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proved fatal to the prosperity of the province: they held it for about
100 years, when they were exterminated by BeUsarius under Justinian,
in 534. That emperor expended immense sums on the towns, but



* Proxima Sidoniia Utica e«t effUn nuuiipliB
Priica Bitu vetcriaqae ante aroes oondita ByrsiB. — Sil. Itai» iii. 241.

' We may CMmcludc from the following line (wbiob Horaoe addresses to hi»
book) that Roman literature was oaltivated there : —

Aut (iigics Utioam, ant Tinctos mitterls Ilerdam. — Hon. i^. i, 20, 13.



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Chap. XVI. NUMIDIA. 305

the inoursions of the Arabians rendered the tenure of the African
provinces difficult, and a series of struggles ensued commencing in
647 and terminating with the final withdrawal of the Romans in 709.

VI. — NUMIDIA.

§ 14. The boundaries of Nvmidia were the river Tusca in the E.,
the Ampsaga in the W., the Mediterranean in the N., and the
range of Atlas in the S. It lay between the Roman province of
Africa on the E. and Mauretania on the W., and corresponds to the
modem Algeria. The maritime district is remarkably fertile, and
produced besides the usual grain crops, every kind of fruit. Its
marble was particularly celebrated, being of a golden yellow hue
with reddish veins. The interior consists of a series of elevated
plains, separated from each other by spurs of the Atlas range, and
adapted only to a nomad population, partly from the severity of
the climate in winter, and partly from the nature of the soil which
yields a luxuriant herbage only in the early spring.

§ 15. The mountain ranges emanate from Mount Atlas* and
occasionally were known by special names, as Thambes, which con-
tained the sources of the Rubricatus, and AuratiiiB in the S.W.*
The coast line is broken by numerous promontories of which we
may notice from E. to W. — flippi Prom., Bos el Hamlah ; Stobomim,
C. Ferro ; and Tretnm, Seha Bus, The most important bays are
the SiiLiiB Olchacfltef, O. of Estorah ; and the deep and extensive
Namidlooi Sin.» which has no specific name in modern times.
The chief rivers were the Tnsea* on the eastern boimdary; the
Bubrie&tns or THras, Seihouse, which flows E. of Hippo Regius ; and
the Ampsftf^ Wad-el-Kihhir, on the borders of Mauretania.

§ 16. The general name for the inhabitants of this district was
NnmidsB) a Latinized form of the Greek vofidbesy '* nomads." This
describes generically their character as known to the Romans.
They are described as living^ (very much as their modem repre-
sentatives the KabyUi) in Magalia^ i.e. huts made of branches over-
spread with clay, and as excelling in the management of the horse.*



■ Virgil grives a nioet graphic description, applicable alike to the ancient Nu-
midlan and the modem KabyU :

Quid tibi pastores LibyeB, quid pascua Tcrsu
Proseqoar, et rarls habitata mapalia tectitt ?
Sflepe diem noetemqoe et totom ex ordine mensem
Pascitor, itqne peons longa in deeerta sine nllis
Hospitiia : tantum campi Jacet. Omnia secnm
Armentarins Afer agit, tectumque, Laremque,
Armaque, AmyclsDumque canem, Cresaamque pharetram.

Georg. iii. 839.
• Et NnmidflB inft^ni cingunt, et inhospita Syrtis. — Mn, iv. 41.
Hie passim exsultant Nomades, gens inscia freni ;
Queis inter geminas per ludnm mobilis aures
Quadrupedem flectit non cedens virga lupatis.— Snu Itai.. i. 215.



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306 NUMIDIA. Book IU.

They were sometimes more specifically called ICavnifii Knmidsi,
while later writers used the general name of Maori They were
divided into numerous tribes, of which the most important were
the Xass^li' who lived between the river Ampsaga and Prom.
Tretiun ; and the XasMBi^li who, though living W. of the Ampeaga,
were of Numidian origin. The towns of Numidia first came into
notice in the period of the Roman wars in Africa. The names of
several of them furnish indications of a Phoenician origin, as in the
case of the capital Cirta, which we have already noticed as a Phoe-
nician word, and again in those where the worship of Venus was
carried on, as Aphrodisium and Sicca Veneria, Hippo and Collops
were their principal stations on the coast. When Numidia fell
into the hands of the Romans, the chief towns were endowed with
various privileges as free cities and colonies ; and some were very
much enlarged and adorned with magnificent buildings, as we know
from the ruins of Constantia, LambSse, Theveste, and others. The
ruin of the Numidian towns was caused by the Vandals in the
middle of the 5th cent, of our era.

