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a maritime district between the lower oom-ses of the rivers just
mentioned ; Fieria* a narrow strip of plain between the mouths of
the Peneus and Haliacmon, the reputed birth-place of Orpheus and
of the Muses, whence the name of Pierides was transferred into
BoBOtia ; Elimidtis in the upper valley of the Haliacmon ; Orettis on
the borders of Epirus, and occupied by an Epirot tribe ; Eordaat a
secluded district between the basins of the Axius and the Haliacmon
to the W. of Mount Bermius ; Lynoeitii ' in the W. in the southern
half of the basin of the Upper Erigon, where the valley of the Bevus
lies ; PflBonia, in the N. and N.E., whither the Paettnes, who once
occupied the whole valley of the Axius • withdrew after the Argolic
colonization of Emathia ; the principal tribes to the E. were the
Odomanti, Astreei, and Agrianes. The Romans at first divided the
whole country into four parts in the following manner: — (1) lErom
the Nestus to the Strymon, with Amphipolis as its capital ; (2) fix)m
the Strjrmon to the Axius, with Thessalonica as its capital ; (3) from
the Axius to the Peneus, with Pella as its capital ; (4) the mountain
district, with Pelagonia as its capitaL ITiey afterwards, however,
united it with llljria and Thessaly as one province. Under Con-
stantine it was divided into Prima aiR ISecunda or Salutaris, the
former being the coast-district, the latter the interior.

§ 10. The towns of historical importance in Macedonia were, with
the exception of the capitals Edessa and Pella, situated either on or
adjacent to the sea-coast. Many of them received colonies from

^ It is sometimes called Lyncus by Livy and Thacydides ; the Egmitian Road
traversed it, and it was the scene of operations in Sulpicios's campaign against
Philip in b.c. 200. Ovid describes a mineral spring in this district, which has
been discovered at a place called Ecciaao Verbeni :

Hide fluit effectu dlspar Lyncestins amnis,

Quern quicanqae parum moderato guttore traxit,

Hand aliter titnbat quam si mera vlna biUsset. — Met, xv, 829.!

Perseus traversed this district in his march from Citiom to Elymia (Liv. xlii.

* In the Homeric age they were near the sea coast :

AvToip UvpaCx/iTi^ aye HaioyoLi ayicvkor6iovi

TtlXoBw ii 'AnvSwotf aw' 'A^iov tvfmp4otrns,—Il. ii. 848.

Emathios is frequently used by the Latin poets as an epithet of Alexander ; as
in the expressions i?fiwiMi'i manes (Stat. Silv. iii. 2, 117), Emathim dux (Ov. Tritt.
iiL 5, 89), Emathia aeiea (Luc. viiL 681). Elsewhere it is used as a general term
for Macedonia, «. g. : —

Vel nos Emathiis ad Peeonas usque nivosas

Cedamus campis. Ov. Met. v. 318.

Bella per Emathios plusquam civilia campos
Jusque datum sceleri canimus. Luc. i. 1 .

Xec ftiit indignum superis, bis sanguine nostro

Emsthiam et latos Hismi pinguesoere campos. — Viro. Qeorg, i. 491.


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Greece : PotidaRa, for instance, from Corinth, Mende and Methone from
Krctria, Acanthus frr»ni Andrr«, Torone from Euboea, Araphijiolis


and Neajwlis from Athena, and Olynthus from the Greeks of Chalci-
dice itijelf. Therma, the old name of Thessalonica, bespeaks a Greeek
origin : so also does Crenldes, the former name of Philippi ; and A pol-
len ia, which belonged to two towns, one in Mygdonia, the other in
('lialcidicc. Some of these towns come prominently forward m the
Pelojwnnesian War — particularly Potidfea, Amphi^wlis, and Acan-
thus. The coast district of Macedonia was, down to this ][)eriod,
entirely independent of the Macedonian kings, whose seat of power
was fixed in the valley of the Axius. After the conclusion of the
I'eioiwnnesian War the Chalcidian Greek towns were formed into a
confederacy under the presidency of Olynthus, which lasted until
B.C. 370. About the middle of the 4th century B.C., Philip succeeded
in reducing them to submission. The towns which underwent a
change at this [xjricxl were Potidfca and Therma, which were re-
sixKJtively named Cassandria and Thessalonica. Several of the Mace-
donian towns floiu-ished under the Romans, particularly those that
Htixxl on the Egnatia Via.

