Sir William Smith William Latham Bevan.

The student's manual of ancient geography online

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and was adorned by its founder with a similar number of churches and



1 It is said to have been built on the site of an older town named Lygos ; hence
in Ausonina —

tu cum
Byzantina Lygoe, tu Punica Byraa ftiisti. — Ifob. Urh. 2.

« The modem StambtU la a oorruption of the Greek t« riiv m\tv.



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882 THRAGIA. Book IV.

Mlaoet, M well as with serend triumphal arches and 8 public baths.
Subsequent emperors added to its edifices : Theodosius the Great built
the << Golden Qate;" Theodosius If. added hut baths; Justinian, the
" second founder" of the dty, built the temple of the Eternal Wisdom,
8t, Sophia, and 25 churches, and restored the palace. The chief events
in the history of the town are — its almost total destruction in the reign
'of Justinian by the factions of the Circus, a.d. 532 ; the blockade of
Choero^Ss, from 616 to 626 ; the two unsuccessful sieges of the Arabs
in 668 and 675, and 716-718 ; its capture by the Latins in 1204 ; and
its capture by the Tmks in 1453. Salmydeifiii stood on the coast of
Uie Euzine, about 60 miles N.W. of the Bosporus, near Midjeh, The
coast was extremely dangerous, and the people had the character of
being imscmpulous wreckers.' The name was applied to the district
as well as the town. Ap<ill<Hil>, or, as it was later called, Soxq^oUi,
whence the modem SixAcUt was a Milesian colony more to the N.,
with two large hari>ouni. It possessed a temple with a colossal statue
of Apollo, which M. Lucullus transported to Rome. MesemlnrU,^ at
the foot of H«mus, was founded originally by Megarians, and after-
wtirda received colonists from Byzantium and Chalcedon, about 500 B.C.
It was a member of the Greek Pentapolis on the Euzine.

Of the less important towns we may notice — ^IMoaa, a Greek town on
Lake Bistonis, identified either with Cumu or Bauron ; Isminif, an old
town of the CHcones, at the foot of the mountain of the same name ;
Strjmft, a Thasian colony, near the rirer Lissus ; MatemhrU, a colony
from Samothrace, N. of that island; Doriseiii, at the mouth of the
Hebrus, where Xerxes reviewed his army ; Aphrodiilaa, probably the
same as Agiict, at the neck of the Chersonese ; AlopeooimSsiifl, AUxi,
an JSolian colony on the W. coast of the Chersonese ; ELBsrat, a Teian
colony on the Hellespont, near Prom. Mastusia, celebrated fur its temple
and tomb of Protesilaus : it was frequently visited by fleets either
entering or leaving the Hellespont; XadftUt Maito, opposite Abydus;
near it was the promontonr of QynoMtaiA, " Dog^s tomb," so named as
being the burial-place of Hecuba, who was metamorphosed into a dog ;*



'Ex<'f>^(^i'09 ravrjy<n, uirrpvul vtmr^MacB. Prom, f M.
* Heec preoor erinoat, propulsaque fortibas Austris
Transest instaUles stremia Cyaneu :
Thynniseoeqiie dous, et ab his per ApoUinis urbem

Alts lob Anohiali mcBnia tendat Iter :
Inde MeaanbrlaeM portoa, et OdeMon, et aroet

Pmtereat diotas nomine, Baoebe, too. — Or. DrUi, i. 10, SS.

Kvrbc ToAo^nft tf^M** vavWAoif Wk^op.^EuBIP. Heeitb, 1270.
Clade aoi Thraonm gent irritata tyranni
Troada telonun lapidumque inceswre Jaotn
CcBpit. At h»c misiam raoco cum mormure taxum
MortibDa inseqidtur : riotuqoe in rerba parato
LatraTit, oonata loquL Loeut exttat^ Hex re
Kemm kahet : TetenmM|Qe diu memor ilia malonun.
Turn qnoque Sithonioa nlalaTit moBsta per airros.