(i.) On the Coast from E. to TT. — The first town of importance was
Hippo, sumamed Segius, as being the residence of the Numidian
kings;' it stood W. of the Ubus on a bay to which it communicated
its name. It waa originallv a Tynan, and in later times a Roman
colony ; but it owes its chief interest to St. Augustine who was bishop
of it, and who died shortly before its destruction by the Vandals in
▲.D. 430. Its ruins are S. of Bondh. Bn ri oade, which served as the
harbour of Cirta, was at the mouth of the small river Thapsus and at
the head of the Sinus Olchachites. Its site is at Stora. Out of its
materials PhilippeviUe was partly built. Ck>lIopi Kagnus or Cullu,
CoUoi stood on the W. side of the Sin. Olchachites, and was celebrated
for its purple-dyeing establishments.

(ii.) In the thterior,^BuXltL Begia, near the E. j&ontier, probably
derived its surname ftom being a residence of the Numidian kings.
Under the Romans it was a liherwm op^idum; the name ^ou2 still attaches
to its ruins. Cirta was beautifully situated on a steep rock, round the
base of which flowed a tributary of the Ampsaga. It was the residence
of the kings of the MaMyli, who possessed a splendid palace there:
it was the strougest fortress in the country, and the point where the
lines of communication centred. Hence it is firequently mentioned in
the history of the Punic, Jugurthine, and Civil wars. Under the
Romans it was a colony with the surname of Julia. It was also called
Colonia Sittianorum from Sittius, to whom it was given. Having
fallen into decay, it was restored by Cllonstantine with the name
ConitftntTna, which its site still retains in the slightly altered form of
Constantineh, The finest relic is a triumphal arch, now in Paris.
Lambise lay near the confines of Mauretama, and was the station of



> Mawjliqne ruimt eqoites. — JBn. ir, 132.
Et gens, qam nado residens Maasylia dorso
Or» leri fleoUt firenonun nesoia virga. — ^Luc. It. 682.

« Antlquia dilectot regibus Hippo.— Sil. Ital. iU. 259.



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Chap. XVI. TOWNS — HISTORY.— MAURETANIA. 307

an entire legion : its minB at Lemba are magnificenti consisting of the
remains of an amphitheatre, a temple of ^sculapius, a triumphal arch,
&c. Theretta was situated not far from the frontier of Byzaclimi.
It was a Roman colony, and a centre of communication for the interior
districts. Its history is unknown, but the extensive ruins of it at
TebesBa prove it to have been an important town. Sioea Yeneria stood
on the river Bagradas, and derived its surname from the worship of
Venus. It was built' on a hill, and was a Roman colony; its site is
supposed to be at Kaff.

Of the less important towns we may briefly notice : on the coast,
Tabr&oa> at the mouth of the Tusca, the scene of the death of Gildo;
and Aphrodiiiiiiii, a port and Roman colony near Hippo Regius. In
the interior : Tihilis, 54 miles E. of Cirta, with hot baths in its neigh-
bourhood ; Tagaste, the birthplace of St. Augustine, S.E. of Hippo
Regius; and ifaraggSia, W. of Sicca, the spot where Scipio had an
interview with Hannibal before the battle of Zama. The positions of
TMrmida, where Jugurtha murdered Hiempsal, and Suthnl, where the
former had a treasury, are wholly unknown.

