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Cinyphias inter pestes tiU palma noocndi est. — Lrc. ix. 787.

Clnyphiumque Jubam. Or. Met, xv. 755.

' The Triton and its lakes were connected with some of the Greek legends : it
was there that the Argonaut Euphemus, the ancestor of Battus, received the
promise of a settlement in Afirloa : —

t6v WOTf

TpiTwvtSoc iv irpoxooic

ToMUf SiSomi ^Cvia
TlpmfM0€v EwJMfutt Karafiin
A^ttT*. PiMD. Fifth, iv. 85.

It is doubtful whether the term Triton-bom, applied to Pallas, originally re-
ferred to this lake : it is more probable that in Homer and Hesiod the Bceotian
stream is meant. The later poets, however, undoubtedly connected Pallas with
the AfHcan river, which Euripides hence describes as —
AifLvift t' ivMfiov Tfnrmviaios
nonaay axrav. Ioh. 871.

So also the Latin poets —

Hue, qui stagna colunt Tritonidos alia paladls,

Qua v^rgo, ut fama est, bellatrix edlta lympha

Invento primam Libyen perftidit olivo.— Sil. Ital. iii. 322.

Torpentem Tritonos adtt illsesa paludem.

Hanci ut Cama, Deus, quern toto littore pontus

Audit ventosa perflantem marmora concha,

Hanc et Pallas amat : patrio quea vertioe nata

Terrarum primam Libyen (nam proxlma ooolo est,

Ut probat ipse calor) tetigit : stagnique quieta

Vultus vidit aqua, posuitque in margin« plantas,

Et se dileota Tritonida dixit ab unda. — ^Luo. is. 847.


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Chap. XVI. TOWNS. 297

which according to the Homeric legend ^ produced a state of dreamy
forgetfulness. lu addition to these, the Nasamones, Psylli, and
Macee roamed over portions of the district. Egyptian, Phoenician,
and Cyrensean colonists settled on the coast and intermixed with
these Libyan tribes. Ptolemy mentions, in place of these, numerous
tribes whose names are not noticed by any other writer. The chief
towns were the Phoenician' colonies of Leptis Magna, QEa, and
Sabrata, which having received Roman 'colonists became important
places, and gave to the whole region the name of Tripolitana, which
still survives in the modern Tripcli,

Leptis Xagnut was favourably situated on a part of the coast where
the central table-land descends to the sea in a succession of terraces,
as at Gyrene. It possessed a roadstead, well sheltered by the pro-
montory of Hermseum.4 The old Phoenician city was situated simi-
larly to Carthage, upon an elevated tongue of land at the point where
a small river discharges itself into the sea ; the remains of sea walls,
quays, fortifications on the land side, and moles are to be seen on its
site, which is still called Lebda, At a later period a new city, named
Neapolis, grew up on the W. side of the old town, which henceforth
served as the citadel alone.
This became the great em-
porium for the trade with
the eastern part of Interior
Africa, and under the Ro-
man emperors, particularly
Septimius Severus who was
a native of the place, it was
adorned with magnificent
buildings, and flourished

until the 4th cent. A.D., Coin of Leptis.

when it was much injured

by a native tribe named Ausuriani. Though partly restored by Justinian,
it never recovered this blow. Its ruins are deeply buried in the sand, and
a small village, Legatah, occupies its site. (Ea became a Roman colony
about A.D. 50 and flourished for 300 years, when it was ruined by the
Ausuriani. On its site stands the modem capital Tripoli: a very perfect
marble arch, dedicated to M. Aurelius Antoninus and L. Aurelius Verus,
is the principal relic of the old town. Sabr&ta, or AbrotSnum, was a

3 Ovf apa AArro^yoi fii^vtt irapocaxv oXtBpov
'HtitT^ftottf iiXXa <r^i do<ray Xmtoio ircuracrtfeu.
TStv 5* oans XwTOtb 4*^yoi /xcAii|Ma xopirbv,
OiiK ir' avayyciAat niXw ^0cAev, ovie vdeirBeu'
'AAA* avrov fiovKomo fivr^ avSpdai A«vT0^YOi<ri
Atnhv epcirr^pLcyoc iJ-tv^iuVt v6vtov re KoB^vOm. — HoH. Od, ix. 92.
* The Phoenician origin of the first and last of these towns is implied in the
following lines : —

