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* See note ^ (page 314). Hence, also, the epithet in Horace :

JExtremum Tanaim si biberes, Lyce. — Carm. iii. 10, 1.
J Lucan places it in the Rhipason mountains :
Qua vertice lapsus

RhipflBO Tanais diversi nomina mundl

Imposuit ripis. Lvc. iii. 278.

Yirgil assigns to it a similar locality :

Solus Hyperboreas glades Tanaimque nivalem

Arvaque RhipflsiB nunquam viduata prninis

Lnatrmbat. Oeorg. It. 517.

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322 EUROPE. Book IV.

and cold, and is adapted to mature all the most valued productions
of the vegetable world. The southern peninsulas' produced com,
wine, and oil, and admitted of the introduction of many foreign
plants, such as the cherry, the orange, peach, fig, and mulberry.
Tlie northern districts, being ^vered with extensive forests and
morasses, were not so favoured in point of climate, and to this
circumstance we may partly attribute the unwillingness of the
Greeks and Romans to penetrate them. There can be no question
that a vast improvement has taken place in, this respect through
the progress of cultivation.

§ 8. The commerce of Europe, though prosecuted on a most
extensive scale, does not present many topics of interest in con-
nexion with ancient geography. Being carried on chiefly by sea,
it did not conduce to throw open the interior of the continent to
the same extent as we have witnessed in the cases of Asia and
Africa. There were, however, two exceptions to this general
assertion : viz. the tin and the amber trade, which both led to the
formation of commercial routes. In regard to the first of these pro-
ductions, Diodonis Siculus tells us (v. 22) that the merchants
conveyed the tin from Britain to the coast of Gaul, and that it was
•thence carried on pack-horses to Marseilles (probably by the valleys -
of the Seme^ Saone, and Rhone), Amber was found on the shores
of the Baltic, and was conveyed thence by an overland route to
the head of the Adriatic, where it was shipped for various parts :
the extent of coimtry traversed by this route will appear from a
glance at the map, and it is a matter of regret that we are not in
possession of the details relating to the course followed.



" yirgU thus eloqaently contrasts the superior climate of southern Europe with
that of Asia :

Sed neque Medorum silvee, ditissima terra,
Kec pulcher Ganges, atque auro turbidus Hermus,
Laudibus Italire oertent ; non Bactra, neque Indi,
Totaque thuriferis Panchaia pinguis arenis.
HsDC loca non tauri spirantes naribiis ignem
Invertcre, satis immanis dentibus hydri ;
Nee galeis densisque TlrAm seges -horruit hastis :
Sed gravidflB fhiges, et Bacchi Massicus humor
Implevere ; tenent ole», armentaque tota.
Hinc bellator equus campo sese arduus infert ;
Hinc albi, Clitumne, greges, et maxima taunts
Yictima, ssBpe tuo perfhsi flumine sacro,
Romanos ad templa dedm duxere triumphoe.
Hie vcr aBsiduum, atque alienis mensibus »stas ;
Bis gravidiD pecudes, bis pomis utilis arbor.
At rabidte tigres absunt, et ssDva leonum
Semina ; nee miseroe fallunt aoonita legentes ;
Neo rapit immensos orbes per humam, neque tanto
Squameos in spiram tractu se oolUgit anguis.— (7eor^. ii. 186.



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Chap. XVII. INHABITANTS. 323

§ 9. The popnlation of Europe belonged in the main to the
Japhetic or Indo-European branch of the human race. The
divisions of this great family and their mutual relations present
many unsolved problems. Without going into these questions, we
may point out the following races as among the most important :
(i.) the Celts and Cimmerians, who entered this continent from the
steppes of Caucasus, and, passing round the head of the Black Sea,
spread themselves over the whole of Europe and permanently
settled in the West. The countries occupied by them in classical
times were Gaul, the British Isles, portions of Spain, Rhaetia, parts
of Pannonia, and Noricum. (ii.) The Sclavonians, or, as the
ancients denominated them, Scythians and Sarmatians, who occupied
the east of Europe as far as the Oder westward, (iii.) The Teutons,
who arrived at different epochs : (1) as Low Germans, from the
regions between the Oxus and Jaxartes, and established themselves
. in the N.W. of Europe, and (2) as High Germans, who, displacing
the Celts and Sclavonians, occupied the middle highlands of Ger-
many, and are found 4n classical times E. of the Rhine and N. of
the Danube, (iv.) The Graeco-Latin stock, which probably crossed
from Asia Minor by way of Thrace and the ^gsean Isles. In
Greece it was known by the name of Pelasgian : the Phrygians,
early Thraciaus, and Macedonians, belonged to this race. The
element which Italy had in common with Greece, also belonged to
it. (v.) The Iberians, who formed the basis of the population in
Spain and in the S.W. angle of Gaul, were of the same races as the
modem Basques, and therefore did not belong to the Indo-European
femily. (vi.) The lllyrians, or progenitors of the modem Skipe-
tares* Of the two but little is known.