History. — The Romans became acquainted with the Nuniidians in
the First Punic War, when they served with great effect in the Car-
thaginian ranks. In the Second Punic War they joined Ropie, in re-
ward for which their prince Masinisaa was made king of a territory
extending from the Mulucha in the W. to Cyrenaica in the E., the

S roper territory of Carthage excepted. Masinissa was succeeded by
[icipsa, who associated with himself his sons Adherbal and Hiempsal,
and his brother's illegitunate son Jug\u*tha. The latter murdered
Hiempsal, and declared war against Adherbal, who sought the aid of
Rome. The dispute was settled for a time, but broke out again.
Adherbal was murdered, and Jugurtha in turn was put to death by
the Romans, b.c. 1()6. After the reigns of Hiempsal II. and Juba I.,
Numidia was made a province by Julius Csesar m b.c. 46. Nimiidia
holds a conspicuous place in ecclesiastical history as the head-quarters
of the Donatist heresy : violent disputes foUowcfd, and the entrance of
the Vandals completed the ruin of the country.

VI. — Maubetania.

§ 17. Kaoretaiiia was bounded by the river Ampeaga on the E.,
the Mediterranean on the N., the Atlantic on the W., and the range
of Atlas on the S. It corresponds to the western part of Algeria
and the empire of Morocco, Under the Romans it was divided into
two large portions — CsBsariensU and Tingitina, named after their
respective capitals, Csesarea and Tingis, and separated from each
other by the river Mnlucha. It may be described generally as the
highlands of N. Africa, the level of the land rising from the Mediteiv
ranean to Mt. Atlas in three great stepR, each of which stretches out
into extensive plains. These plains, though deficient in wood, pos-
sessed a soil of extraordinary fertility, which, aided by the cultiva-
tion bestowed on them in ancient times, rendered Mauretania the



' Quales, iimbrifero« abi pandit Tabraca saltos.
In vetola scalpit Jam mater simia baooa. — Jut. x. 104.



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308 MAURETANIA. Book III.

" granary of the world," The productions specially noticed by
ancient writers were— elephants, now no longer found there ; croco-
diles, which could hardly have existed in such a country ; scorpions ;
and copper, which is still found there,

§ 18, The mountain-chains of this province are all connected with
the great range of Atlas, and have a general direction from N.E. to
S.W. The special names attached to them are devoid of interest,
\vith the exception of Atlas Ifinory which is inappropriately given
by Ptolemy to a range parallel to the Mediterranean Sea. The most
important of the ranges is that which, striking northwards from the
main chain of Atlas, forms the watershed between the rivers which
seek the Mediterranean, such as the Molochath, and those which,
like the Subur, seek tiie Atlantic. S. of the Subur, this range
sends out numerous ramifications towards the Atlantic, which
formed a natural division between the N. and S. portions of ancient
Mauretania, as it still does of Morocco, The promontories from B.
to W. are — lonmiimit Has-al-KcUanir ; ApoUXiiiSf near Caesarea ;
Xetagoninm, Bas-cd-Harsbah, forming the W. point of the bay into
which the Mulucha falls ; Bus&dir, C. Tres Forcas, the most marked
projection along this coast ; Abj^la, Jehd^UMina, the southern of the
Pillars of Hercules, opposite to Calpe in Spain ; Cotes or Ampeliuia*
C, Spartd, the extreme W. point of Mauretania ; Solois, C. Cantin^
more to the S.W. ; HerdUis Prom., C, Mogador ; and TTiiadiiun,
Oaem, The chief rivers on the N. coast are— the Ampsftga, on the
£. border ; the TTiar or Sisart probably the Aj'ebhy ; the Chinalaphi
SheUif, the most important of all, joining the sea, after a north-
westerly course, near Prom. Apollinis ; the Mullleha, probably the
same as the Moloeath, and the Malva. now the Muluwi, which joins
the sea near Metagonium Prom. ; and on the W. coast, flowing into
the Atlantic, the Subur, Subu, joining the sea 60 miles S. of Lixus ;
the Sala, Bu-Regrah, still more to the S. ; the Pliiifh, Wady Tensift ;
and the lizui, Al-Haratch,

§ 19. The inhabitants were known generally as the ICaumsii or
Manri,^ whence the modem Moors, Tradition assigned to them an



* The noticea of this people among the Latin poets are frequent : the chief points
that attracted attention were their dark colour and their skill in archery : —

Maurus ooncolor Indo. — Luc. iy. 678.
Nigri manns ossea Mauri. — Jut. t. 58.
Mauro obscurior Indus. — Id. xi. 125.
Integer Titie, scelerisque purus
Non eget Mauri jaculis neque arcu,
Nee venenatis gravida sagittis

Fusee, pharetra. Hob. Carm, i. 22, 1.

