Sir William Smith William Latham Bevan.

The student's manual of ancient geography online

. (page 42 of 82)
Online LibrarySir William Smith William Latham BevanThe student's manual of ancient geography → online text (page 42 of 82)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


to make a stand against Philip of Macedoniu here; and in 181 Antio-
chus not only fortified the pass but also the mountain-path against the
Romans, who nevertheless succeeded in forcing their way through
both.

§ 10. The rivers of Thessaly Proper are without exception tri-
butaries of the Peneus. This circumstance results from the peculiar
conformation of the country, the western district being a single basin,
whence but one outlet is horded to the sea. The various streams
converge with singular uniformity, like the folds of a fan, to a central
pointy and thence proceed, in a single sluggish stream, across the
plain to the vale of Temi)e. The most important of these rivers is
the PeniuBi Salambria, which rises in the N.W. angle of the province,
in the central height of Lacmon, aud descends with a S.E. course to
-^giniimi, where it enters on the plain ; near Tricca it turns to the
E., and descends to a ix)int where it receives its most important tri-
, butaries ; then passing through the hills which divide the upi)er and
lower plains of Thessaly, it slowly traverses the lower plain to Larissa,
where it turns to the N. and flows through the vale of Tempe to the
sea.^ Its chief tributaries are the LethsBUS from the N., the Enlpeus,



> The following lines contain references to the topography of Thermopylee, and
also to its being the place of congress of the Amphictyonic council : —

*0 tWAoxci icaX mrpata
0«pfMl AovrpA, Koi rrayo^

Oi Tc yAwcof

XpiKroAoicarov r' oxrcb' xSpas,
*Ep€^ 'EAAivwr ayopeu
UvKdri^ iroA^FTot.— Soph. Traeh, 633.

* In its lower course the Peneus is more rapid and is fdll of small vortices ;

hence the Homeric epithet of 3tvi|«£c and opywpo3fnj«, though the waters are

rather turbid than " silvery" (see below, note *).

^t^e, <r< iJkiv Kflu Kiimfot vvh vrtpvyttv kCy* oeiSei,
*0x% iniBpiiiKriaav vorafthy vdpa diin(«Kra,
Uriiftiov. HoM. Hymn, 20 in ApoU.



Digitized



by Google



360 THESSAUA. Book IV.

FerKditi, with its tributaries, the Apidftaos ' and Cnaxiuit firom the
S., and the Famlrat and PhoBnix from the W. Near the western en-
^trance of the Pass of Tempe it receives an important tributary from
the Gambunian range, named Titaresint* Ekissonitiko* The Yale of
Tempe, through which the lower course of the Peneus flows, is a nar-
row ravine between the lower ridges of Olympus* and Ossa, about
4i miles long, and in some places not more than 100 yards broad.
The scenery is grand, but has not the sylvan softness which the Latin
poets ascribed to it* As a military post the Vale of Tempe was im-
portant, commanding as it did the only easy approach from the sea-
coast to the interior. A route already described (p. 356) avoided the



* The Apidanus is sometimes represented as the larger of the two streams. It
was the only rlrer in Greece which, according to Herodotus, was not exhausted
hj Xerxes' army. The Enipeus is rapid {irrequietus) throughout the whole of
its course, and not, as Lucan suggests, only after its Junction with the Apidanus.

<m»v v£arwv irar^pa

^curtK *Airi£a¥bv yticis Xtvad^iv ;— EUUP. Hec. 460.

Irre0iUtu» Enipeus
Apidanusque senex. Ov. Jfet. L 579.

Apidanos : nunquamque eeler, nisi mixtut, Enipeus. — Lvc. ri. 872.

* The waters of the Titaresius were said to float " like oil " on those of the
Peneus:—

Oi r* jifi^* ifLtprbr Tirofn^iov Ipy* iv^^orro,
*0c ^* if Ufivtihv irpotci KaW(fi^v vdwp*

O^ 5yc IIi}i^up mtiiiUrfmu apyvpodu^, ^

'AAAa t4 /itv KaBiSinp$*¥ iirtpp^t, ijIJt' lAoior*
*Opicov y^ dew^v Srvy^ vdaris coriy awoppt»$, — IL If. 761.
See also Luc. ▼!. 875.

* Henoe Euripides terms it ** the most heantiftil hase *' of Olympus : —

T^ ni}Miov ervfi.i'flb' X**P'^''t
KfnjvlS' OvAvf&irov KoXXicray,
*OA^Y PpiB^iv ^ofuiy ^kov^
EvBakil r cvicapirctf. — T^vad. 216.