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Mount Alhos,



CHAPTER XVIII.

THRACIA AND MACEDONIA.

I. Thbagia. § 1. Boundaries and general description. § 2. Moim-
tains. §3. Rivers. § 4. Inhabitants. §5. Towns; Roads; History;
Islands. 11. Macedonia. § 6. Boundaries; Name. § 7. Mountains.
§8. Rivers: §9. Inhabitants. §10. Towns; Roads; St. Paul's
Travels; History.

I. Thbaoia.

§ 1. The boundaries of Thrada^ in the Roman era were — on the
E. the Euxine and the Bosporus ; on the S. the Pro^wntis, Hellespont,
and ^gaean ; on the W. the river Nestus, dividing it from Mace-
donia ; and on the N. Mount Heemus, dividing it from Moesia. At
an earlier period the district N. of Haemus to the Ister was included
within the limits of Thrace ; and in the earliest times the name was
still more broadly applied to all Europe N. of Greece. The surface
of Thraoe is generally mountainous, and the coast of the .^gsean is



The poetical form of the name is Tbraoa :

Oemit ultima pulsn
Thrmca pedum. Viao. JBn, xii. 884.

Thraeane voe, Hebnuque nivali oompede rinetnt. — Hoa. JBp. i. 8, 8.



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Chap. XVIII. GENERAL DESCEIFllON —NAME. 325

eltremely irregular. The soil was fertile,' particularly in oom (which
was exported to Athens and Rome) and in millet The dimate is
described as yery severe :' neyerthelees the grape ripened there, and
we cannot but suppose that the accounts of the ancnents as to the
climate are somewhat exaggerated. Horses were abundant, and a breed
of a white colour was fieunous.^ Cattle and sheep formed the chief
wealth of the inhabitants of the interior, while large amounts of gold,
existing between the Strymon and Nestus, enriched the inhabitants
of the coast, as well as foreign settlers, particularly the Phoenicians
and Athenians. Certain kinds of precious stones were also foimd,
particularly one named Thracia gemma.

Name. — The most probable derivation of the name is from the ad-
jective r^x<<*°^ ** rugged/* indicative of the chanu^r of the country.
The transfer of the aspirate &x>m the middle to the beginning of the
word gives us the form BfnjXKlri.

§ 2. The chief mountain-range in Thrace is Hnmoi, which skirts
the northern frontier and sends out three lateral ridges towards the



* Homer chnracterizes it by the epithet ipifiwXai,

'ViyfioVt 5« iK 9plj«ci|« iptfin^axoi ti\nK6v€ti.—Il. XX. 486i
He also represents cargoes of ii?ine as coming Arom Thrace :
nActa^ T04 oivov nXurCax^ rhv rqev 'Axeu^v
'H^rtai %pflfiKyfitv eir* wpia voyrov aywtnv—Il. Ix. 71.
' There is some ground for this belief: several historians (Xen. Jnab. vii. 4, 3;
Floras, iii. 4 ; Tac. Ann. iv. 51) relate events which imply an unusual degree o^
cold. But the exaggerated descriptions of the ancients were doubtless connected
with the poetic fiction of HsBmus being the residence of the noi-th wind. To the
north of that chain the climate was supposed to be particularly mild. As an
instance of exaggeration we refer to the passage commencing with the following
lines, in which the country about the Thracian Rhodope is introduced
At non, qua Scythies gentcs, Meeotiaqne unda
Turbidus et torquens flaventes Ister arenas,
Quaque redit medium B.hod(^ porrecta sub axem.
niic clausa tenent stabulis armenta ; neque ulln
Aut herbee campo apparent, aut arbore frondes :
Scd Jacet aggeribus niveis informis et alto
Terra gelu late, septemque assurgit in ulnas.
Semper hiems, semper spirantes frigora Canri.