I. — On iJie Coast from E. to W. Philippi stood near the eastern
frontier about ten miles from the sea, and was named after Philip the
' "^her of Alexander, by whom the town, formerly called Crenides,


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Chap. XVIII.



Coin of PhlUppi.

had been enlarged as a boiider fortress on the side of Tlirace. A stream
named the Gangitas flowed by
it. The town is chiefly famous
for the two great battles »
between Brutus and Cassius ( SRg J^' ^*"c\r
on the one side, Antony and iH|^^^ ^i
Octavian on the other, which X^k^"^^^^ j '
were fought on the plain
S. of the town, b.c. 42.
The republican leaders held
a strong position on a couple
of hills about 2 miles from the town, with a pass botween them : the
triumvirs attacked them from the maritime plains. Augustus made it
a colony, with the name Col.
Jul. Aug. Philip. Neapolis,
Kavalloy which served as
the port of Philippi, wai?
probably the same place as
the earlier Datum, which
was originally a colony of
Thasos, and afterwards occu-
pied by Athenian settlers,
who gave it the name of
N^polis : a range of hills
intervenes between it and
Philippi. Amphipolis 8too<l
on an eminence on the E.
bank of the Strymon about
3 miles from the sea, where
Eion served as its port: it
derived its name from being
almost surrounded by the
river. Its position was an
important one, as command-
ing the only easy communi-
cation between Greece and
Thrace : 8evei*al roads met
here, whence its name of
EnneaHodoi "nine ways": attempts were made to colonize it by Aris-

IHan of Uie Neighbourhood of Amphipolis.

tlio three mti

I. 8k^ of Amphipolb.

1. Site of KiuQ.

4. Long Wall ofAmphi-


ncroM imlicnte tli? g:«tc«.
6. I.ake CiTcinitb.

* Many Roman writers describe this battle as fonght on the ume ground as
Pharsalia :—

Pharsalia sentiet ilium

Emathiaqne iterom madefacti cte^e Philippi. — Ov. Jfet. xv. 823.

Ante novee venient acies, scelerique secundo

Prcestabis nondum eiccofl hoc 8angtiine campos. — Lrc. vii. 853.

Thessaliie campis Octavius abstulit udo

CsBdibiu assiduis gladio. Juv. viii. 242.

The mistake may have originated in the ambiguity of Virgil's lines : —

Ergo inter seae paribos concnrrere telis

Romonas acies iterom videre Philippi. Georg. i. 489.

The poet Horace was present at this battle, as he himself tells us :-^

Tecum Philippos et cclerem fugam

Sensi, relicta non bene parmula. Carm. ii. 7, 9.

Lucan takes considerable license when ho describes Philippi as close to HsDmus : —

Latosque Hiemi sub rupe Philippos. i. 680.


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tagoras of Miletus in b.c. 497, and by the Athenians in 465 ; these failed,
but a second trial by the Athenians in 437 was successful. It soon

became an important
town: it was captured
by Brasidas in 424, and,
in spite of the attempt
to recover it by the
Athenians under Cleon
in 422, it remained inde-
pendent of them. Philip
of Macedon took it in
-, , , . . , ,, 358, and it remained at-

