Sir William Smith William Latham Bevan.

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ix)int through which he drew his first meridian : one of the islands
(Ferro) was used for the same purpose by geographers down to a
late period. The Pnrpurarifle Insnln, described by Pliny, were pro-
bably the above-noticed Lanzarote, with the smaller ones of Graeiosa
wrA Alegranza.

The isle of Cerne, off the W. coast, has been variously identified
with Feddlah in S:\^ 40' N. lat., with Agadir m 30° 20^ and with
Argiun in 20^ S. : the latter is the most probable view. Off the E.
const an island named Xenuthias has been variously identified with one
of the islands, of Zanzibar, and yriih Madagascar. The probability is
that the island has been incorporated with the coast at Shamha, about
80 miles S. of the river Gomnd.


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Eurupo. (From an ancient Gem.)


E U E P E.


§1. Poundaries; Name. § 2. Qeneral Features. § 3. Internum Mare
§ 4. Externum Mare. § 5. Mountaina. § 6. Rivers. § 7. Climate
and Productions. § 8. Commerce. § 9. Inhabitants.

§ 1. Tlie boundaries of Europe, though better known than those
of the two other continents, were nevertheless not accurately fixed
until a late period of ancient geography : in the extreme N. indeed
the true boundary remained a problem even in the days of Ptolemy,
and the vast regions of Northern Russia were a terra incognita.
It was, however, generally believed that the continent was bounded
on that side by an ocean, the exact position of which was unknown,
but which was supposed to extend eastward from the northern
point of the Baltic Sea. In the N.W. the British Channel formed
the limit ; in the W. the Atlantic Ocean ; in the S. the Medi-
terranean Sea ; in the S.E. the chaiu of seas connecting the Medi-
ten*anean with the Euxine, viz. the* Hellespontus, Propontis, and
ITiracian Bosponis; and in the E. the Pontus Euxinus, the Palus



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314 EUBOPE. Book IV.

Mffiotis, and the river Tatiais.^ The boundary on this side was
very fluctuating in the early days of ancient geography, as we have
already had occasion to observe. The modem boundary is more
to the E., and is fixed at the river Ural and the Caspian Sea.

Name. — The name ** Europa " (Eipeirtnj) may be derived either from
a Semitic word Oreb, "the sunset,'* or from the Greek words thp6s d^,
the ** brocuUooking *' land. The first accords best with the westward
progress of the human race, and the probability that the Phcenicifms
were the first civilized nation of Asia who had communication with
the coasts of Europe : it is also supported by the analogy of the clas*
siod Hesperia, the *' western land^* of Europe, and by the probable
origin of Arabia, " the western land *' of Asia. The second accords
best with the early use of the term in the Homeric Hymn to Apollo,'
where it seems applied to the broad open land of Northern Greece as
distinct from the Peloponnesus and the islands of the ^gean Sea.
The mythological account' that it was derived from Europa, the
daughter of the Phoenician king Agenor, was probably based on the early
intercourse established by the Phoenicians with the shores of Greece.

§. 2. The general configuration of the continent of Europe is
remarkable for its extreme irregularity.* In these respects it pre-
sents a strong contrast to the other continents. If we compare the
African with the European coast-line, we find the former straight
and imbroken, the latter varied by the projection of three important
peninsulas aa, well as by a vast number of lesser sinuosities. Or, if
we compare the interior of Asia with that of Europe, we find the
former spreading out into extensive plains and abounding in elevated
plateaus, while the latter is intersected in all directions by rivers
and mountains, and broken up into valleys. Contrasted with
Africa, we may describe Europe as the continent of peninsulas ;
contrasted with Asia, as the continent of valleys. Hence in a
great measure arose the social and political characteristics of the
continent. Easily accessible by sea, it was well adapted for com-
merce and colonization; inaccessible by land, it gained security

Hence Looan describes the Tanais as —

AsIflDque et terminus idem
Eoropes, medin dirimens confinia terroe. — ^iii. S74.

'Hficv 5<roi TltXMir6vyti<rw nUtpav exoiKny,

'H^ 5<roi Evpmmir m koI ofi^ipiHuf card tn^otnff

X>iy9V«i^i« HoM. Symn, m Apoll, S90.