Viao. )Se<»-g. iii. 849.
Compare also the expressions quoted in note i, and the epigram attributed by
some to CsBsar :

Thrax puer adstricto glaoie dum ludit in Hebro.
* Tov i^ KoAXtffTOvf Imnvi Mor i^ iityitrrwi-

AevMircpM xv6votf 0cmiv ^aytiunvw Oftotot.— HoM. it. x. 436.
Quem Thracius albis
Portat equus bicolor maculis, vestigia primi

Alba pedis frontemquc ostentans arduus albam. — Yibo. ^n. v. 565
From their skill in horsemanship the Thracians are described by Homer as
iinroiroAot :

^6<r^i¥ iit Imrtiirokuv %pf^KW Ka9opmtuvi>9 aXay.— iZ. xiii. 4,
So also /7. xiv. 227.



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326 THRACIA. Book IV.

S.E. The mo6t easterly of these three separates the basin of the
Hebrus from the Euxine, and is continued in a line parallel to the
shore of the Propontis and the Hellespont to the extremity of the
Thracian Chersonese. The most westerly, named Ehod9pe»' Despoto,
divides the basins of the Hebrus and the Nestus. Between these a
third range of less importance separates the upper valley of the Hebrus
from that of the Tonzus. In addition to these we have to notice the
isolated height of UmXniSf near the S. coast, surrounded by a district
famed for its fine wine.' In the S,E. a rocky ridge protrudes fiir into
the sea, between the Hellespont and the ^gaean Sea, and forms a
long peninsula, the ancient Ohersonteufl Thraeioaf' now the Peniiv-
sula of GaUipdi, A wall, crossing the ridge near Agora, severed
the peninsula from the mainland : the breadth at this point is only
36 stadia, and the length from the wall to the extreme point is 420
stadia, llie roost important promontories on the Euxine are Thyniast
N. of Salmydessus, and Fhilia, S. of it ; and on the ^gasan, Mastuia*
C QrecOf the termination of the Thracian Chersonese ;' Sarpedoniunii
C, Paxi, N. of Imbroe ; and Serriiimi opposite Samothraoe.



* The poetical allusions to Rhodope refer to its height, and to its being the
abode of Orpheus and Rhesus :

Aut Atho aut Rhodopen aut alta Ceraunia telo

Dejioit. Yjbo. Osorg, i. 832.

In altam
8e recipit Rhodopen, pulsnmque Aquilonibus H»mon.— Or. Met. x. 76.
Quam satis ad superas postquam BhodopeHit auras
Deflevltfa^M. Id. x. U,

Neo tantum Rhodope mirantor et Ismaros Orphea. Tibo. £cl. ri. 80.

Flerunt RhodopeXsB aroes
Altaque Pangeea et Rhesi Marortia tellus. Qeorg. ir. 461.

Smnetimes the name is used generally for Thraoe ; e.g,

Spicula deposito Bhodope'ia peetine torsit. Sil. Itxl. xii. 400.

* . . . . arc^ otycoi' avKhv rxw lUkavoi OiVOiOp

Ipcvs 'AiroAAwvos, hi 'lafLopw afi^«^«^^«cci.— HOM. Od. ix. 196.
Jurat Ismara Baooho
Conserere. Vihg. Oeorg. il. 87.

Fertur in Ismariis Bacchus amasee jugis. Or. JFlcut. iii. 410.

Tu quoqae, O Eurjtion, vino, Oentaure peristi,
Necnon Ismario tu, Polypheme, mero. Pxopsxt. IL 88, 8t.

Ismaris celebrant repetita triennia Baoohn. — Or. Met, ix. 641.
The plural form lamara is to be obserred in the second of these passages : it
occurs also in Lucret. r. 80.

' It was here that Polymnestor Hred, to whom Priam entrusted his son P0I7-
doms :

2««(ipct, ^ikkwww \ahif tv0jip»»v 3opi. — EuRiF. Sec 8.
* Atn^ AoAoym**' «vy p »iriyy KCiCfUfcori

lUi^ovtfui wpovxov^a, xcp^^oubv ic4pt»t. — ^LtoOPHS* ftSS.