Sabrata tarn T^rium vulfftu, Sarranaque Leptis,
(Eaque Trinacrios Afris permixta colonos.— Sil. Ital. lii. 250.
^ Proxima Leptis erat, ci^us statione qnieta
Exegere hiemem, nimbis flammisque carentem. — Luc. ix. 94S.



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oonaiderable mart for the trade of the interior. In the Roman period,
it was chiefly famed as the birthplace of Flavia Domitilla, wife of Vespa-
sian: extensive ruins of it remain at Tripoli Vecchio. Of the less
important towns we may notice Tao&pe, KhabSj at the innermost point of
the Lesser Syrtis, noted for its hot sulphur-baths, in a fertile district,
but with a bad harbour ; Zuobis, in the same neighbourhood, noted for
its purple dyes ; and Autom&la, on the borders of Cyrenaica. Off the
coast were the islands of Meninx, Jerhah, S.E. of the Lesser Syrtis,
occupied by the Lotophagi, and hence named Lotophagltis ; and CsoBp
dnA, Karkenah, and Cerdaltis, Jerbah, at the N. W. extremity of the
same gulf, which lay so close together that they were joined by a mole.

IV. — Africa Pbopbia.

§ 8. The Roman province of AMea, in its restricted sense,' em-
braced that portion of the continent which lies between the Lesser
Syrtis in the E., the desert of Sahara in the S., the river Tusca in
the W., and the Mediterranean in the N. It answers nearly to the
modem Tunis, The name was used in a broader sense to include
Syrtica in the E., and Numidia in the W., and sometimes even
some portions of Mauretania beyond the Ampsaga, which formed the
western limit of Numidia.

§ 9. The position and physical character of this country deserve
particular notice. It occupies that great angle on the northern
coast of Africa, of which Mercurii Prom., C, Bm^ is the apex, and
which is formed by the southerly deviation of the coast, at right
angles to its general course, in the neighbourhood of the Lesser
Syrtis. It thus approaches very near the continent of Jlurope,
standing directly opposite the southern peninsula of Italy and the
island of Sicily, from which it is about 90 miles distant, and in
easy communication with the coasts of Spain. As regards the
Mediterranean, it stands just at the junction of the two great basins,
eastern and western, into which that sea is divided, and thus com-
manded the navigation of each, forming as it were a new starting
point for the commerce of the Phoenicians, without which they per-
chance might have been confined, as the Greeks generally were, to
the eastern alone. As regards Africa, this district is shut off firom

* The limits of the Boman prorince varied at different periods : as originally
oonstitated in b.o. 146, it consisted of the possessions of Carthaire at that time,
i. c. the districts of Zeugitana and Bysacium : the rest of the old Carthaginian
possessions were handed over to the Numidian kings. In the Jogarthine war
the Romans gained Leptis Magna and some other towns in Syrtica. In the civil
war Ctcsar added Numidia, as far as th^ Ampsaga, under the title of New Africa.
In B.C. 30 Angostns restored this to Juba, bat resumed it again in b. c. 25, and
fixed the western boundary at Saldfo, thus including a portion of Mauretania also
in AfHca. Finally, Caligula gave up this latter portion, and reftxed the boundary
at the Ampsaga. In the 8rd cent, (probably in Diocletian's reign) the whole was
re-arranged into four provinces— Numidia, Africa Propria or Zeugitana, Byxa-
oinm, and Tripolis. The term Africa was occasionally applied to all of these.


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the general body of the continent by the range of Atlas in the S.,
and the desert regions of Syrtica in the E. The country was also
highly favoured in regard to climate and soil. The great range of
Atlas forms a barrier between it and the sands of the Sahara, and
provides an adequate amount of moisture. On the N. side it
descends in a series of terraces towards the sea, and offers a most
fertile soil to the agriculturists. In the southern district only does
the desert approach the sea, and the soil become unfruitful. The
grain produced a hundredfold,^ the vine a double vintage, and fruit
of every kind grew in the greatest profusion.