Ov. Jict, xiil. 56*



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Chap. XV III . TOWNS — HISTORY. 333

PMtyt, whii^ier Aloibiades whb exiled ; and ATiflhiMng| on the Euxine,
N. of Apollonia, of which it was a colony.

(2.^ In (he /nterior. —PUl^ipapolii, founded by Philip of Macedon,
was built on three hillB (whence its other name of Trimontium) S £.
of the Hebrus, on the site of a previously existing Thracian town. It
was a very populous place, and is still, as PhiUppopolif one of the most
important towns of Thrace. Eadiianopolii, at the junction of the
Tonzus with the Hebrus, was founded by the Emperor Hadriai>on the
site of the older Uscudama. The fertility of the surrounding country
and the centrality of its position rendered it a very flourishing place.
It carried on several manufactures, especially one of arms. It was be-
sieged by the Qoths in a.d. 378. Adrianople is still a large place.
Tnjanopolif was founded either by or in honour of Trajan. It stood in
the lower valley of the Hebrus, but its position is uncertain : by some
it is placed at Orikhomi, about 40 miles from the mouth of the river ;
by others on the Egnatia Via, some distance W. of the Hebrus.

Of the less important towns we may notice — ^Develtns, Zagora, W.
of ApoUonia; Beroa, or Irenopolis, as it was afterwards named after
the Empress Irene, £. of Philippopolis ; Nic8B, near Adrianople, the
scene of the defeat and death of the Emperor Yalens in a.d. 378;
Imrttliun, N.W. of Perinthus, and in the neighbourhood of the Campus
Serenus, on which Licinius defeated Maximinus ; CoBnophmrinm, more
to the £., where Aurelian was murdered in a.d. 275 ; Plotinopolis, S.
of Hadrianopolis, but of uncei-tain position, named after Plotina, the
wife of Trajan ; Temporal on the Egnatia Via, near Trajanopolis, situ-
ated in a defile (probably the KoeiriXwy frrtv^ of Arrian), in which Cu.
Manlius was attacked on his return from Asia Minor in B.C. 1 88 ; and
IHoopoliB, near the mouth of the Nessus, probably founded by Ti>ajan.

Roads, — Thrace possessed two high roads, both starting from Byzan-
tium : one of these (called the " Kmg's Road," as having been in part
followed by Xerxes) ran parallel to the .^gtean coast into Macedonia ;
the other followed the valley of the Hebrus, through Adrianople and
Philippopolis into Moesia. The former was the route selected by the
Romaus for their great eastern road ; it formed a portion of the Egnatia
Via; the time of its construction through Thrace seems quite un-
certain.

History. — The earliest historical evert of consequence was connected
with the expedition of Darius in 513 bc. against the Scythians. The
course which he pursued through Thrace has been already referred to
(cap. iii. § 7) . On his return he left Megabazus to subdue the coimtry :
this was effected, but the Persian occupation was only of short dura-
tion. Miltiades was tyrant of the Chersonesus at this period. The next
events are connected with the expeditions against Qreece under Mar-
doniuB in 492, and under Xerxes in 480, both of which passed through
the country. The Thraciaos joiaed the invaders and fought at the battle
of Platiea. The Athenians subsequently expelled the Persians f lom the
Thracian towns in the years 478-476. The kingdom of the Odrysae was the
most powerful at this time. In 431 the Athenians entered into alliance
with Sitalces, who undertook a campaign against Macedonia. The com-
mand of the Bosporus and Hellesf>ont were of tho greatest importance to
the Athenians, and various engagements took place between them and
the Spartans, terminating with the battle of JSgospotami in 405. Sub-
sequently to this the influence of Sparta predominated until the stbces-
sion of Philip II. to the throne of Macedonia in 359, who succeeded in
getting possession of that part of Thrace which lay W. of the NestUB,



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334 THRAOU. Book IV.