Et hoerens
Loricse interdum Maurusia pendet arundo. — Sil. Ital. x. 401.

Horace



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Chap. XVI. INHABITANTS — TOWNS. 309

Asiatic origin ; and, according to Prooopius, an inscription on two
pillars at Tipasa pronounced them to be Canaanites who had fled from
Joshua. They were divided into a vast number of tribes, of
which we need only notice the powerful MasssBsyli on the borders of
Numidia. The towns were exceedingly numerous, partly perhaps
on accoimt of the insecurity of the country, which necessitated de-
fences even for the villages. No fewer than one hundred and
seventy-nine episcopal towns are enumerated, the majority of them
being probably insignificant places. The Romans instituted a vast
number of commercial colonies even before they took possession of
the country.* Augustus foimded three in Tingitana, namely, Julia
Constantia, Julia Campestris, and B&nasa Valentia ; and eight in
Caesariensis. Claudius added two in the former, and two in the
latter ; and there were subsequently added two and eleven in the
respective provinces : thus making a total of twenty-eight. The
capitals were Ocsarea and Tingis, and, after the subdivision of Caesari-
ensis, Sitifa, while Salda served as the chief port of this district. In
addition to the Roman towns, the Carthaginians planted a numl)er
of colonies on the W. coast, which fell into decay with tlie power of
Carthage itself.

(1). Totem in Csssariemis. — IgilgUi, JijeH, stood on a headland on
the coast of the Numidicus Sinus. It possessed a good roadstead, and
was probably the emporium for the surrounding country. Saldse pos-
sessed a spacious harbour, and was a Roman colony. It was an im-
portant point on this coast, having formed the boundair at one time of
the kingdom of Juba, and at another of Sitifensis. A nourishing city,
BujeiJiUtf occupied its site in the Middle Ages. loodum, the ancient
representative of Algiers, ranked as a Roman colony, and was endowed
by Vespasian with the Jus Jtallcum. Jol or Csetarte, as it was named
in honour of Augustus, was originally a Phoenician colony, and after-
wards the capital of Bocchus and Juba II., the latter of whom beauti-
fied it, and gave it its new name. Under the Romans it became the
capital of Cscsariensis and a colony. It was burnt by the Moors in the
reign of Valens, but was again restored. The magnificent ruins at Zer-
dieU, in 2^ £. long., mark its site. Oartenna, Tenei, was a Roman colony,
and the station of a legion. Siga was a commercial town at the mouth
of a river of the same name. Neither the river nor town have been
identified. It was destroyed in Strabo's time, but was afterwards re-
stored. In the interior, Sitiili was the most important town in the
eastern district, and became the capital of Sitifensis. It stood fiear the
frontier of Numidia at SeUf, Tnbntnptos stood about 1 8 miles S.E. of
Saldse, and was a Roman colony under Augustus. Aula, Hamzah, was
near the Oariphi Mts., and was a considerable town imder the Romans.



Horace uses the term Maarus as tantamotuit to AfHoan : —
Barbaras Syrtes, ubi Maoro semper

.£8taat unda.— Carm. H. 6, 8.
* The colonies in Tingitana were connected with the trade of Spain : so clo»e
was the connexion between the two countries that in the later division of the
empire by Theodoeius Tingitana was attached to BeDtica.



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310 LIBYA INTERIOR. Book III.