§ 10. The moimtains were offsets from the great chain of Atlas,
some few of which only received special names, as Mi. Jovls S. of
Carthage; Cinia» which runs parallel to the northern coast; and
Mamps&mg in the S.W. The promontories are — ^BrachSdes at the
N. W. point of the Lesser Syrtis ; Prom. Xenmrii, C. Bori^ the N.E.
point; Prom. J^oUinii or Pnlohnun, C Farina^ at the W., as Mer-
curii is at the £. of the bay of Carthage ; and Prom. Candldum*
C. Blanc, N. of Hippo. Two bays must be noticed — Sinus Nea-
poUtftauiy G. <f Hdmmametj on the E. coast ; and the 8. Carthagi-
nieniii between the promontories of Mercury and Apollo on the N.
coast, llie chief river is the Bagr&daif Mejerdah, which rises in
Mount Mampsarus and flows in a N.E. course into the bay of Car-
thage : its lower course' has been much altered through the soil it
has brought down, and its mouth has been removed some 10 miles

§ 11. The inhabitants of this district in the time of Herodotus
were the native Libyan tribes named the Xazyes and ZauSces in the
S. ; the GyiantM* undoubtedly the same as the later Bynntei and
Byiadi, on'the W. coast of the Syrtis ; and the Vaohlyei in the S.E.
near the Triton, perhaps the same as the Maxyes already mentioned.
In addition to these the Phoenicians were settled at various spots
on the coast. In the Roman period the Phcenicians and Libyans
had intermixed, and their descendants formed a distinct race, named
LibypluBnIoes, whose settlements were chiefly about thS river 6a-
gradas. The towns of this district were in almost every instance

* Byzada cordi

Rnra magifl, ceutum Cereri fnitioantia culmis,
Electoe optare dabo inter pnemia campos. — Sil. Ital. ix. 204.
The character of this rirer is well described in the following passages : —
Primaqne oastra locat cano procol SDquore, qua se
Bagrada letUus agit, siocto sulcator arenie. — Lvc. iv. 587.
Turbidta arcntes lento p«4e snlcat arenas
Bagrada, non ullo Libycis in flnibus amne
Victus limosas extendere latius iindas,
Et Btoffnante vado patulos InvolTcre campoa. — Sil. Ital. tI. 140.


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founded by the Phoenicians. The names alone sometimes indicate
this : as iu the case of Carthage, from earthy '* a town ;** Leptis,
" fishing station ;" and Utica, " ancient." Others, as Neapolis and
HadrumStnm, are known on other grounds to have belonged to
them. Aspis alone is doubtful, as its existence cannot be traced
earlier than the time of Agathodes. Under the Carthaginians, the
metropolis was Carthage. After its destruction Utica succeeded to
that position ; and after the separation of Byzacium, UadrumStum
became the capital of the latter division. The towns appear to have
enjoyed a large degree of prosperity under the Romans, which they
retained until the entrance of the Vandals. The history of Car-
thage is in reality prior to the existence of the Roman province of
Africa, and therefore deserves a special notice.

Map of the site of Carthage.

§ 12. The city of Carthage stood on a peninsula on the W. side
of the Sinus Carthaginiensis between two bays, that on the S. being
the present G, of Tunia^ and that on the N. a lagoon, now called the
Salt Lake of S^cra. The peninsula is formed by a line of elevated
ground attaining the height of 300 ft. at its western, and 400 ft.
at its eastern extremity, the two points being named C, Camart
and C. Carthage, Inland it slopes down and was contracted to
an isthmus between the two bays. The circuit of the peninsula



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Chap. XVI. CABTHAGE. 301

was about 30 miles. Great changes have been effected on its site
through the deposits of the river Bagradas : the northern bay has
become partly' a lagoon, and partly firm land; the southern bay,
once a deep and open harbour, is now a lagoon about 6 ft. deep, and
with a very narrow entrance. The isthmus which connected the
|)eninsula with the mainland has been enlarged from 25 stadia,
which was its width in Strabo's time, to 40. On the S. side, on the
other hand, the sea has somewhat encroached, and has covered a
portion of the ancient site ; the coast-line has receded considerably
inland to the N. of the town. Finally the river Bagradas itself,
which formerly joined the sea about 10 miles to the N., is now 20
miles distant.