as well as the remamder of the coast. On the death of Alexander the
Qreat m 323, Thrace fell to the share of Lysimachus ; and, after his
death in 281, was for a short time subject to Seleucus and Ptolemy
Geraunus. A long period of anarchy and uncertainty followed. In 247
the coast-towns were conquered by Ptolemy Euergetee, and remained
subject to Egypt for about 50 years. Philip V. of Macedonia invaded
Thrace in the years 211, 205, and 200; but was compelled by the
Komaa» to resign his conquests in 196. In 190 Manlius traversed
Thrace on his advance against Antiochus. Philip renewed his invasions
in 184 and the following years with no permanent results. After the
annexation of Macedonia to the Roman Empire in 148, frequent wars
with the Thraoians occurred. The country, however, preserved a show
of independence imtil the reign of Vespasian (a.d. 69-79), when it was
made a Roman province.

Islands. — The following islands lie off the coast of Thrace : Imbixw,
Lemnos, Samothrace, and Thasos. Imbrot, EmbrOt which may be re-
garded as a continuation of the Thracian Chersonese, is mountainous *
and well-wooded, and possessed a town of the same name on its N.
coast. It was occupied by Pelasgians, and colonized by Athenians,
who retained possession of it to a late period. It was visited bv Ovid
on his voyage to the place of his exile.7 The Cabiri were worsnipped
there. Lsmnos, now Stalimene, a corruption of tls rh^ Arjfiyoy, lay
8.W. of Imbros about midway between Mount Athos and the Helles-
pont. It is of an ir-
regular quadrilateral
shape, being nearly di-
vided into two peninsulas
by two deep bays. It
is covered with barren
and rocky hUls of no
great height, which in
_^^^ many places indicate the

agency. Hence the is-
land was connected with
Hephsestus,' and hence also its ancient name of ^thalea *' the burning




* Henoe the epithet by which Homer oharacterises it :

Mtacniydf H Scmmv re kcu, "Itifipov vat«-aA<W(nn}f.~/Z. xxiv. 7A.
T ' Tenimofl ad portus, Imbria terra, tnos. — Or. iyi$t, i. 10, 18.

* ^Egeo premitur ciretimflua Nereo
Lemnoa, ubi ignifera fessus respirat ab £tna
Muldber : ingenti tellurem proximus umbra
VesUt Athos, nemortmique obscurat imagine pontum.

Stat. 7A«ft. v. 49.
Yulcannm tellus n3rp«ipylfea colit. Ot. Hut, iiL 8S.

*Pt^. woSht rrrayitVt cbrb /^Aov Btantiriouf

Kdwvtirotf iv Aijfitfif, oXCyo^ i* in Ovfiht iv^tv
'EtfOa fic SiKTUf &M9p9s S^ap itoiA.Unum ve<r5yra.— Hov. II. 1. 690.
5 " Lemnios •» was an epithet of Yuloan :
I^mnliu extempio valras patefecit ebumas. — Or. Met, ir. 185.
Hieo pater JEoliii properat dum Lemniun oris.— Viao. J?n. vUi. 431.



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Chap. XVIII. ISLANDS. 33&

lale.'* On the E. coast is the Hermsean rock to which .Aohylus refers.*
The earliest inhabitants were the Thracian Sinties : these were suc-
ceeded by the Minyse,' and these in tarn by the Pelasgians.' Lemnos
belonged generally to the Athenians. It possessed originally only one
town of the same name but afterwards two, Myxfna, Kastro, on the
W. coast, and HephsMtia on the N. Pliny states that there was a
remarkable labyrinth on the island. Samothnuda, ''the Thracian
Samos," ^ Samoihraki, lies N. of Imbros, opposite the mouth of the
Hebrus. It is of an oval shape, and about 8 miles long and 6 broad,
and contains a mountain of remarkable height^ (5240 feet), which
renders the island a very conspicuous object from the coasts both of
Asia and Europe : the name ffd^os has reference to this elevation.
Samothrace was the chief seat of the worship of the Cabin. Thasot,
Thaso, lies about 3J
miles off the plain of
the river Nestus. It is
covered with mountains,
some of which are bare,
others wooded, the high-
est of them attaining an
elevation of 3428 feet : « .
only a few cultivated

spots occur near the ,, , .,_.

s^ shore. It produced Coin of riuiso*.

marble,' wine, 7 and
more especially gold, the mines of which were worked originally by



• *Eirefiirev 'liij fiev, wpb* 'EpfMuof Atfira?
A^/uKov. Agam. 283.