Colu of Amphlpoli^ ^^^^ ^ Macedonia un-

til 168, when the Romans
made it a free city. A few remains still exist at Neokhorio. Olynthos
was favourably situated in a fertile plain at the head of the Toronaic
Gulf, between the peninsulas of Pellene and Sithonia. Originally a
Bottiffian town, it podsed at the time of the Persian invasion into the
hands of the Chalcidican Qreeks. From its maritime position it became
an important place, and, under the early Macedonian kings, the head
of a powerful confederacy, which was, after a long contest, dissolved by
Sparta in B.C. 379. The growing power of the Macedonian kings
brought Olynthus into alliance with Athens in 352, but the town fell
through treachery into the hands of Philip, and was utterly destroyed
in 347. A few vestiges mark its site at Aio Mamas, Potidtta, Pinakct,
originally a Dorian city colonized from Corinth, stood on the isthmus
of the peninsula of Pellene. It yielded to the Persians on their march
into Greece, but after the battle of Salamis resisted them, ajid was un-
successfully besieged by them. It then attached itself to Athens, and,
having afterwards revolted, was taken after a two years' siege in b.c. 429.
Having passed into the hands of the Olynthians in 382, of the Athenians
in 364, and of Philip > who gave the land back again to the Olynthians
but destroyed the town, it was at length rebuilt by Cassander with the
name of CiMandiia, and peopled with the Olynthians and others : it
then became one of the most important towns of Macedonia. Its
occupation by the tyrant Apollodorus about 279, and its unsuccessful
siege by the Komans in 169, are the chief events of its later history.
ThMsalonloa stood at the head of the Thermaio Gulf, partly on the

level shore, partly on the
slope of a hill. From
its admirable position in
relation to the valley of
the Axius in the W. and
that of the Strymon in
the E., and also from
its possessing a good
port, it was and stul is
Coin of Thessalunicj. (as Scdoniki) the most

important commercial

town of this district.

Its original name was Therma, from the hot springs about it : this was

changed to Thessalonica, probably by Cassander, who rebuilt it in B.C.

3 1 5, and named it after his wife or daughter. Its early history is unim-

> CalliduB emptor Olynthi. — Juv. xii. 47.

Digitized by VjOOQ IC

Chap. XVIII. TOAVNS. 345

portant. Xerxes rested here in his invasion of Greece : the Athenians
occupied it in b.c. 421, but resigned it to Perdiccas in 419. Under
the Romans it became the metropolis of Macedonia, and from its
central position, **po8iia in gremio imperii nostri," as Cicero says, it
was the chief town between the Adriatic and Euxine seas. Cicero
visited it several times : it was made a free town after the second Civil
War, and was governed by six supreme magistrates. The Via Egnatia
intersected the town from K. to W., and two arches still exist at each
entrance, the weatem supposed to commemorate the battle of Philippi,
the eastern the victory of Constantine either over Licinius or over the
Saruiatinus. MetliSxie was a Greek colony of Eretria, situated about
2 miles from the W. coast of the Thermaic Gulf: it was occupied by
the Athenians in their war with Perdiccas. and remained in their hands
until B.C. 353, when it was taken and destroyed by Philip. Pydna
was originally built on the coast of the Thermaic Gulf, but having
been taken in B.C. 41 Ir by Archelaus, it was removed to a distance of
about 2^ miles from the sea. It afterwards fell into the power of
Athens, but was betrayed to Philip in 356. The place is chiefly famous
for the gi-eat battle between Perseus and ^milius Paullus in 168,
which se^ed the fate of the Macedonian monarchy : two tumuli near
Ayan probably mark the scene of the engagement. Diun, though not
a large town, was valuable from its position near the W. coast of the
Thermaic Gulf, commanding the coast-road into Thessaly. In the
Social War it was almost destroyed by the iEtolians, but it recovered,
and was occupied by Perseus in b.c. 169 : it afterwards became a
Roman colony. The remains of a stadium and theatre still exist near
Maiaihria: the town was adorned with numerous works of art, par-
ticularly Lysippus's group of the 25 chieftains who fell at the Granicus,
which was placed here by Alexander, and was afterwards transferred
to Rome.