The original city of the Phoenicians probably stood on the S.EI. of
the peninsula, near C. Carthage, From this point a tongue of land
(the Tsnia of Arrian) stretched to the S. The port was on the S. side
of the peninsula, and consisted of an outer' and inner harbour, con-
nected together by a channel and with an entrance from the sea 70 feet
wide. The outer one (&) was for merchant vessels, and the inner,
named Cothon (a), from an island in it, for ships of war, of which 220
could be put up in separate docks.* The latter was probably entirely
excavated. Adjacent to the port on the W. stood the Forum, contain-
ing the senate-house, the tribunal, and the temple of Apollo ; and
to the N. of the port was the Byraa, or citadel, containing the temple of
JSsculapius on the highest point. * The whole town was surrounded
with walls to the extent of 360 stadia, the strongest defences being on
the land side, where there was a triple line, each 30 cubits high, with
strong towers at intervals. Water was conveyed to the city by an
aqueduct 50 miles long, and was stored in vaulted reservoirs. The
suburb of Megara, or Magalia, stood W. of the City Proper.

Name. — Carthage derived its name from the Phoenician word Carth,
"a city:" it appears to have been fully called Carth-Hadethoth, ** new
city," in contradistinction perhaps to Utica ** the old city." This
name the Qreeks converted into KapxH^^y* and the Romans into Car-
thago : the inhabitants were named sometimes after the city, but more
usually after the mother country; the Greeks calling them *olviKts, and
the Latins PcerU, At a late period the epithet Vetu$ was added, in
order to distinguish it from its colony Carthago Nova in Spain.

> According to Mannert the outer ]>ort was a portion of the Lake of ThtniSf and
the entrance to it was intide the Tasniay The recent researches of Dr. Darls have
led him to the conclusion that the ports were more to the N., and that the outlet
from the outer port was by a channel communicating directly with the open sea.
He states that the remains of Scipio*s mole are still Tisible at the entrance of this
channel [Citrthage^ p. 128).

* In the final siege of the city, Sdpio constructed an embankment dcroes the
entrance of the harbour (D), whereupon the Carthaginians opened a new entrance
(E) to the inner harbour.

1 Dr. Daris has transferred the site of the Byrsa from the HiU of 8i. Louis, on
which Mannert places it, to a height near the sea, more to the N.E., where he
has discovered ruins which he identifies with the temple of .Ssculapius, consisting
of massive walls arranged in the form of a temple, together with a staircase lead-
ing up to it.


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JtWory.— Carthage waa a colony of Tyre, eatablished probably about
100 years before the foundation of Rome as an emponum jomtly by
the merchants of the mother city and of Utica. Tradition assigned
its origin to Dido,^ who on the death of her husband fled from Tyre
and purchased of the natives as much ground as she could enclose
with a bull's hide:' the latter part of the legend originated in the
Phoenician word Bozrah •' fortress/' which the Greeks confounded with
fi{fp<ra "a hide.** Carthage soon rose to a supremacy over the older
Phoenician colonies, and herself planted numerous colonies on the
coasts of Africa, from the Greater Syrtis in the E. to the most southerly
parts of Mauretania in the W., as well as in Sardinia, Corsica, Sicily,
and on the coasts of Gaul and Spain. The district which formed^ the
proper territory of Carthage extended over Zeugitana and the strip of
coast along which lay Byzacium and the Emporia. Her wealth was
derived partly from agriculture and partly from commerce, and her
population is said to have been 700,000 at the time of the Third