So also Sophocles :

voAAa M ^1^9 r^f i^^cTcpof

ar^yov aio-irvirov x<*f^0M'<*Y' — PJ^i^ocL 1469.

1 The Minys were said to be the offspring of the Argonauts and the Lenmian
women, who had all murdered their husbands, and were living under the rule of
Hypsipyle, the daughter of Thoas, to whom Ovid refers in the expression ** tellus
Hypsipylaea :" see above, note •.

« The Pclasgians were also guilty of an act of gross cruelty in the murder of their
offspring by the Athenian women whom they had carried off. " Lemnian deeds *'
hence became a proverbial expression for any atrocity.

• ThreYciamque Samum, quse nunc Samothracia fertur. — ^Virg. JBn. vil. 208.

eprniKtri TC Sa/uos, *Uri^ r' opea (rxuievTa. HoM. Hymn in ApoU. 34.
^ From the top of this rock Homer describes HephsBstus as surveying the plain
of Troy :

KaX yip 6 $avitajSu¥ ^oto irr6\tti4v re fidxyiv t«
'Y^ov cir* ajcpoT<£ni)9 «copv^^ Sofiov vAi|tf<r<n}f,
Opijueti|S' SvBt¥ yip i^taivrro ireUra fitv *Idiy,
^aivtro 8i Hpiaiioio stSAif, koX yijn 'A^catwr. — II. xiii. 11.
^ Archilochus most truly compares Tbasoe to an " ass^s backbone overspread with
wild wood."— (JV«v. 17, 18.)

* Non hue adnus8» Thasos aut undosa Carystos. — Stat. 8Uv. i. 5, S4.
Hie Nomadum lucent flaventia saxa Thasosque. — Id. ii. 3, 92.

^ Sunt ThasifG vifes. ViRo. Oeor^. ii. 91.

Hence the head of Dionysus appears on the coins of Thasos.



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536 THRACI A — MACEDONIA. Book IV.

the Phcsnicians, and afterwards by the Qreeks of Faroe, who settled
here under Telesiclee, the father of Archilochus, about 720 B.c. These
Thasian Greeks also worked the mines on the coast of Thrace. Thasoe
thus became very wealthy, and was obliged to contribute liberally to
the support of the Persian army under Xerxes. The chief town was
on the N. coast, and possessed two ports. It was taken by the Athe-
niaus in i^c. 462, to whom the isbuid remained generally subject. It
was made free by the Romans after the battle of Oynoscephalse in 197.
We have yet to notice the two small islands at the K. entrance of the
Thracian Bosporus, named Cyanea InsnlflB, from the greenish coppery
colour of the rqcks, and Sympleg&des from their apparently claihhig
together as vessels approached them. They were an object t»f dread to
iuariiiei*s.^



Philippl.

ir. — Macedonia.

§ 6. I'he boundaries of Macedonia, in the extent it attained sub-
sequent to the reign of Philip, were — in the S. the ^gaean and the
Cambunian range, separating it from Thessaly ; in the W. Mount
Lingon and a southerly offset of Scardus, which formed the limits on
the side of Epinis and lllyria respectively ; in the N. Septus, be-
tween it and Ma*sia ; and in the E. the river Nestus and Thracia



K<^;t«ai' it alai', Kvayim St^irAifytC^. — EURIP. Med. I



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Chap. XVIII. NAME— MOUNTAINS. 337

The surface of the country is movmtainous, but there are several
extensive and very fertile plains enclosed between the ridges, and
well watered by the rivers which traverse them. The sea-ooast is
remarkably irregular. Among the special sources of wealth of this
country we may notice the gold and silver mines on the S. coast.