* According to this, Europa was carried off by Zeus under the form of a bull
from Phamioia to Crete. The story is told at length by Orid (.Met. iL 889, tcq.)^
and Lb alluded to by Horace : —

Sic et Europe nireum doloeo
Credidit taiiro latus, et soatehtcm
Belluis pontum mediasque ftraudes

PaUuit audax. Carm, ill. 27, 25.

* Hence Strabo (iL 126) describes Europe as mkttaximovirwni the " mott
varimuly figured " of the earth's divisions.


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for the growth and consolidation of its institutions. 1'hese natural
advantages, combined with its admirable geo;^raphical position, its
climate, and its productiveness, rendered it the central seat of power
to the whole civilized world.

§ 3. In describing the seas which wash the shores of Europe, we
shall commence with that one with which the ancients were most
familiar and which they designated Mare Kostrom from its proxi-
mity to them, or Mare Xntemimi, in contradistinction to the sea
outside the Pillars of Hercules. The importance of this sea in the
early ages of histoiy cannot be over-estimated ; it lay in the centre
of the civilized world, touching the three continents of Europe,
Asia, and Africa, which it united rather than separated, furnishing
a high-road for the interchange of commerce and the arts of social
life. Its size was unduly magnified by the geographers ; its real
length is about 2000 miles, its breadth from 80 to 500 miles, and
its line of shore, including the Euxine, is 4500 leagues. It is
divided physically into three basins — the Tyrrhenian or western,
the Syrtic or eastern, and the -^gaean or northern. The line of
demarcation between the two first is formed by a submarine ledge
connecting C, Bon in Africa with Sicily, and between the second
and third by a curved line connecting the S. points of the peninsulas
of Greece and Asia Minor, the course of which is marked by the
islands of CythBra, Crete, and Rhodes.

The BubdivisioDB of this sea in ancient geography are numerous, tLe
waters about each particular country being generally named after
it. Wo have already noticed those connected with the continents
of Asia and Africa. Adjacent to the coasts of Europe were the follow-
ing : (i.) in the Tyrrhenian basin, Mare Hispiniim, Ibeilonm, or Balea-
xlmim, between the coast of Spain and the Balearic Isles; M. Gal-
Uonm, G, of Lyons, along the S. coast of Qaul ; X. Sarddum or
Sardonieum, about Sardinia ; M. ligastitoiim, G. of Genoa, in the N. W.
of Italy ; and M. Tyrrhfiniun,^ along the W. coast of Italy, sometimes
named also M. Infimm,^ **Uie lower sea/' in contradistinction to the
Adri^itic, which was designated M. SupSnui^ *'the upper sea." (ii) In
the Syrtic basin, M. SioUiun^ or AnsoniimL, about the E. coast of
Sicily, itai limits eastward not being clearly de^ed; X, Ionium,'

* Oens inimica mihi Tyrrhenum iiaTigat 9qaor. — Yiso. ^n. i. 67.
Cmnentis licet occupea

Tyrrhenum omne tuis et mare ApnUomn. — Hoe. (hrm. iii. 24, S.

• An mare, quod iupra, memorem, quodque alluit ir^fi^a f

ViEo. Oeorg. II. 158.
' The term Sioulum Mare is somewhat indefinitely used : Horaoe extends (t to
the sea W. of Sicily, and even over the Tyrrhenian Sea ;
Neo Siculum mare
Poeno purpurcum sanguine. — Carm, IL 12, S.
Nee SiculA Palinums undk.-^Id. iii. 4, 28.
* The name " Ionian *' is derived by JEsehylus from lo ; the extent of the Ma

P 2


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316 , EUROPE. Book IV.

between Southern Italy and Greece as fiar N. as Hydruntiim in the
former, and Acroceraunia in the latter; and M. Adiiatloimi, or, as the
poets named it Hadria,* the limits of which were gradually extended
&om the. upper portion of the AdricUic over the whole of that sea and
sometimes even over the Ionian Sea. In the ^giean basin, now the
Ardiipdago, X. CretXovm, to the N. of Crete ; M. llyrtSiiiii,* named
after the small island of Myrtus and extending along the eastern coast
of Peloponnesus; and M. Thraoiiiiii, along the coast of Thrace.