Punic War. Carthage be-
came the great rival of
RomCi and was engaged in
a series of wars with that
V power. In the first (b.c.
• 264—241) she lost Sicily
\i and the Liparian islands ; in
J the second (b.c. 218—201)
she lost the whole of her
foreign supremacy; and in
the third (b.c. 150—146)
Coin of Carthage. she was taken and utterly

destroyed. After an inter-
val of 24 years an abortive attempt was made by C. Gracchus to colonize
the place from Rome under the name of Junonia. Julius Caesar renewed
the attempt in 46 ; and it was successfully accomplished by Augustus
in 19, who sent 3000 colonists there. The new town which probably
occupied the site of the old one, though placed by some at Megara,
became one of the most flourishing towns of Africa, and the seat of a
Christian church which could boast of Cyprian and Tertullian as its
bishops. In a.d. 439 it was made the Vandal capital. It was retaken
by Belisarius ii^ 533, and finally destroyed by the Arabs in 647.

§ 13. The Romans divided Africa into two portions — ^Bysaeiiim

1 Urbe anttqoa fait, Tyrii tenaere coloni,
Carthago, Italiam contra, Tibeiinaque longe
Ostia; dires opnm, studiisque dl^rrima belli. — ^n. i. 12.

* Condebat primoD Dido Carthaginis arces,
Instabatque opcri subdacta clasra JuventuR.
Molibus hi claudunt portus : hiB tccta domasqne
Partirin, jostas Bitta venerande sencclfe. — Siu Ital. ii. 406.

* DcTcnere looos, ubi none ingentia cemes
Mconia, surgcntcmque novfo Carthaginis areem :
Mercatique solum fact! de nomine Byrsam,

Taarino qoantam possent ciroumdare tcrgo. — <£». i. 365.

Fatali Dido Libyes adpellitor one :

Turn pretio meroata looos, nova moenia ponit,

Cingero qua secto permisanm littora tauro. — Sn.. Ital. L 23.


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Chap. XVI. TOWNS. 303

or BjiaoSna in the S. (named probably after the Byzantes or
Gyzantes, a native tribe of that district), and Zengit&na in the N.
(said to be named after a mountain called Zeugis, whose position is
imknown). The line of division between the two was coincident
with the parallel of 36° N. lat. The division was not authori-
tatively recognized until the time of Diocletian, nor does the name
of Zeugitana occur in any writer earlier than Pliny. We adopt the
division more for the purpose of convenience, than for any im-
portance attaching to it in connexion with classical literature. We
shall describe the towns of Byzacium in the first instance.

I. Toums in Byzacium. (i.) On ifie Coast from 8. to N, ThensB was
om)08ite to Cercina, and became a Roman colony with the name of
^ia Augusta Mercurialis. Thapius stood on the edge of a salt lake;
it was strongly fortified, and celebrated for Csesar's victory oyer the
Pompeians in b.c. 46:* its ruins are at Demaas. Leptis sumamed
Xinor, in order to distinguish it from Leptis in Syrtica, was a flourish-
ing Phoenician colony in the district of Emporia, just within the S.E.
headland of the Bay of Neapolis. Under the Romans it became a
libera cimtas and perhaps a colony. HadmmStiim, the capital of By-
zacium, stood just at the S. entrance of the Bay of Neapolis. It was
a Phosnician colony, and under the Romans a libera civitas and a
oolony. It was surrounded by a fertile district and became one of
the chief ports for the export of com, and is further known as the
birthplace of Caesar Clodius Albinus. Having been destroyed by the
Vandals, it was restored by Justinian with the name of Justiniftna.
The remains at Susa consist of a mole, several reservoirs, and fragments
of pillars, (ii.) In the interior, Thysdrus, between Thenge and Thj^)eus,
a Roman colony, is known as the place where the Emperor Gordianus
set up the standard of rebellion against Maximin. Extensive ruins,
especially a fine theatre, exist at Jemme. CapjN^ Cafta^ in the S.,
stood on an oasis surrounded by an arid desert: it was the treasury of
Jugurtha and was deatroyed by Marius, but was afterwards rebuilt and
made a colony. Tbala or Telepte lay N.W. of Capsa, and had a
treasury and arsenal in the Roman period. Suffotua was centrally
situated, N.E. of Thala, at a spot where several roads met. The mag-
nificent ruins at SfaiUa prove its importance.

