of nine months was taken and its
inhabitants transplanted to Bactria. The name however survived, and
is somewhat vaguely applied by Virgil^ to a Libyan tribe in the neigh-
bourhood. Barca still forms one of the divisions of Tripoli. Taiu
ehira or Tauohira, afterwards Aziinot, was particularly noted for the
worship of Cybele. It was founded by Cyrene, and its site is still
called Tochira. HMperldef, afterwards Berenice, derived its first
name from the notion that the &bled gardens of the Hesperides^ were
found in the fertile districts of Cyrene,' and its second from the
wife of Ptolemy Euergetes, who raised it to a state of commercial
prosperity. Off the northern coast is the small island of Platea, on
which the Therseans first settled.

History. — The early history of Cyrenaica has been already given :
it was subjected to Egypt by Ptolemy son of Lagus, B.C. 321. The
last of the Cyrenssan kin^, Apion, bequeathed it to the Romans b.c. 95,
who gave the cities their freedom, but, in consequence of their *db-
sensions, reduced it to a province (probably in B.C. 75), and united it
with Crete, b.c. 67. In Constantine's division it was constituted a
distinct province. Its connexion with Biblical history is briefly told.
We have already mentioned that vast numbers of Jews were settled
there : these visited Jerusalem periodically, as on the dav of Pentecost
Acts ii. 10). One of them, named Simon, was selected to carry our
lour*s cross to Calvary (Luke zxiii. 26).

§ 6. In the interior, S. of Cyrene, dwelt the important tribe of
the NaMmdnee* wbo extended their territory as far as the shores of
the Syrtis westward, and inland to the Oasis of Augila : they had

^ (Act
■ — «axi<

Adftdt ondofla oretas Berenicide miles

Noc, tereti dextras in pugnam armata dolone,

Destituit Baroe sitientilraB arida venii.— 8ix» Ital. UL 249.

.Stemumqae arida Baroe. — Id. ii. 62.

* Hino deterta siti regis latequo farentos
Barcffli. 2En. ir. 42.

» Fuit aarea sllva,

DiTitiisqae graves et ftilvo genuine rami,
Virgineosque chorus, nitidi custodia luci,
£t nanquam somno damnatus lumina serpens,
Robora eoroplexus rutilo corvata metallo.
Abstulit arboribus pretium, nemorique laborem
Aloides : passosque inopes sine pondere ramoe,
Rctolit Argolioo fUlgentia poma tyranno. — Lvc. ix. 860.

* The following extract from a modem writer Jostifles the -seleotion as a matter
of taste : ** The rest of the Journey (to Grennah) was over a range of low undu-
lating hills, offsring perhaps the most lovely sylvan seenery in the world. The
country is like a most bcautiftilly arranged Jardin Anglaitj covered with pyra-
midal clumps of evergreens, variously disposed, as if by the hand of the most
refined taste ; while hosqwU of Junipers and cedars, relieved by the pale olive
and the bright green of the tall arbutus tree, afford a most grateful shade fhun
the midday sun. *~*Hamiltok's Wandering* in Africa, p. 81.


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a bad reputation among the Romans as wreckers.7 The Oasis (
of AngUa lies due S. of Gyrene between the 29^ and 30° of N. lat.,
and was in ancient times the source whence the Nasamonians
obtained their annual supply of dates, which they carried north-
wards to their head-quarters near the sea. It consists in reality
of three oases, the largest of which retains the name of AujUahy and
is still famous for its dates. Each of the oases is a small hill
rising out of an unbroken plain of red sand.

III. — Stetica Regio.

§ 6. Syrtloa was a narrow strip of coast land extending along
the Mediterranean Sea for about 100 miles between the Greater and
Lesser Syrtes. Its character is sufficiently attested by its name
Syrtis (from the Arabic sert " desert ") : it is so overwhelmed with
sand that men and even vessels are sometimes buried beneath the
accumulations carried by storms. The Syrtes are the two large
bays which form the angles of the Syrtic sea, as already described.
The dangers connected with the navigation of this sea existed
chiefly in the imaginations of poets.' The most important pro-
montories were OephilsB or TriSron, CefalOf at the W. extremity of
the Greater Syrtis, and Zeitha. at the E. extremity of the Lesser.

7 Hoc tarn segue solum raras tamen ezserit herbas,

Quas Nasamon gens dura legit, qui proxima ponto

Kudos rura tenet, quern mnndi barbara damnls

Syrtis alit. Nam^ littoreis ]>opulator arenis

Imminet, et nulla portus tangente carina

NoTit opes. Sic cum toto oommercia mnndo

Naufragiis Nscsamones habent. Lire. ix. 438.

Hoc colt nquoreuB Nasamon, inradere fluctu

Audax naufragia, et prsdas avellere ponto. — Sil. Ital. iiL 820.
* Syrtes rel primam mundo Natura figoram

Cum daret, in dubio pelagi terrseque reliquit :

(Nam neque snbsedit penitus, quo stagna proftindi

Acdperet, nee se defendlt ab ssquore tellus ;

Ambigua sed lege loci jacet invia sedes :

^uora ftracta vadis, abmptaque terra proftmdo,

Et post multa sonant project! littora fluctus.

Sic male deseruit, nullosque exegit in usus

Hanc partem Natura sui :} yel plenior alto

Olim SyrtLs erat pelago, penitosque natabat ;

Sed rapidns Titan ponto sua lumina pascens

JEquora subduxit zon» vicina perustm :

Et nunc pontus adhuc Pbccbo siccante repugnat.

Mox nbi damnosum radios admoverit nnun,

Tellus Syrtis erit : nam Jam breVls tmda supeme

Innatat, et late periturum deficit lequor.— Luc. ix. 303.

Tree Eurus ab alto
In breria et Syrtea urget, miserabile visu ;
Illiditque radis, atque aggere dngit aren». — JSIn. i. 110.


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There are two small rivers — the Cinyps' in the E., which has not
been identified; and the Triton,^ el-Hammah, in the W., which
formerly flowed through a series of lakes, Libya palus, Pallas, and
Tritonitis : it now gains the sea by a direct course, and the three
lakes are merged in one named Shibk-el-Lowdeah, The most
valued productions of this country were tlie lotus, and a species of
precious stone known as Syrtides gemmce.

§ 7. The native tribes occupying this district in the time of
Herodotus were the Lotoph&gi about the Syrtis Minor, and the
Oind&nes more to the W. The former were so named from the
custom, which still prevails there, of eating the fruit and drinking a
wine extracted from the juice of the Zizyphus Lotus or jujube tree,

^ The Cinyps was famed for the fine goats* hair produced about it :

Nee minus interea barbas incanaque menta

Cinyphli tondent hirei, setasqne ocnnaiitefl.— Vibo. Otorg. iii. 811.
Rigetque barba,

Qualem forficibos metit supinis

Tonsor Cinyphio Cilix marito. — ^Mart. vii. 95.
Its banks were also prorerbially fertile : —

CiuTphifD segetis citius numerabis arista. — Or. ex Pont. ii. 7, 25.
It was frequently used as a synonym for African generally, e.g. : —

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