* Confestim Peneos adest, viridantia Tempe,
Tempe, qu» silTie oingunt superinoumhentes. — Catull. Ixir. S86.

SpeluncfD, Tivique lacus ; at fHgida Tempe,

Mugitusque houm, moUesque sub arbore somni. — Yma.Georp. IL 469.

Est nemus Hnmonife, pnerupta quod undique clatidit

SilTa : Vooant Tempe. Per quo Peneus, ab imo

Effturas Pindo, spumosis volritur undis :

Dc;}ectuque grnri tenue« agitantia fomos

Nubila oonducit, summasque aspergine sUras

Implult, et sonitu plus quam ricina fetigat.

Hoc domus, hioc sedes, tuec sunt penetralia magni

Amnis : in hoc residens fSncto de cautibus antro,

Undis Jura dabat, NympMsque oolentibus undas. — Or. Met. i. 568.



Digitized



by Google



CiiAP. XIX. KIVERS — INHABITANTS. 361

pass. An important lake, Bosbiii/ Karla, occupies the hollow he-
tween the range of PeUon and the plain of Thessaly. It is fed by
several small streams, and occasionally by the overflow of the Peneus.
A small stream, named Amphr^iaBt flo>\ing into the Pagasa?an Gulf,
is famed in mythology as the river on whose banks Apollo fed the
flocks of Admetus." On the S. the SperohSuSf Elladha, di*ains the
valley formed by the divergent ranges of Othrys and (Eta. It rises
in Tymphrestus, and falls into the Mahac Gulf near Anticyra, tra-
versing in its lower course a broad and very fertile plain.* ITie
changes that have taken place about its mouth have been already re-
ferred to.

§ 11. The original inhabitants of Thessaly were ^olian Pelasgi,
after whom the country was named iEohs. These were either ex-
pelled or conquered by the ThessaUans, an immigrant race from
Thesprotia in Epirus, who also drove out the Boeotians from their
quarters in the neighbourhood of Ame. The population was divided
into three classes :— (i.) The Thessalians Proper, the rich landed pro-
prietors of the plain ; (ii.) the descendants of the original inhabitants,
whose position was similar to that of the Laconian periaeci ; and (iii.)
the Penestffi or serls, who were probably descendants of the original
inhabitants reduced to slavery on some account : their position re-
* sembled that of the Laconian helots. Of the second class we may
notice — ^the Perrhffibi, between Olympus and the Peneus ; the Mag-
nates in Magnesia ; the Achteans in Phthiotis ; the Dol5pes in Dolopia ;
and the Malians in Malis. Thessaly Proper was subdivided into four
districts : — HestisBStLi, including Ferrhnbia, in the N., from Pindus in
the W. to Olympus in the E., and bounded on the S. generally by
the Peneus ; FeUiigiStLi, S. of the Peneus, and along the W. side of



? The waters of Boebeis were reputed " sacred," perhaps because Athena bathed
her feet in them : —

Totyap iroXvf&i}\or^ray
*E(m'av oiicci wapi KoXXivaov

BfH^iav Kifumy. EURIP. Alcat. 687.

Ifercurio et Sanctis fertur BoDbeYdoe undis
Yirgineum primo composuisse latus. — Propert. iL 2, 11.
* Te quoqne, magna Pales, et te memorande canemus
Pastor ab Amphryso. Georg. iii. 1.

£t flumine puro
Irrigat Amphrysos famulantis pascua Phoebi. — Luc. vi. 367.

2vcpx<t^ ap5«» ireJtby cvfuvci «Dr<p. — Macu. Pert, 486.

Eora mihi et rigui placeant in rallibus amnes ;
Flumina amem silTasqne inglorius. O, nbi campi,
Spercheoeqne, et virginibos bacchata Lacflenis
TiygeU I GeoTf. U. 485.

Ferit amne citato

Maliacas Spereheoe aquas. Luc. vi. 960.

ANC. GBOG. B



Digitized



by Google



362 THESSALIA. Book IV.

Pel ion aiid Ossa; Th6Mali5tU> the central plain of Thessaly and
the upper course of the Peneus ; and PhthidtU, in the S., from the
Maliac Gulf on the E. to Dolopia on the W. In addition to these we
have to notice the four outlying districts named Magnesia, a long,
narrow strip between Lake Boebeis and the sea, inchiding the ranges
orOssa and Pelion; Dolopia* a mountainous district in the S.W.,
occupying both sides of Tymphrestus ; QStaea, in the upper valley of
the Spercheus, between Othrys and (Eta ; and Malis, on the southern
side of the Siiercheus, between it and (Eta.