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Chap. XVIII. EIVEES — INHABITANTS. S21

S 3. The chief river of Thrace wa» the Helinii,^ Maritza, which
rises in the N.W., and flows first towards the S.E. as far as Adriano-
polis, and then towards the S.W. to the M^bsui, receiving in its
course numerous tributaries, of which the Tonnu, or Artisenf, and
the AgriftiMt, on ito left bank, were the most considerable. The
Vettns. on the W. border, rises not ht from the Hebrus, and in a
S.E. course joins the sea near Abdera. Numerous small streams
flow into the Hellespont and Propontis : one of these, named JEgos-
pot&mi, " Goat River,** in the Chersonesus, was famed for the naval
engagement between the Athenians and Spartans in B.o. 405, which
took place at its mouth. Two large lakes occur on the coast—
Biftdnis, L. BurUy E. of Abdera, the water of which was brackish ;
and 8teiit5ris, formed by an arm of the Hebrus. An extensive bay,
named Melas 8miii» G. of Saros, penetrates inland W. of the Cher-
sonesus.

§ 4. The earliest inhabitants of Thrace appear to have been of tljp
Pelasgian race ;* these were supplanted, at a time subsequent to the
Trojan War, by an immigrant race from the north, allied to the Get®
and Mysi. These latter are the historical Thracians whom Herodotus
and other later writers describe. They were reputed a savage and
barbarous race,* fiuthless and sensual, and particularly addicted to
drinking. Tliey were brave soldiers, and from the time of the Pelo-
ponnesian War were much employed as mercenaries in the armies of



* The poetical allusions to the Hehros refer to its northerly position fyyi^ay
apKTov — its coldness — and its connexion with the history of Orpheus, the nrn-
nician's head having been carried down the stream to the sea :

'Efipov vap irorofk^i^, rrrpafAtk^fo^ iyyvBw apicTOv.'>THKO0B. Idyl, vii. 110.
Qoalis apad gelidi cam flamina concitos Hebri
Sanguineus Mavors olipeo increpat, atque f^irentes
Bella morens immittit equos : illi aaqaore apcrto
Ante Notos Zephyrumque volant : gemit ultima pulsu
Thraca pedum. Tuio. JBn, xii. SSI.

ut neo
Fri^idior Thracam, nee purior amhiat Hebrus.

Hob. Sp. i. 16, 18.
Turn quoque marmorea caput a ecrvioe rerulsum
Gurgite cum medio portans (Eagrius Hebrus
Volreret, Eurydieen vox ipsa et ftrigida lingua,
Ah miseram Eurydieen ! anima fiigiente vooabat .
Eurydieen toto referebant flumine ripflD.^Ynto. Oeorg. iv. 523.
' The Thracian tribes of the Cicones {II. iL 846) and theCaucones (i7. s. 429,
were in oloee alliance with Priam in the Trojan War.

* It- is hardly in accordance with the character of the Thracians that they
should have been the inventors of musio ; yet their country was the reputed abode
of Orpheus, Eumolpus, Mu8»ub, and Thamyris, and was regarded by the later
poets as the cradle of music The probability is that the term Thracian was
originally of wider use, and was applied to ocrtain districts in Central Greece, ttaok
which the associations were in ooxirse of time tranaferrod to the northerly country.



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328 THRACIA. Book IV.

more ciyilixed nations. As a people they had no political cohesion :
they were divided into a number of tribes, which were engaged in
constant feuds with each other. Of these tribes we may notice the
OdryiB, about the upper valleys of the Hebrus ; the Bastit in the
mountains near the source of that river; the Bist5nes»' on the coast
E. of the Mestus; and the CMnm,^ in the same neighbourhood.
ITieir country was divided by the Romans into fourteen districts, the
names of which are of no special interest.

§ 5. The towns in Thrace of historical importance were of foreign
and not of native origin. They may be divided into two classes —
the Greek colonies, which were exclusively on the coast; and the
Roman towns of the interior, which were built on the sites of old
Thracian towns. The coast presented many sites most admirably
adapted to settlement, partly for commercial and partly for warlike
purposes. The position of the Thracian Chersonese was most im-
portant, as it commanded not only the passage across the Hellespont
into Asia, but also that leading up the strait into the Euxine : it was
one of the two keys that lockixl that sea, the other being the Thracian
Bosporus commanded by Byzantium., The influence of this district
on the corn-trade of Greece was therefore very great From an early
period the Greeks occupied the most favourable spots : the Megarians
settled at Selymbria on the Propontis and at Byzantium, and the
latter town in turn colonized Mesembria on the shore of the Euxine;
the Milesians founded Gardia on the Chersonese, Solmydessus and
Apollonia on the Euxine ; the Samians occupied Perinthus on the
Propontis ; while on the N. shore of the -<Ega8an, ^Enus was attri-
buted to the MoM&nBf Maronea to the Chians, AbdSra to the Teians,
Mesembria and Stryme to the adjacent islands of ?amothrace and
Thasos. These towns reached their highest prosperity in the flou-
rishing period of Greek history. The foundation by Lysimachus of
Lysimachia, in B.C. 309, as his capital, is significant of the importance
attached to the Chersonese in a strategetical point of view. The in-
terior of Thrace was thrown open by the Romans ; and several im-
portant towns, such as Trajanopolis, Hadrianopolis, and Philippopolis,*