(2). In TiMttana. — On the coast we meet with Bntidir, a Roman
colony near M!etagonium Prom. Tingii, Tangier, W. of Abyla, ranked
as the capital of the province, and a Roman colony. Its origin is car-
ried back to the mythic age. Zilia, AzzUa, 24 miles from Tingis, was
originally a Phoenician town, afterwards a Roman colony with the name
of Julia Ckmitantia. lixns, at the mouth of the river of the same name,
was a great trading station on this coast, and a Roman colony. Lastly,
Thymiaterinm, probably at Mamora, was the first Carthaginian colony
planted bv Hauno. The position of Ban&ta on the Subnr is uncertain,
some authorities representing it as a maritime, others as an inland
town : in the former case its site corresponds to Mehediah^ in the latter
to Mamora. It was a Roman colony, with the name of Valentia. Yolo-
bilis was a town of considerable importance on the Subur, 35 miles
from Banasa. Near its site are the splendid ruins of Kasr Faraun,
" Pharaoh's Castle," with Roman inscriptions. Babba, which Augustus
constituted a colony with the title of Julia Campestris, has licen vari-
ously placed on the Guarga, one of the tributaries of the Subur, and on
the more northerly Wadi al Khous.

History, — The Romans first became acquainted with Mauretania in
the Punic and Jugurthine wars. In the latter, Bocchus is noticed as
king : he was succeeded by his two sons, Bogudes and Bocchoris, who
took different sides in the wars of the Triumvirate. Their territory was
handed over to Juba II. in b.c. 25, in exchange for Numidia. His son
Ptolemy succeeded to the throne, and was put to death by Caligula in
A.D. 41. In the following year Claudius divided the country into the
two provinces of Csssariensis and Tingitana. Twenty-one colonies
were planted in these provinces, besides several Munieipia and Oppida
Latina. About A.D. 400 we find Tingitana forming a portion of the
diocese of Spain ; and Canariensis, which was still attached to the dio-
cese of Africa, subdivided into Mauretania Prima, or Sitifensis, and
Mauretania Secunda, or Ceesariensis. The Vandals seized these pro-
vinces in 429 ; Belisarius recovered them for the Eastern Empire. In-
cursions of the Moors followed; and the Arab conquest in. 698-700
finally dissevered the connexion between Mauretania and Rome.

VII. — Libya Iktbbiob.

§ 20. Under the somewhat indefinite term Libya Interior is in-
cluded the vast region Ijring S. of the countries we have hitherto
been describing, from the Atlantic in the W. to iEthiopia in the El.
The limit southwards was fixed at no definite point : it advanced
with the advance of commerce and navigation, imtil in the age of
Ptolemy it reached the 11° N. lat. on the western coast. The in-
formatTon that we have in reference to it is unimportant, being
restricted merely to the names of the various physical features. We
shall therefore confine ourselves to a very brief notice of them.

(1 .) Moaniain Chains. — Mons At«r, Haruschy running from E. to W.,
and separating Phazania from the Roman province of Amca ; TTsarg&la,
more to the W., a continuation of Atlas, S. of Numidia and Mauretania;
CMrgXri, Tihestiy running N. to the confines of Numidia; SagapUa,
running parallel to the coast of the Atlantic, and containing the sources
of the Subur; Kandms, more to the S., reaching to the parallel of
the Fortunatse lusulse ; Caphai, containing the sources of the Daradus,



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Chap. XVI. TOWNS. 311

and its westerly prolongation Bystadiiim, terminating in a headland of
• the same name, 0. Blanco; and Theon OchSma, Sierra Leone, Nume-
rous ranges in the interior highlands, as far S. as the latitude of Sierra
Leone, are noticed by name in Ptolemy's writings: these, however,
have not been identified.

(2.) Promontories^ on the W. coast from N. to S. — Gannaria, C. Non ;
Soloentia, C Bojador; Aninariiim, C. Corveiro, the most westerly
point of the continent ; ByMadinm. C. Blanco ; Cath&ron, C Darca ;
Hesperion Cerai , C. Verde ; and Notmm, C. Boxo,

(3.) i^tvert.— The Sulrar, Sue (probably the same as the Chretet of
Hanno and the Xion of Scylax), which enters the sea just below the
most westei^n projection of Atlas ; the Bar&diu, Bio de Ouro, dis-
charging itself into the Sinus Magnus, and said to have crocodiles in
it ; the Stachir, probably the St. Antonio ; the Nia or PambStof, Seneaai,
frequented both by the hippopotamus and crocodile; and the MasithShiay
Gambia. Some few rivers of the interior are noticed, which were said
to discharge themselves into vast inland lakes : of these the Gir * and
the Kigir are probably branches of the great river Niger, of which son^
reports had certainly reached the ancients. The Qir is described as
having a course of above 300 miles, with a further curvature to the N.
of 100. The lakes connected with the Nigir were designated Libya
Palm, and KigrltiB, probably the modem Dibbeli ; and with the Qir,
Nuba, Lake Tchad, and ChelonXdes, perhaps FiUre.