§ 1 2. Tlie towns of Thessaly could boast in many cases of a very

high antiquity. The
name of Larissa be-
speaks a Pelasgic origin ;
lolcus, on the Pagasa?an
Gulf, was at a very
early period a seat of
commercial enterprise ;
while Ithome and Trioca
CoinofThe««ahu ^ ^^ ^^ Oannon

(probably the same as
Ephyre), Pherae, and Gyrton, and many other towns, were of im-
portance in the Homeric age. In the later periods of Greek
history the towns owed their celebrity to two very distinct causes :
— (i.) as residences of the powerful families, — Larissa, for in-
stance, of the Aleuadae, Crannon of the Scopadae, Pharsalus of the
Creondse, and Pheraa of Jason and his successors ; (ii.) as military
posts commanding the approaches to Southern Greece, such as Gomphi
on the side of Epirus, Gonnus near Tempe, and Demetrias on the
shores of the Pagascean Gulf : Pharsalus was also well situated in
regard to the passes across Othrys. Many of the mountain forts are
noticed in the history of the Roman wars with the Macedonian kings
PhiUp and Perseus, and with Antiochus. TTiough Thessaly was in
possession of a considerable stretch of coast, it was not well provided
with harbours. The only sheltered spots were situated in the Paga-
ssean Gulf, such as Demetrias, lolcus, and Aphetae ; and their remote
lx)sition rendered them ill adapted for commercial operations. The
Thessalian towns were not, in as far as we know, embellished by the
arts of the sculptor or the architect, and consequently the remains
now existing possess but little else than topographical interest.

In HettixotU.—TTieeiLf^ Trikkala, stood near the left bank of the
Peneus, at the spot where the N. route from Epirus entered the plain
of Thessaly. It was the first town at which Philip Y. arrived after



Homer gives it the epithet " hone-feeding " : —

Aamv 01 oc Smtno Tpimyv «( i'nrofi6roio.—fL iv. 202.



Digitized



by Google



Chap. XIX. TOWNS. 363

his defeat on the Aous. It possessed a famous temple of Asclepius.
PeUxmsBum,^ Old Gardhiki, was an important place to the £. of
Tricca. Alexander the Great passed through it in his march from
Illyria to Boiotia ; it is also noticed in the war between Antiochus and
the Romans. Oomphi, Episkopi, in the S.E., was a most important
position, as having command of the passes into Athamania and Dolopia.
It was taken by Amynander, in b.c. 198, in the Roman war against
Philip, and again by uscsar, in b.c. 48, in his war with Pompey.^ Qonniii
or Qmuii, LykostomOt stood on the left bank of the Peneus at the W.
entrance of the Vale of Tempe — '* in ipsis faucibus saltus quae Tempe
appellatur" (Liv. xxxvi. 10). Philip passed this way after the battle
of Cynoscephalao in b.c. 197, as also did the Roman army under Clau-
dius in 191. It was strongly fortified by Perseus in 171.

In Pdasgiotig, — Gyrton, TcUari, was situated , on a fertile plain
between the Titareaius and the Peneus. It was reputed the original
abode of the PhlegysB, and continued to be a place of importance to a
late period, though seldom noticed in history. Larissa was situated in
a fertile plain upon
gently rising ground on
the right bank of the
Peneus. It is probably
identical with the Ho-
meric Argissa.^ Demo-
oracy prevailed at Lar-
issa, and hence the place
sided with Athens in the
Peloponnesian war. Ifc

was the head-quarters Coin of Larissa.

of Philip the son of

Demetrius before the battle of Cynoscephalse, in B.C. 197, after which
it fell into the hands of the Romans. It is still a very important place
and retains its ancient name. Gramum, or Cranon, was situated S.W.
of Larissa, and is supposed to be identical with the Homeric Ephyra.*
It was the residence of the wealthy family of the Scopadse, whose flocks
grazed in the fertile plain surrounding the town. In B.C. 431 Crannon
aided the Athenians and in 394 the Boeotians. In 191 it was taken by
Antiochus.^ Some ruins at a place called Palea Larissa mark its site.
Fhane, famed in mythology as the residence of Admetus and in history
as that of Jason, was situated S.W. of lake Bcebeis and not far from
" the Pagassean Gulf, on which Pagasee served as its port. During the
period of the supremacy of Jason and his family (b.c. 374-362) it may
be regarded as the capital of Thessaly. It was taken by Antiochus



S 'AAAa fit nvM re kox rb
ntXiyva2ov awvei.— Pnro. Pjfth, x. 6.