* The name of ttiis tribe is not unArequently uned for the Thracians generally :

BiVToyCfi ^6fiiiiyYt Ktytirn ^pxev ioii^. — A poll. Rhod. iL 704.
Santoineum Tclnti qnatiena Bellona flageitum,
Bistonas ant Mavors agitana— Luc. Tii. 668.

Phrygiffi contraria tellus,
Bistoniis habitaU viris. Ov. Ifet. xiiL 429.

Nodo coeroes Tiperino

Bistonidum sine frande crines. Hob. Qirm, ii. 19, 19.

I<nuuipy iv9a 3* iyii irdXiv «»pa^r, mXtva S' avroifc— HoM. Od. ix. 39.

• Philippdis la claaaod as a Soman town, inaamooh as the Maeedonian«, by
whom it was originally occupied, were unable to keep posaeesion of it.



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Chap. XVIII.



TOWNS.



329



were fotmded on the moet central spots. ITie selection of the ancient
Byaantium as the capital of the Eastern Empire secured to ITirace a
large amount of prosperity in the later period of Roman history. We
shall describe these towns in the following order : — (1.) Those on the
sea-ooast from W to R. ; and (2.) those of the interior.




I / CONS TAN!







I RUPONTIS.




Map of ConstantiiKiple.

(1.) Toums on the Sea-Coast, — Abdira was situated some distitnce
E. of the Nestus. It was originally occupied by a colony from Clazo-
mente in B.C. 656, and
afterwards by Teians in
541. At the time of
the expedition of Xerxes
it was a highly flourish-
ing place. It was taken
by tne Athenians in 408,
and appears to have
fallen to decay after
B.G. 376, when it suf-
fered ftom a war with Cotaof Abdera.
the Ti-iballi. It was the

birth-place of the historian Hecatseus, and of the philosophers Prota-
goras, Demoeritus, and Anazarchus : ' its inhabitants wei*e never-
theless proverbial for their stupidity.* Xanmfia, Marogna, was not
far from Lake Ismaris, in a district famed for its superu>r wine.' It
was taken b^ Philip Y. of Maoedon in b.c. 200 ; and, on his being com-
pelled to relmquish his conquests, its inhabitants were cruelly massacred
by him. Under the Romans it became a free city. JBniis, Enoe, on a
promontory S.E. of Lake Stentoris^ was a very ancient town, though



* Hence the ancomplimentary alliuions in the following lines :
FerveeuM in patria crassoque sub aere naaoi. — Juv. x. 50.
8i patiens fortiaqne tifai dnmsqike videtur,

Abderitanm pectora plebis habef. Mabt. x. 25.

' Cessit et iEtnaen Neptonins inoola ropis,

'^'lotf Maroueo ftedatos lamina Baoobo. — Tibull. ir. 1, 56.



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330 THRaCIA. Book IV.

its origin is uncertain.' In the Peloponneaian War it appears as an
ally of Athens, and subsequently came into the possession successively

of Ptolemy Philopator
in B.C. 222, Philip of
Macedon in 200, and An-
tiochuB the Great : under
the Romans it was made
a free town. Cardia,
Ckiridia, at the head of
the Gulf of Helas, was
founded by a colony of
Milesians and Cla»>>
Colnof£nui. menians, and in the

time of Miltiades was re-
plenished with Athenian settlers. It was destroyed by Lysimachus ;
and, though rebuilt, never regained any importance. It was the birth-
place of King Eumenes.
Sestni,' Jcdotoa, was the
. principal town of the
Chersonesus, and stood
on the Hellespont nearlv
opposite to Abydus. U
owed its importance
wholly to its position,
as the point at which the

n«i« «f Cmtaxm ■'""*■ ^^"^ crossed, and

ColnofCtfdia. consequently it smJt

when the Romans trans-
feiTed the station to Callipolis. The bridge of boats constructed by
Xerxes terminated a little S. of the town. It was taken by the Athe-
nians, B.C. 478, and was termed by them the "corn-chest of the
Pir»us," as giving them command of the Euxine. It was taken by the
Spartans, B.C. 404 ; was blockaded by Conon without eflfect in b.c. 394;
and again by Cotys, a Thraclan king, with a similar result, in 362, at
which time it had fallen into the power of the Persians. It was be-
sieged by the Athenians in 353, when its inhabitants were massscred ;