§ 4. The Mare Internum was connected at its western extremity
with the Mare Extemum by a narrow channel formerly named
Fretnm Cktdit&niimi' now the Straits of Gibraltar , at the neck of
which stood the projecting rocks of Calpe on the European, and
Abyla on the African coast, generally regarded by the ancients as
the Herenlis Coliinm»> • " Pillara of Hercules.** The names by which

was not well defined, the pattsagcs quoted below ftom Euripides and Pindar
showing that it was extended by the Greeks as far W. as Sicily.

(Toi^wf evurroa', 'I<^io( JcocA^<rrrau

T^9 o^ wopcto? fn^fta TOW irao'u' /3poTOiC. — JEacn, From. 889.

Koi Ktv iv vavaiv fiSXav '!•

oviav ri^iVtav $aXiur<rav,
'Ap4$ovira¥ cirl

Kpdyw . PiKD. Fifth, iii. 120.

'Uyiov Kara v6vrov iXdrq.

luctXias . JEscH. Fh<m. 208.

The Latin poets altered the qoantity of the first syUable for scansional cuu-
venienee, e.g. —

Noese quot lonii veniant ad Uttora fluotus. — ^\'iro. Georg. ii. 108.
Jactari quos cemis in lonio immenso. — Ov. Jfet. ir. 5S4.

* The Adriatic had but an ill fame among the mariners of Italy on account of
the Tiolent gusts which swept over it ; Horace repeatedly alludes to this : —

Quo (t. e. noto) non arbiter Hadriie

Major, tollere scu ponere vult freta. — Carm. i. 8, 15.

Dux inquieti turbidus Hadri®. Id. iU. 3, 4.

Iracundior Hadri&. Id. iU. 9, 22.

1 Nnnquam dimoveas, ut trabe Cypria
Myrtoum paridus nanta lecet mare. — Id. i. 1, IS.

• These straits are referred to by Horace : —

Horrenda late nomen in ultimas
Extendat oras, qua mediut liquor
Secemit Europen ab Afto. Id. iii. 8, 45.

The violence of the current is characterised by an old poet quoted by Cicero :
Eoropam Libyamque rajnua nbi dividit unda. — De NeU. Ltor. iii. 10.

> Much doubt existed in ancient times both as to the nature and position of the
" Pillars of Hercules.'* It was usual to erect ocrfnmns or pillars at the extreme
point reached by any traveller ; and hence the r illars of Hercules denoted the


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the ancients descnbed the Atlantic Ocean were numerous. The
Greeks described it as ij If » $0X00-^0, ** the outer sea,"* with special
reference to the sea within the Pillars of Hercules ; also as If 'ArXai^
Tij, " the Atlantic," in reference to the mountain Atlas in the W,
of the world ; and again as *QK€av6s 'Ecnrcpwy, " the western ocean'*;
and lastly as ^ fuyakti BaKaaaay *' the great sea.'* The Latins not
unfrequently described it simply as Oceanus, and sometimes Oceani
mare,^ The Northern Ocean was described by various names in-
dicating either its position as 6 P6p€ios »Kea»6s, Ooeaaoi Beptentrio-
nUis, &c. ; or its character as a frozen sea, &s ^ ntmfyvia BaKaa-aa,
Mare Ooner^timii M. Pigmm, &c.

The subdivisions of these oceans were as follows. In the Atlantic,
Ooeanos Oaditftnus, just outside the pillars of Hercules ; 0. Cant&ber,
B. of Biscay ; 0. OalUous, ofif the N.W. coast of Gkiul, at the mouth
of the English CJiannel ; and Mare Britaimioimi, the E. part of the
channel as far as the Straits of Dover. In the Northern Ocean, M. Ger-
manicum or Cimbriimiii, German Ocean, united by the Fretum Gallicnm,
Straits of Dover , with the M. Britannicum; and M. Sarmatlcum, or
Suevioum, Baltic Sea, jinited with the German Ocean by the Sinus
Lagnns, Little Belt, and the Sinuf CodSaos, Kattegat, and subdivided
iuti the Sinus YenedXeut, Gidf of Dantsic, and M. Cronium, Kurisches
. Haff near Memd,