Name. — The country derived its name from the Maceddnes, whose
original territory lav m the S.W. of Macedonia between the hills on
the W. border and tbe neighbourhood of Pella. The extension of the
power and name of this tribe over the whole of the coimtry was a
gradual process, the more marked stages being the advance of the
Rentier to the Strymon by Perdiccas (454-413 B.C.) and to the Nestus
by Philip (359-336). *

§ 7. The mountain ranges of Macedonia are connected with Soordos
or Soardnsi a continuation of Rasmus, which skirts the northern
frontier. Three offsets from this range penetrate southwards through
the country. The most westerly divides the Strymon from the
Nestus imder the name of Orbttns* and is prolonged in an offset
named Pangaus*' Pimari, filmed for its mines of gold and silver.
A second divides the basins of the Axius and Strymon and wa?
known by the name of CeroIne> Karadagh, between Pseonia and
Mygdonia, and Dyi&mm* more to the S. near Lake Prasias. The third
in the W. was known by the names of Barnvs and B«nnias> lower
down, near the town of Beroea. The central range gives the most
prominent feature to the line of the coast by forming the peninsula
of Cbaloidloei which is enclosed by the Sinus Thermaicnf » B, of Salo-
nikiy in the W., and the Sinus StrymonioiiSf ^^. of Rendina in the E.,
and which terminates towards the S. in the three lesser peninsulas



* The following are the clamlcal allusions to this mountain : the deity to whom
Euripides refers may be either Bacchus or Lycurgus, king of the Edonians, who
is said to have been torn to pieces by horses in this mountain : —

A* aii^X noyyoubv BiitMBkx

NouTOMW'm «^ay. Pnn>. Pyth, iv. 8l».

BoA/3i)f V ViMwv Uvatta, nayyaud' r* opoc

'H^Mi^iS' alay. JEaca. Port, 494.

Boffxov irpo^ijTTj?, o« « nayyoAw ndrpav
'Oixifoc (r«/uu^ rounv wb6tnv ^dv.— EURIP. Bka. 969.
Altaque Pangfea, et Bhed Mavortia tellus.— Vino. Oeorg, ir. 462.

Video Pangfea nivoeis
Cana jugis. Lrc. i. 680.

TLepStoa y^ St) irorofi^ovf dto^poelf,
AiieTpoii knkiBriv l^frvfiofos ^vroAfubtf ,
•Or' ^AtfofMV yifi xP^^fiioKov tit Arfirow
nayywoK— EUBIP. Shet. 916.

ANC. GEOO. Q



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338 MACEDONIA. Book IV.

of ilota* SiUumia*^ and PallSne,' with the intervening bays named
Sin. Singitioiif > and Sin. Toronaioui ; the extreme points of the i)enin-
aulas were named re8i)ectively NymphflBnm, UcLgio Ghiorghi : Derrhis.
Dhrejxtno, and Canastnram, Paliuri, In addition to these we may
notice the promontories of Amp&ni, Kartali, in Sithonia ; Poddiom
or Poiidoninni, Posidhi, in the S.W. of Pallene ; Gigdnis* Ajxinomi ;
and JBnnSi Kara-bumu^ on tlie W. coast of Chalcidice.

Of all the Macedonian mountains, Athos, at the extremity of the
peninsula of Acte, possesses the highest interest : the whole of the
peninsula is rugged and mountainous, and at its southern extremity
Atl^s rises conspicuously to the height of 6350 feet — an insulated cone
of white limestone.' Off the adjacent promontory the fleet of Mace-
donia ^as wrecked in B.C. 492 : to avoid a similar disaster Xerxes cut
a canal ^ across the isthmus about 1} miles S. of Acanthus : the breadth
of the isthmus is 2500 yards, and the traces of the canal are still per-
ceptible, though its existence was disbelieved by the ancients.^ The
mountain and peninsula are now named Monte Santo from the number
of monasteries and chapels on it.