Of the less important towns we may notice : — (Eayme, a colony from
ThasoB in Pieria, on the coast of the Strymonic Bay. Phagret, Orfana,
a fortress on the same coast S.E. of Amphipolis. EXon, the poi't of
Amphipolis at the mouth of the Stiymon, the spot where Xerxes
sailed for Asia; it was taken by Cimon in the Persian War, and besieged
by Brasidas in the Peloponnesian War. Mjrriflniif. on Lake Prasias,
N. of Amphipolis ; it was selected by Histiseus of Miletus for his settle-
ment, and vras the place whither Anstagoras retired. Siris or SerrhflB
in Odomantice, in the widest part of the great Strymonic plain, visite<l
by Xerxes in his retreat from Greece, and by P. JEmilius Paulus after
his victory at Pydna. ArgllnB, in Bisaltia, W. of Amphipolis. Heraelea
Wntiftfl^ Zervokltori, somewhat W. of Lake Prasias, the place where
Demetrius, son of Philip
V. was murdered. Apol-
Ionia, PoUina, in Myg-
donia, S. of L^ke Bolbe.
Stagira, the birth-place
of Aristotle, on the
shore of the Str3rmouic
Gulf. Aoanthna, lower
down the coaert, cap-

tured by Braaidaa in ^^^^

B.C. 424, and by the Ro-
mans in 200. Apollonia,

Polighero, the chief town of Chalcidice, N. of Olynthus. Olophyxoi,

Q 3


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:i4r) MACEDONIA. Book IV.

Oharadri», and Aerothol, on tlie E. coast of the peninsula of Acte;
and lastly, Petra, a fortress among the mountains of the S. frontier, com-
manding a pass which led to Pythium in Thessaly by the back of
Olympus; Scipio Nasicahere defeated the forces of Perseus, and opened
the way for L. ^milius Paulus.

II. InUte Interior. Pella, the later capital of Macedonia, stood on a
hill, surrounded by marshes, named Borbaros, through which there
was communication with the sea by means of the river Lydias. As the
metropolis of Philip, and the birth-place of Alexander the Great,* it
rose from an insignificant town of the Bottiseans to be a place of world >
wide renown. Having been the royal residence of all the Macedonian
kings except Cassander, it became under the Romans a colony and
station on the Egnatian Road. There are remains at Neokhori, where
a fountain still retains the name of Pd. Xgm or Edessa, the earlier
capital of Macedonia, stood N.W. of Pella, at the entrance of a pass,
which connected Upper and Lower Macedonia. Philip was mm'dered
here in B.C. 336. Aner the seat of power was removed, it still remained
the hearth of the Macedonian race, and the burial-place of their kings;
the tombs were rifled by the Gallic mercenaries in the employ of
Perseus. The remains at Vodhena are but trifling. Berooa, Verria,
stood on a branch of the Haliacmon,* S.W. of Pella: it was unsuccess-
fully attacked by the Athenians under Callias in B.C. 432, on their
march from Pydna to Therma ; it suiTendered to the Romans after the
battle of Pydna. A portion of the old walls and other remains still
exist. Heraolea, the chief town of Upper Macedonia, was sumamed
LynoMtis from the district in which it stood : it was on the Egnatian
Road, and at the base of the Candavian mountains. 8toM in Proonia
stood on the Erigon, and was a place of some importance under the
Macedonian kings : the Romans made the place a depot of salt. It was
the later capital of Macedonia Salutaris. Soapi was the frontier town
on the border of Illyricum, in the N.W. of Psoonia.

Of the lesser towns we may notice — ^Petra, a fortress of the Msedi ;
DobSnu, at the S. foot of Cercine, in a lateral valley of the Axius;
EnrOpiiB, in Emathia, between Idomene and the plains of Cyrrhus
and Pella, on the right bank of the Axius; Phyieui, Begorra,
and OaladnB in Eordsa, the first alone possessing any historical
interest; Celetmm, Kadoria, in Orestis, on a peninsula surrounded by
the waters of a small lake ; it was taken by Sulpicius in b.c. 200;
ABtraram, in Pseonia, on a tributary of the Strymon; StymMbra on

* Pellieus is a frequent epithet of Alexander :

Unas PelloK) juveni non sofflcit orbis. — Jrr. x. 168.
Hoc hKbuit nomcn Pellni menra tyranni. — Mast. ix. 44.

Sometimes it is used as an equiralent for Macedonian :
Ergo in Thessalids Pellieo fecimus arvis
Jus gladio? Lvc. ix. 1073.