> The positions of the towns Pheca, Argenta, Pherinam, Thiminun, Lisinae,
Stimo, and Lampsus, which are noticed by Livy (xxxiL 14, 15) as near Gomphif
are qidte uncertain.

* 'Oi i' 'Apyiaaav ixovy nauL Tvprrwy^v er^UMTO.— /i. li. 738.

* Tw yJkv op' ix ^pp^KTfs 'E^vpovr fiera tfwpijo'o-efr^K,

*m ficra «Aryvaf ^cyaAirropat. H- xiii. 301.

* It appears to have been a declining place in the time of Catullus : —
Deseritur Scyros : linquunt Phthiotica Tempe,
Cranonisque domos, ao moDnia Larisssea. — Ixir. 35.

B 2



Digitized



by Google



364 THESSALIA. Book IV.

in B.C. 191. In the centre of the town was the celebrated fountain of
Hypeiia.7 Messeis was also in or near the town. The remains of
Pherse are at Velestino. SootOBsa, Supliy lay W. of Pherse, near the
frontiers of Phthiotis : it was a very ancient town, and reputed to have
been the original seat of the oracle of Dodona. In B.C. 367 it was
taken by Alexander of Pherse, and in 191 by Antiochus. In its
territory were the hills named Cynosoeph&lflB, memorable for the
battles fought there between the Thebans and Alexander of Pherse,
in 364, and between the Romans under Flaminius, and Philip of
Macedon in 197.

In Thessaliotis. — Metropolis was situated on the road from Gomphi
to Thaumaci. It derived its name from its having been founded by several
towns, whose population coalesced there. Csesar marched through it on
his way to Pharsalus, and it was taken by Flaminius in B.c. 198. Traces
of this town exist at PcUeokastro. Phanftlns, Fersala, lay about two

miles and a half from
the left- bank of the
Enipeus, admirably situ-
ated for the command of
the pass that conducts
to southern Greece. It
was built on a hill some
GOO feet above the plain,
Coin of Pbarsalus. which descended pre-

cipitously on three of its
sides, and contained on its summit a level space for the acropolis. It
was besieged without success by Myronides in bc. 455, and was taken
by the Romans under Acilius Glabrio in 191. It is chiefly famous for
the battle fought between Csesar and Pompey, in 48, on the plain just
N. of the city.

In PhthiotiB. — ThebflB, sumamed Phthiotides, was situated in the
N.E. comer of the district, near the Pagasseau Gulf. Previous to the
foundation of Demetrias, it was the most important maritime city in
Thessaly. It was one of the strongholds of Cassander in his war
with Demetrius Poliorcetes in B.C. 302. The i^tolians made it their
head-quarters in Northern Greece, until it was taken from them by
Philip, son of Demetrius, who changed its name to Philippopolis.
It was attacked without success by Flaminius in 197. Its ruins, con-
sisting of the circuit of the walls and towei-s, and a part of the theatre,
stand upon a height near Ak-Ketjd. Eretria, near Pharsiilus, is
noticeable as the spot where Q. Flaminius halted in his march from
Pher© to Scotussa in B.C. 197. Halm ® was situated on a projecting spur
of Othrys, near the sea, and overlooking the Grecian plain. Ptelenm,"



» Kai Key vSmp ^p«oi( Mcotn^t&K, ^ "YirepctV.— /*• vl. 467.
JEyy^ Hiy ♦^«, Kft^ytu^ 'YntpijiBa Xhtwk. PncD. Pytk. Iv. 221.

'Ywtfitia Kpn^yti, yifia etwtnX4<rraToy. SopH. Froffm, 768.

Flevlt Amymone, flerunt Meascides ondro,
Flevit et emisia rerocans Hyperia lacerUs.— Val. Flag. iv. 874.
' It is noticed by Homer (//. li. 682).



• The Homeric epithet of Aex(voti|K was poseibly more appropriate in early
than in late times : a large marah near the site of the town may once have been
a fertile meadow :— ^

AyxCaX6v T* 'Atrrpw, ifii nrcAcbr A<x«roiiii'.- iJ. li W7.