§ 8. The largest river in Macedonia is the Azins,* Varilar, which



1 Sithonia is used by Virgil as a synonym for any northern country "with a
severe climate ; by Ovid and Horace for Thrace ; their allusions to Bacchus imply
the Thraoian tendency to drunkenness :

Sithoniosque nives hiemis subeamus aquoeaa. — Viio. £cl. x. 66.
TempuB erat, quo sacra solent Trieterica Bacchi
SithonifiB celebrare nurus. Ov. Met. vi 587.

Monet Sithoniis non levls Evius. Hob. Oarm. i. 18, 9.

« Pallene, or Phlegra, as it was otherwise called, was the fabled t»cene of the
conflict between the gods and the Titans, as well as of that between Hercules
and the giant Alcyoneus, which was sometimes placed at the isthmus of Corinth :
irav 9tot iy wtBitf ♦A^

'Avrtd^wny— ' Pnn>. JVem. 1. 100.

^A^ypatoty tvpitv, 'AAxvov^,
X^rrdfMi S" ov ^uraro
Xtpalv ^apv^oyyoiO vnpai

'HpoxA^f . Find. Istk, vl. 41.

» Juno is represented as alighting upon it in her Journey from Olympus to
Lemnos:

llitpCriv d* iwifiaau koX 'HiiaBiiiv ^paTcivqy,
S«Oar' i^' inromJAwv Opj^icwv 5pca vi^onTa, .
'Axporaraf Kopv^it, ov6i x^>« iidpmrt irodouK.
'Ef 'AMw I* iw\ itovrov ifij/jvaro KviiMvwra.—Hou U. xlv. 226.
^ Cum Medi peperere novum mare, oumque Juventus
Per medium chisei barbara navit Athon. — Catull. Ixvi. 45.

* Yelifleatus Athos, ct quioquid Onecla mendax

Audet in historia.. Juv. x. 174.

* The importance of the Axius is well depicted in the following pasragee :

Avrap HvpoiXMn^ «y« Hoioww ayirvAoW^ovf,
TifAotfcf €^ 'A^vSmm;, air' 'A^iov evpvp^oi^nx,
'AJ^iOV, oh KSXkixmv vltaft hriKi&vartu atay.— HOM. U. 11. 84S.



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Chap. XVIII. EIVERS — LAKES. 339

riaea in Mount Scardus, and flows towards the S.E. into the Q'hermaic
Gulf, receiving in its course the Erigoni Tzema^ from the W. The
lower course of the Axi\i8 has undergone considerable clianges. The
Strymon,^ Struma^ is the next in point of importance : it rises in the
N.E. and flowing towards the S. and S.E., passes through the Lake
of Prasias, and Mis into the Strymonic Gulf near the town of Amphi-
polis : its banks were much frequented by cranes. The Haliacmon.
Vistritzoy in the S., is a considerable stream, rising on the border of
Epirus, and after a circuitous course to the S.E. and N.E. flowing
into the Thermaic Gulf. In early times it received the Lydias^ from
the Lake of Pella as a tributary ; but this stream now joins the
Axius. There are several large lakes in Macedonia, one of which,
PrasUs or OerdidtiSf Tctk-hyno, has been already noticed as being
formed by the river Strymon : Herodotus (v. 16) gives an interest-
ing account of its amphibious inhabitants. Bolbe*' Besikia^ lies near
the Strymonic Godf^ with which it is connected by a channel flowing
through the pass of Anion or Arethusa ; it is about 12 miles long,
and 7 broad. Bagorrltit was a small lake in Eordaea, probably
Kitrini.



*Afia Boitx«v/ia<ri'

EiAto-<rofuiii'af Mavtofiaf o^ct.

Atrial' T€ r^v -ran ev&UftOKias

BpoTot« &Aj3oi6Tai',.waT^pa T€

thv iKkoov ewimroi' X^^po^ vloaw

KoAAMTTOtcrt AtirotWu'. EURIP. BoxOk, 567.

" The poetical allusions to the Strymon have reference to its northerly position
and the abundance of cranes on its banks.

'FMpov iywv 2tpv^u>i^09. -fisCH. Pert. 496.