II. In Zeugitana, (i.) On Hie Sea-Coast, NeapoUi btood on the bay
named after it, and was the nearest point to iSicily. It was a PhoD-
nician factory and afterwards a Roman colony : some remains exist at
Nabel, Asfds or dypea was so named from uie '* shield-like " form of
the hill ^ on which it was built, and which stood S. of Prom. Mercurii.
It possessed a sheltered harbour, and, being backed by a large plain, it
was the most convenient landing-place on this part of the coast : whether
a Phoenician town existed on the spot is uncertain, but the later town
was built by Agathocles, b.c. 310. In the First Punic War the troops
of Manlius and Regulus landed here in 256, and took ship again in 255.
In the second, it was the scene of a naval skirmish in 208, and of

« Et Zama et uberior Rutulo niiiic aangoine Tbapsus.— Sil. Ital. lit 261.
* Turn, qase Sicanio pnecinxit llttora muro,
Ia olypei speciem corvatis torribus, Aspis. — Id. ill. 248.


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Masinissa's narrow escape in 204. In the thirds it was besieged to no
purpose by Piso both by land and sea in 148. TnnM was a strongly
fortified town about 15 miles S.W. of Carthage at the head of the bay,
which is now named after its great representative Tunis, TTtiea was
situated at the mouth of the western branch of the Bagradas, near the
promontory of Apollo, and 27 miles N.W. of Carthage. It possessed a
good artificial harbour, and was strongly defended both on the land
and the sea side. It was founded by the Tvrians 287 years before
Carthage,' but soon became independent of the mother coimtry. It
appears as the ally or dependent of Carthage in the Roman treaties of
B.C. 509 and 348, as well as in that formed between Hannibal and
Philip of Maoedon in 215. Ill the two first Punic Wat's it generally,
though not consistently, aided Carthage ; but in the third it seceded,
and hence rose high m fiEtvour with the Romans,^ who made it their
chief emporium and the seat of government. The name is associated
with numerous events in the AMcan wars of the Romans, but especially
with the death of the younger Cato. It was made a free city and,
under Hadrian, a colony ; and was endowed with the Jus Italicum by
Septimius Severus. It was also the seat of a Christian bishoprick.
It was destroyed by the Saracens. The remains of temples and CMstles
at Duar mark the site of the town. The most interesting relic is an
aqueduct, carried over a ravine on a treble row of arches near the
town, ^ppo, surnamed Diirrhj^tns* Bizerta, stood on the W. side of
the outlet of a Isirgfi lake, and derived its second name, according to
the Gk^ek version, from the inundations to which it was liable, though
not improbably it had in reality a PhoBuician origin. The town was
fortified by Agathocles, and was made a free city and colony by the
Romans, (ii.) In the interior, Zama, Jama^ stood five days' journey
S.W. of Carthage, and is renowned as the scene of Sdpio's victory over
Hannibal in b.c. 202. It was a very strong place, and was selected as a
residence by Juba. It was probably made a colony by Hadrian. Ymm
or Yagft was an important town S.W. of Utica at Bayjah: it was
destroyed by Metelius, but afterwards restored by the Romans.
Justinian fortified it and named it Theodoria.

History. — After the fall of Carthage and the constitution of the
Roman province, the country was the scene of important events in the
civil war of Pompey and Ca»ar, particularly of the battle of Thapsus,
and again in the wars of the second triumvirate. Subsequently to this
the province remained quiet and prosperous, the most serious dis-
turbance being the insurrection under the two Gordians, a.d. 238.
The struggles of Constantino and his competitors extended to this
region, and were followed by fresh commotions under his suocessors.
The African provinces were united to the western empire in a.d. 395,
and were disjoined in the reign of Valentinian III. The introduction of
the Vandals by Boniface in 429 in support of the Donatist schism

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