• JEnoa ifl noticed by Homer ; it could not thereftwe have been foonded by
Aieas, as Virgil aaserts :

JUifi^ 'IlifipturOifi, U ip tJMBw eiAi}Aoi^i.-/2. iv. 619.

Terra procul vastis colitur Marortia eampis,
Thraces arant, acri quondam regmata Lyourgo
Hoapitiam antiquum TtoJab, aociique Penates,
Dnm fortuna taSX, Feror hue, et littoro cnrvo
MoBfnia prima loco, fktis ingressus iniquis ;
iEneadasque meo nomen de nomine flngo. — JSn. iii. 18.

* SestUfl has been already noticed in the passages quoted under the head of
Abydus. We may add the following, which contain references to the lives of
Hero and Leander :

Sestiaoos nunc Fama sinus pelasgusque natatum

Jactes. Stat. 8ih, i. 8, 87.

Mittit Abydenus, quam mallet ibrre, salntem,

81 oadat ira maris, Sesti puella, tibi.— Ov. Heroid. xviii. 1.



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Chap. XVIII. TOWNS. 331

and lastly it surrendered to the Romans in 190. (kilUpSlil, OiiUipoli,
stood higher up the coast, opposite Lampeacus, and became a flourisning
place under the Romans. Lyilmaohia, at the N.E. extremity of the
Chersonese, owed its name and existence to Lysimachus, who consti-
tuted it his capital, and peopled it with the inhabitants of Cardla.
After the death of its founder, it passed successively into the hands of
the Syrians and Egyptians. Lb was destroyed by the Thracians during
the war of the Romans against Philip of Macedon; and, though restored
by Antiochus the Great, never recovered its prosperity. Perinthiu,
Etki Eregli, was built like an amphitheatre on a sxnall peninsula
jutting out into the Propontis. It was originally a Samian colony,
founded about B.C. 599. It was famed for its obstinate defence against
Philip of Macedon, at which time it was a flourishing commercial town.
Its name was changed to Heraclea about the 4th cent, of our era.
Selymhria, Silivrif a colony of the Megarians, was about 22 miles E. of
PerinthuB, and just inside the wall of Anastatius. It ia noticed by
Xenophon as the place where he met Medosades, and as being taken by
Alcibiades. The Emperor Eudoxius changed its name to Eudoxiupolls.
Byiantlum was situated
at the extreme point of
the promontory which
divides the Propontis '
from the Bosporus, an
iulet of the latter, the
modem " Gk>lden Horn,"
bounding the site of
the town on the N. Its

position was magnificent, q^^ ^^ ByxanUum.

commanding the oppo-
site shores of Europe

and Asia, at the same time secure and well adapted for trade, and sur-
rounded by beautiful scenery. Its foundation is ascribed to the Mega-
rians,^ who sent thither two colonies in the years B.C. 667 and 628.
The chief events in its history are — its capture by Alcibiades in 408,
when it was in the hands of the Spartans ; its recapture by Lysander in
405 ; the unsuccessful siege of it by Philip of Macedon in 340, when
aid was given to it by Athens ; the heavy imposts exacted by the Grauls
in 279 ; its capture by Severus after a three years' siege, in the civil
war with Pescennius Niger, a.,d. 196, after which ^e walls were
levelled, and the inhabitants treated with great severity ; and its final
capture by Constantine, when Licinius had retu-ed thither after the
battle of Adrianople. That emperor selected the promontory on which
Byeantium stood as the site of his new capital; and on May 12, a.d. 330,
founded OmfltantinopoIiB, or, as it was originally styled, " New Rome." '
The now town, like old Rome, stood on 7 hills, 5 of which were en-
closed within the fortifications that extended from the " Horn," which
served as the port, to the Propontis. It was divided into 14 regions,



Online LibrarySir William Smith William Latham BevanThe student's manual of ancient geography → online text (page 38 of 82)