§ 21. llie inhabitants of the interior were but very imperfectly
known to the ancients. The races that come most prominently for-
ward are — ^the Gotflli. who lived in the W. between the Atlas range
and the . basin of the Nigir ; the Qaramantest whose district lay S. of
the Syrtes ; and the Higritsd* about the rivers Gir and Nigir, and
their lakes.

The first of these races, the Gsetulians, followed a nomad life, and
were reputed a warlike and savage I'ace. They first came under the
notice of the Romans in the Jugurthine war, when they were serving as
cavalry under Jugurtha Some of them remained in Numidia under
the Roman government ; but they became so troublesome that an expe-
dition was sent against them under Lentulus, sumamed Gsetulicus, in
the year a.d. 6. Thenceforward they are described as living in the
desert S. of Mauretania. They were not themselves negroes, but some
of the tribe intermixed with negroes, and were hence named Melano-
gsetuli. The Gsetulians seem to be the progenitors of the great abori-
ginal people of modem Africa, named Amazergh, of which the Berbers
and Tuaricks are the branches most generally known. Garamantet
was a name applied generally to all the tribes inhabiting that paft of
the Great Desert which lay £. of the sources of the Bagradas and Mount
Usai^a, and S. as far as the river Gir. The name was, however, more
specifically applied to the people of Phaiania, Fezzan, a very large
oasis lying S. of the great Syrtis. This oasis and its inhabitants are
described by Herodotus, and most of his statements are borne out by
modem investigation. It is surrounded by hills of stone and sand.



Gir notiBsimoB amnis
JStbiopam simili mentitus gurgite Nilam

Clacdiaw. Laud. StU. i. 252.



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312 LIBYA INTERIOE. Book Illr

attaining a height of 1200 feet, and intersected by ridges from 300 to
600 feet liigh. It is deficient in water, and hence not above one-tenth*
of it is cultivable. Its chief produce is dates. Salt is abundant, and
is applied as manure to the date-trees. White clay is used for arable
land, and this is probably what Uerodotus' informants mistook for
salt. The story of the oxen with the long forward horns has a founda-
tion in the practice which still prevails of giving artificial forms to the
horns. The Troglodyte ^^thiopians, whom the Qaramantes hunted,
have their representatives in the Tihboos, who are still hunted by the
chieftains of Fezzan. The Romans, from whom our next notice of these
people is derived, found them troublesome neighbours, and sent an
expedition against them imder Cornelius Balbus Gaditanus, B.C. 19.
Etnnologically they were allied to the Gtetulians. Their chief town
was Oarama, Oherma, whence a considemble trade was carried on.
The Higrita lived on the banks of the Nigir in the modem Soudan.
Very little was known of them.' Their chief town was Nigdra, perhaps
Gona.

§ 22. Off the W. coast of Africa lie the InsnlflB Fortimata«
Canaries, and Madeira, to which the name, originally connected
with the mythic idea of the ** isles of the blessed," was not unna-
turally transferred, when the ancients became aaiuainted with the
existence of islands in the fancied position of Elysium, and blest
with so delicious a climate. These islands became known to the
Romans about B.C. 82, through the reports which Sertorius received
at Grades from some sailors. The geographers describe only six in-
stead of seven islands, viz. : Junonia or Autolala, Madeira ; Junonia
Minor or Aprositus, Ixinmrote ; Canaria or Planaria, Gran Canaria ;
Nivaria or Convallis, Teneriffe ; Capraria or Caspiria, Gomera ; and
Pluitalia or Pluvial ia, Ferro. Ptolemy selected this group as the



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