§ 5. The moxmtain system of Europe is clearly defined. A series
of ranges traverses the continent from E. to W., dividing it into
two unequal portions, of which the northern is by far the most
extensive, but the southern the most important in ancient geography.
There is thus far a general similarity betweea the continents of
Asia and Europe ; so much so indeed that we may regard the

farthest limit to which the achievements of the god were carried : hot whether
these pillars were artiflolal or natural, and, if the latter, whethei^they were
rocks or islands, seems to have been involved in much doubt. The earliest notice
of them in Greek poetry is by Pindar, who regarded them as the ultima Thule
of his day, beyond which the tame of his heroes could not advance.
, Nvy ft irp6t iffjiankt^ O^-

p*»v aperataiv ixdynv Avrtrot
GUoOtv 'HpaxAcof a-nikat'. r^ wopam
A' i<m (To^tc afiarov
Kf964>oif. ov /ii|y dtw^. Mcybf cJ^.— Pwd. Ofymp. itt. 77.

Ovx^i vpifcrw
^AfidroM aXa Kiovtav
*Yirip fipaxkhi npor ev/uMp^,
'Bfim Otht it «9i|iccr
NavTiAtof itrxiTVif

Mdiprvpaf nkvraf. Id. Xem. iii. 85.

* Simul ipsa precatur

Oceanumque patrem remm Nymphasque sorores.— Yiao. Qtorg. iv. 881.
UBque ad Hyperboreoe et mare ad Ooeanum.— Cattll. cxv. 6.
Et quas Oceani refluum marc lavlt arenas. — Ov. MeU vii. 267.


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318 EUROPE. Book IV.

mountain systems of the two continents as bat parts of a single
grand system, the point of union between them being at the
Thracian Bosporus. There is, however, this marked distinction
between the two continents : in Asia the central mountain range
is remote from the sea ; in Europe it is closely contiguous to it.
The most important links in the European range from E. to W.
are — Uaemus, and its coiitinuations between the Euxine and the
Adriatic Seas; the Alps, between the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian
Seas ; and the Pyrenees, between the Tyrrhenian Sea and tlie
Atlantic Ocean.

Httniiis,^ properly bo called, risee on the shores of the Euxine near
Mesembria, and runs in a westerly direction to the valley of the Stry mon,
where it divides into the diverging ranges of Scomius and Scardus.
A lateral range, which leaves it not far from the Euxine, and which
runs parallel to the coast of that sea, terminates at the entrance of the
Thracian Bosporus. The name seems to be connected with the Greek
XCf/ia and the Sanscrit himan, in which case it betokens the rough
and stormy character of the range.' From its westerly extremity a
series of ranges connects Hoimus with the Alps ; occasionally all of
these were included under the general nam^ of Heemus, but they
were more properly known by the specific names of Seardus between
Macedonia and Moesia, Bebii Montes between Illyria and Moesia, Adrius
and Albanoi in Northern Illyria. The great range of the Alpei con-
nects with the Ulyrian ranges at the head of the Adriatic Sea, and
curves round in the form of a bow to the Ligurian shore near Genoa.
The name is probably derived from a Celtic word Alb or Alp "a
height." This range was but imperfectly known until the time of
the Roman empire ; ^ it was then thoroughly explored and crossed by

* Theheight of Hiemas was over-Mtimated by the ancients : it does not ex-
ceed SOOO ft.

* Homer refers to the cold o( HsBmns in the following line :

2cvar* ^' iwor^AMT 6ptfic«K ofita yt^^crm. — i7. xir. 227.
So also firgil i

O qui me gelidis in vallibns H»mi
Sistat, et ingenti ramorom protegat umbra. — G^Mty. ii. 488.
Hiemns, as the chief mountain in Thrace, was regarded as the original seat
of music :

Unde Tocalem temere insecntsB

Orphea silrsB,
Arte matema rapidoe morantem
Fluminimi lapsus, oeleresque ventos,
Blandum et auritas fidibus canoris

Duoere quercus. Hoa. Otrm, i. 12, 7.

' The Alps are described at length in the two following passages :—
Sed Jam preteritos ultra meminisse labores
Conspecto) propins demsere paventibus Alpes.
Cuncta gelu canaque ntemnm.grandine tecta,
Atqne SBvi glaciem eohibent : riget ardna montit
JEtherii fscies, surgentique obvia Phoebo
Duratas nescit flammis mollire pruinas.