Sometimes it refers to Alexandria in Egypt, or to Egypt generally :
Non ego PcUseias arces, adytisqne retectum
Corpus Alexandri pigra Mareotide mcrgam T — Luc. ix. 158.
Nam qua Pellcei gens fortunata Canopi. — ^Viko. Georg. iv. 287.

Hence the title is transferred even to the Ptolemies :
PcllsBusque pucr gladio tibi coUa recidit,
Magne, tuo. Luc. viii. 607.


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the upper course of the Erigon where Sulpicius encamped in B.C. 400;
Bylaiora, the greatest city of Psouia, near the passes leamng into Moesia.

Roads. — Macedonia was traversed by the Via Egnatia, which entered
it on the side of Illyricum at Heraclea, and thence passed by Edessa
and Pella to Thessalonica, and across Chalcidice by Apollonia to
Amphipolis. This road appears to have been constructed shortly after
the reduction of Macedonia by the Romans in b.c. 168. From this,
roads diverged in different directions, leading— (1) from Thessalonica
along the coast to Tempe in Thessaly ; (2) from Pella through Beroea
to the same spot, filing into the coast-road at Dium ; (3) from Heraclea
Lyncestis to Stobi ; (4) from Thessalonica to Stobi ; (5) from Stobi to
Scopi in the N.W., and (6) from Stobi to Serdica in the N.E.

St. Paul's Trare/^.— Macedonia was first visited by St. Paul in his
second apostolical journey. Starting from Troas he crossed the
MgBdsai by Samothraoe to Neapolis, and thence to Philippi ** the first
city ** of that part of Macedonia on the side of Thrace. From Philippi
he followed the Egnatian Road through Amphipolis and Apollonia td
Thessalonica, where at the suit of Jason he was brought before the
** politarohs/* as the governors of that free city were styled. From
Thessalonica he journeyed to Bercea, where he remained a short time ;
thence he descended to the sea-coast probably at Dium, and took ship
for Athens (Acts zvi. 11, xvii. 15). In his third journey he again
visited Macedonia (Acts xx. 1-2), approaching it from Troas (2 Cor.
ii. 12), and staying at Philippi, where he was joined by Titus (2 Cor.
vii. 5). From Philippi he went ** round about xmto Illyricum ** (Rom.
zv. 19 ) ; but whether by that expression we are to infer that he actually
crossed the mountains into that country, is uncertam. His route is
quite unknown, and we only know that he next visited Greece. He
shortly after returned by the same route, crossing from Neapolis to
Troas (Acts xx. 3-6). He addressed two epistles to the church at
Thessalonica, and one to the church at Philippi.

History — The ecurliest Macedonian dynasty claimed a descent from
the Temenidse of Argos and called themselves Heracleids. The first
kings of whom we have any special notice were Amyntas (about 520-
500 B.C.) and Alexander (about 480), who was contemporary with
Xerxes. The capital at tnis period was £klessa : Alexander and Per-
diccafl extended their territory to the Stmnon, and the latter became
the active enemy of Athens. After the death of Archelaus, the son of
Perdiccas, in 399, a long period of anarchy succeeded until the acces-
sion of Philip in 359, who reduced Olynthus, and advanced his frontier
to the Nestus. Under his son, Alexander the Great, Macedonia be-
came the seat of an empire which extended over the whole eastern
world. After the death of Alexander, the throne of Macedonia was
for a long time an object of constant contention. Cassander first had
the title of king ; his sons were displaced bv Demetrius, son of Anti-

fonus, in 294. iSrrhus, of Epirus, followed m 287, and after 7 months
lysimachus of Thrace gained the power. After his death in 281 a
period of anarchy followed, during which the Gauls invaded the
country from 280 to 278. At length, in 278, Antigonus Gonatas
obtuned a firm seat on the throne, and founded a dynasty which lasted
until the conquest of Macedonia by the Romans in B.C. 168. Of this
dirnasty the kinffs Demetrius 11. and Antigonus II. ftre known for
the part they took in the affidrs of Greece. Philip Y. first came into
contact with the Romans; he was defeated at Cynoscephals ; and
Perseus the last king, at Pydna.


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Mounts Olympus and O^a.