Tcixca ixiv KoX Aa<v virol ^iir^« «e witnitv

:S.Tpvfioyiov Bop4ao. Calum. Hymn, in Dd. 26.

Ili'oal fi' airh ^TpvfJLOVOi /ioAovcot

KoitoirxoAot- ^I^H. AgoM. 192.

Quales sub nubibus atris
Strymoniffi dant signa grues, atque ccthera tranant
Cum sonltu, fugiuntque Notos clamore secnndo. — Virg. /Eti. x. 264

Nee quio Strj'monio de grege rlpa sonat. — Mabt. ix. 80.

Deseritur Strymon, tepldo committerc Nilo

Bintonias consuetus aves. Luc. Hi. 199.

« This river is referred to in the passage quoted above (note «).

X^iMV a^iK6nt<r0' cjt* 'Aftov iropov,

BoA/3»,? e' cAeioi' 66vaKa ^-S^"- ' «»• ^»2.

Q 2



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340 MACEDONIA. Book IV.

§ 9. The Maoedonianfli were allied to the Hellenic race, but were
not regarded as pure Hellenes' : they fonned but one element in the
population of Macedonia: the r^t were either ITiracians, as the
Pseonians, Pierians, Botti»ans, Edonians, &c., or lUyrians, as the
Lyncestians and Eordasans. Greek colonies were planted along the
coasts. The Macedonians were regarded by the Greeks as a semi-
barbarous people, but it is tolerably certain that they had attained
a considerable advance in the arts : their coinage, which is of a re-
markably fine character, is evidence of this.' The original Macedonia

was divided into two
parts, Upper and Lower :
the former consisting of
the western district ad-
jacent to the hills, the
latter of the districts
about the tributaries as
far as Pella. In addi-
tion to this, the country
Coin of Macedonia. ^as parceUed out into

districts named after
the various tribes, of
which the most important were as follows: EdSnia* between the
Strymon and Nestus, occupied by a Thracian tribe ; Bisaltia between
the Strymonic Gulf and Lake Bolbe; Sintiea, W. of Lake Prasias ;
Mygdonia,^ between the Axius in the W. and Lake Bolbe in the E.,
in the peninsula of ChaloldXoe; Kwiathia* between the mid^urses



1 The late Latin poets adopted the form Mac^tfe in lieu of Macedonia, 0.^.

Rursus bella Tolet MacetOm instanrare sub armls.— Sil. Ital. ziii. 878.
Nee te regnator Maeetdim neo barbanu anqoam.- -Stat. SUv. It. 6, 106.

* The language of the Macedonians bore some affinity in its structure to the
JGolian dialect, and contained several words that are found in Latin.

* The coin represented abore exhibits the head of Artemis Tauropolos, and on
the reverse the club of Hercules encircled with a garland of oak.

* Non ego sanius

Bacchabor Bdonis. Hor. Oarm, IL 7, 26.

TJtque suum Bacchis non sentit sauda vulnus
Dum stupct Edonis exulnlata jugis. Ov. Dritt. iv. 1,41.

Nee minus assiduis Edouis fessa chords. — Propkbt. 1. 3, 5.
Some of the Latin poets altered the quantity of the penultimate :
Eddnis ut Pangsea super trieteride mota

It Juga, ct inclusum suspirat pectore Bacchum. — Sxl. Ital. iv. 778.
^ The Mygdonians were a Thracian race. The classical allusions to Mygdonia
refer not to this country, but to a district in Asia Minor.

« In the Homeric age Emathia was restricted to the southern district near the
Haliaemon— a country which well deserves the epithet of " lovely ;"
nMpiijy ^ hrifiwa KaX 'H/Aa0ii}v ifiartCtniv —JU xiv. 226.



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Chap. XVIII. DIVISIONS — TOWNS. 341

of the Axius and Haliacmon containing the capital, Pella ; Bottisai



Online LibrarySir William Smith William Latham BevanThe student's manual of ancient geography → online text (page 39 of 82)