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various frequented routes. The description of these and of the various
subdivisions of the range will fall most appropriately under the
head of Italy. The Tjnnmi llontes' rise on the shores of the
Mediterranean, and run in a westerly direction to the Bay of Bitcay,
forming the boundary between Qaul and Spain. The chain is thence
continued in a direction parallel to the S. coast of the Bay of Biicay
to the shores of the Atlantic ; the western prolongations were known
as Saltns YatoSaimi and Mona ^Inxdns or "^ndifui. The name is
probably derived from the Celtic word hryn "a mountain.'*

From the central range already described emanate subordinate
ranges towards the S. which, extending deeply into the Mediterranean,
form three extensive peninsulas. The most westerly of these is Spain,
which owes its existence to the various ramifications of the Pyreneean
range, taking for the most part a south-westerly direction, and so
communicating a quadrangular form to that pemnsula. The central
one is Italy, which is supported bv a siugle range, the ApennUii
Ifontef, an ofibet from the Alps, wnich, fom^ the back-bone of the
country, passing through its whole extent, and giving it a direction
towards the S^. The third or most ^fisterly springs similarly fi'om
HsBmus, and may be said to have its base extending from the Adriatic
to the mouth of the Danube, but as it proceeds southwards narrows
into the peninsula of Qreeoe ; the central range of this pemnsula may

Qaantam Tartareos regnl pallenti« hiatus

Ad manes imos atque atr» stagna palndis

A supera tellure patet ; tarn longa per auras

Erlgitor telios, et coBlum interdpit umlnra.

NoUoin ver nsqaam, nnlliqae cestatis honores.

Sola JoglB habitat diris, sedesqae tnetor

Perpetuas defomiis Hiems : ilia ondiqne nnbes

Hue atras agit, et mixtoe cam grandine nimbos.

Jam cancti flatus rentiqae ftirentla regna

Alpina posoere domo. Caligat in oltis

Obtntns sazis, abeontqne in nubila montes. — Sil. Ital. UL 477.
Sed latos, HesperioB quo Bbntia jungltar orsB,

PrsBniptis ferit astra Jagis, panditque teren^lam

Yix »8tate viam. Multi sen Qorgone visa

Obrigoere gelu : moltos hausere proftmdsB

Yasta mde nlves, curnqne ipeis asope Juvends

Nanft-aga candentl merguntur planatra barathro.

Interdum glacie snbitam labente minam

Mons dedit, et tepidis ftmdamina sobroit Aostris

Pendenti maleflda solo. Clavd. de Bell. Oet. 840.

The earlier poets refer to the great height of the range, and the consequent
sereritj of the climate, in general terms :

Turn sciat, airitu Aipes et Norica si quis. — Vimo. Oeor^. iii. 474.

Farias hibermu cana nive oonspuet Alpes.— Hoa. 8mt, ii. 5, 41.

Fontis, et Alpino modo qu« oertare rigori. — Ov. Met. xiv. 794.
Occasionally, the term was extended to the Pyrenees :

Nunc geminai Alpes, Apenninamque minatur. — Sil. Ital. ii. 833.
* At PyrensBiyVtMM^oM caonmina mentis. — Siu Ital. iiL 415.

Bimarie Juga ninguida Pyrenni. — Avsok. Bpiat. xxiv. 69.

Jamqae PyrensMs, quas nanqaam solvere Titan

Bvalait, fluxere tmet, Lvo. iv. 88.


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820 EUROPE. Book IV.

be obsen'ed to leave Hemus in about 42^ N. lat. and 21^ E. long.,
and may be traced through Pindm aud the other Greek mngeB down
to the island of Cythera.

The northern projections from the main range are not in themselves
unimportant, but fall into distnots that were little known to the
ancients. The ranges of Germany are the most prominent of these,
consisting of the Hncynia Silra, under which name most <»f the western
ranges of Germany were at one time included, but which was after-
wards restricted to the range connecting the Sudetes with the Car-
pathians ; ^e SiidStM, in the N.W. o( Bohemia, where the name is still
retained; and Carp&tef, the range which encloses Hungary on the N.
and E., and which is still known as the Carpathians. It may be
observed generally of these northern ranges that they run parallel to
the main chain, thus contrasting strongly with the southern ranges
which are nearly at right angles with it.