§ 1 . Boundaries — Names. § 2. General Character. § 3. Mountains.
§ 4. Rivers. § 5. Sea-Coast. § 6. Inhabitants. § 7. Divisions —
I. Thessaly. § 8. Boundaries. § 9. Mountains. § 10. Rivers.
§ 11. Inhabitants — Divisions. § 12. Towns — History — Islands
— II. EpiRrs. § 13. Boundaries. § 14. Mountains — Rivers.
§ 15. Inhabitants — Divisions — Towns — History. § 16. CoR-


§ 1. The peninsula of Greece, the most easterly of the southern
projections of the continent of Europe, was bounded on the N. by
Macedonia and Illyria, and in all other directions by seas, viz. : by the
iEgaean and Cretan on the E., the Libyan on the S., and the Ionian
on the W. The northern boundary was clearly defined by a chain
of mountains extending from the -^gaean to the Ionian Sea ; the
most important links in this chain were Olympus and Carabunii
Montes in the E., Lacmon in the centre, and the Ceraimian range
in the W. The extreme length of the country was about 250
miles, and its extreme breadth from the coast of Acamania to that
of Attica about 180 miles. Its area was considerably less than that
of Portugal,

Names. — The Greeks themselves possessed no general geographical
designation for the land in which they lived. The term Hellaft, which
approaches moat nearly to such a designation, was of an elhnological


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rather than of a geographical character. It deacribed the abode of
the Hellenio race, wherever that might be, and thus while in the
Homeric age it was restricted to a small district in the south of Thea-
saly, Herodotus (ii. 182, iii. 136, vii. 157) and Thucydides (i. 12)
extend it beyond the limits of Greece proper to Cyrene in Africa,
Syracuse in Sicily, and Tarentum in Italy, as being Hellenio colonies.
Within the limits of Greece. Hellas proper was restricted to that
portion which lay between the Corinthian Gulf on the S. and the
Ambracian Gulf and the Peneus on the N. Epirus was excluded from
it as not being occupied by Hellenes, and Peloponnesus as having
its own distinctive title. The latter was, however, sometimes in-
cluded in Hellas, as it had an Hellenic population. Sometimes the
Greek islands were included on a similar ground; and after the spread
of the Hellenic language consequent upon the 'Macedonian conquest
of Hellas, even Macedonia and Illyria were included. The Romans,
and ourselves in imitation of them, gave the name of OnBda to the
coimtry. -The origin of this is uncertain: the GrsDci are only once
noticed by a Greek writer (Aristot. Meteor, i. 14) as a tribe living
about Dodona in Epirus. It has been surmised that the name was
extensively applied to the tribes on the W. coast of Epirus, and thence
spread to the E. coast of Italy, where the Romans first came in con-
tact with the Hellenic race. The name -of Grsecia was superseded by
that of Aohaift as the official title of the country after its conquest by
the Romans. ,

§ 2. The position and physical characteristics of the peninsula of
Greece were highly favourable to the promotion of early settlement.
As the tide of population flowed westward from Asia, it was guided
to the shores of Greece by the islands which stud the iEgcean Sea.
There it met with a country singularly adapted to its requirements
— an extensive line of coast, broken up into innumerable bays and
inlets, and well furnished with natural harbours ; a land protected
by its insular character from sweeping invasion, and subdivided
into a number of separate and sequestered districts, which nature
protected by her mountain barriers ; a climate reputed in ancient
times the most healthy and temperate in the world ; a bright clear
air ; a soil fertile and varied in its productions, producing wheat,
barley, flax, wine, and pil ; mountains, whose sides were clothed
with forests, whose uplands supplied rich pasturage for cattle, and
from whose bowels abundance of excellent limestone might be
obtained for building purposes. And when, under these fostering
influences, the population of Greece outgrew the narrow limits of
the land, there was no difficulty in finding settlements, which, under
equally favourable circumstances, gave back power and wealth to
the mother country : in one direction Sicily and Southern Italy, in
another the northern coast of Africa, were near at hand and open to
colonisation, while in a third the tide flowed back to the coast of
Asia Minor, and thence ramified to the distant shores of the

§ 3. The mountain chains of Greece are marked with great dis-


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