§ 6. The rivers of Europe are numerous and important in com-
parison with the size of the continent. ITiey fall, however, for the
most part into the northern districts, with which the ancients did
not become acquainted until a late period : those of the peninsulas of
Greece and Italy have necessarily (with the exception of the Po) short
courses. The description of the rivers will fall more appropriately
under the heads of the countries through which they flowed, with
the exception of some few which come prominently forward as
boundaries of countries, and which hold an important place in the
history and political geography of the continent. These rivers have,
with but slight variation, retained their ancient names to the present
day : they are the Dauube, the Bhine, the Vistula, tie Tyras or
Dnieper^ and the Tanais or Dan.

The Ister or DaauUtui^ rises in Mons Abnoba,i the Black Forest,
and flows with a general easterly direction into the Euxine Sea. in
its upper course it formed the boundary between Germany on the N.,
and Rhsetia, Noricum, and Pannonia on the S. It then skirted the

* The former of these namet more properly bdonged to tlie Greeks, the latter
to the Romans. The Latin poets, however, ftrequently naed the Greek form, e.f.
Arslt Orontes
Thermodonqne eitas, Oangesqoe et Phasis et Ister. — Or. MH, H. S48.
Qaaque Istros Tanaisqae Getas rigat atqne Magynos.

TiBvix. It. 1, 146.
The name Dannbius contains the root dan ** water," which also appears hi
Rho-<toii-ns, Eri-dan-nB, Tbit-ais.

1 The early Greeks had very Indefinite notions as to its souroes. Pindar repre-
sents it as flowing through the ooontry of the Hyperboreans :
Tcb' won
*I<rrpov &rh (nctop^ vayay ivtutw

MroMA Twr OvXvfiwi^ x^iAAimv S0kmf
^itilior *Yvpfio^4m¥ vc^irmf . Olpmp, iii. 24.

Hesiod knew of it simply as a large river :

Sr0VM«ra UnJavipSv rt, xal 'Ivrpw xaAA«p^e#per.— 7%i»f . 938.


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E. frontier of the last-raentioned country in a southerly direction,
dividing it from Dftcia, and then, reverting to its easterly course, sepa-
rated Dacia from Mossia. For a long period it formed the boundary
of the Roman empire.^ The Bhenos prises in the Alps and flows with a
general northerly dii'ection into the Gei*man Ocean. In its upper
course it deviates to the W. between the Lacus Brigantinus and the town
of Basilia, BaUj and in its lower course it again inclines towards the
W., and traverses a low country, where its channels have shifted at
vaiious times. A description of this part of its course will be given
hereafter. The Rhine formed the boundary between (Jaul and Ger-
many, and was the great frontier of the Roman empire against the
German trilies.^ The ^ftttla is noticed as the boundary of Germany
on the side of Sarmatia. Little was known of its course : it is described
as rising in the Hercynia Silva and discharging itself into the Baltic
Sea. The Tynu* formed the southern boundary of Scythia in the
time of Herodotus, and the division between Dacia and Sarmatia in
the time of. the Roman empire. It is described as rising in the Car-
pathian ranges and flowing into the Euxine. Little was Imown of its
course.* The Tanaifl derived its importance from being regarded as
the boundary between Europe and Asia.' Its source, unknown to
th«* ancients,' is in a lake in the province of Toula ; it flows first in
a 8.E. and then in a S.W. direction, and discharges itself into the Palus

§ 7. The climate of Europe, particularly of the southera portion
of the continent, with which the ancients were best acquainted,'
presents a favourable contrast to that of the other continents. Sur-
rounded by water, it is equally free from the extremes both of heat-

' Hence we read in Horaoe t

Non, qui proflmdum Danabiuin bibont,

Edicta rumpent Julia. Carm. iv. 15, 21.

' The name is sometimes applied to the tribes living on its E. bank : —

Alter enim de te, Khene, triumphos adest. — Ot. «x Pont. iii. 4, 88.

Non vacat Arotoas ocles, Bhenumque rebellem

Pandere. Stat. Silv. i. 4, 88.

* The modem name Dniestr appears under the form Danastris in the later
writers of the Roman empire. The ancient name is still in use among the Turks
under the form Tural,

* Ovid refers to the rapidity of its stream :

Nullo tardior amne Tyrus.—Ez Pont. Iv. 10, 60.

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