Digitized



by Google



Chap. XIX. TOWNS. 365

noar the entrance of the Pagas8?an G\ilf, is mentioned by Homer
among the possessions of Protesilaus. Antiochus landed here in B.C.
192, and the* town, having been deserted by its inhabitants, was de-
stroyed in 171. LariBsa Crematte received its surname from its posi-
tion ** hanging " upon the side of Othrj'S : it was occupied by Demetrius
Poliorcetes in hiis war with Cassauder in b.0. 302, and was taken by
the Romans in their wars with Philip in 200, and with Perseus in 1 7 1 .
MelitflBa was situated on a lofty hill on the left bank of the Enipeus,
a day's march from Pharsalus : it was visited by Brasidas and by the
allies in the Lamiac War"; Philip failed to take it. Lamia, originally
belonging to the Malienses, was situated on a height about 6 miles
from the sea nnd 3^ from the Spercheus. It is well known from the
war named after it, earned on in B.C. 323 by the Athenians and their
allies agaiuat Autipater, who was besieged there. In 192 Lamia sub-
mitted, to .^tiochus, and was consequently attacked by the Romans
and taken in 1 9 3 ; its site is fixed at Zifuni.

In Magnesia. — Demetrias, the most important town in this district,
was founded about B.C. 290 by Demetrius Poliorcetes, who peopled it
with the inhabitants of the surrounding towns. It stood on a declivity
overhanging the Pagassean Gulf on its eastern side. It was favourably
situated for the command of the interior of Thessaly as well as of the
surrounding seas ; and was hence termed one of the three " fetters'*
of Greece, the other two being Chalcis and Corinth. In 1 96 it was
taken by the Romans and in 1 92 bv the ^tolians : in 191 it surrendered
to Philip, and it was retained by tdmself and his successor until 169.
lolehns^ was situated on a height a little N. of Demetrias : it was
&med in the heroic ages as the place where Jason lived, and where the
Argonauts assembled. MeliboBa was situated on the sea-coast ^ between
the roots of Ossa and Pelion : it was plundered by the Romans under
Cn. Octavius in B.C. 168.

In Mali$. — The chief and only important town in this district was
nraehii, or Traohin, situated in a plain at the foot of (Eta, a little
W. of Thermopylae. It derived its name from the " rugged " rocks
surrounding the plain. It commanded the approach to Thermopylae,
and hence was valuable as a military position. It is celebrated in
mythology as the scene of the death of Hercules, to which Sophocles
refers in his Trachinise. Historically it is famous for its connexion «
with Heraclea, which the Lacedaemonians erected in its territory in b.c.
426, and which became, after the Peloponnesian War, the head-quarters
of the Spartans in Northern Greece, until its capture by the Thebans
in 395. It was afterwards a valuable acquisition to the Jiltolians, who
held out against the Romans under Acilius Glabrio for nearly a month
in 191.

Of the less important towns we may notice : in Hestixotis—MgiDiamt
Stagus, near the Peneus, an almost impregnable fortress, frequently



* Homer gives lolchns the epithets — '* roomy," " veil built :" — ^

NoM wo\v^riviK, Od. xi. 255.

Bo^ijv, KoX TKoj^piiiii kox ivKniUvtiv 'laMKK6v. IlAi, 712.
2 The purple sheU-flsh was found oa this coast : —

Jam tibi barbaricoB Testes, Melibo»que Mgens

Purpura. Lvcrkt. ii. 499.

Purpura McBondro duplioi MelibcBa cucurrlt. — /En. v. 251.



Digitized



by Google



366 THESSALIA. Book IV.

noticed in the accounts of the Roman wars ; lUifima, an Homeric town,'
somewhat E. of CJomphi ; Phacrinm, on the left bank of .the Peneus,
visited by Brasidas in B.C. 424, laid waste by Philip in r98, and oocu-
pied by the Roman praetor Bsbius in 191 ; MjUb, a strong post on the
Titaresius at Dhaman, taken by Perseus in b.c. 171 ; MaU»a, Oyretis,
and Eritiimi, on tributaries of the Titaresius, mentioned in connexion
with the Roman wars in Greece — Cyretias was plundered by the ^to-
lians in b.c. 200, taken by Antiochus, but recovered by Beebios and
Philip in 191, and occupied by Perseus in 171 ; OIoosmh, an Homeric
town,* situated on the edge of a plain near Tempe, and now called
EloMona ; AiSrof , Pythinm, and IJolXdiOi three, towns in the upper
valley of the Titaresius, which formed a tripolis or confederacy ; and
the Homeric OrtiM, sometimes identified with Phalanna. In PeUu-
giotis — ^Aferax, on the left bank of the Peneus, about ten miles above
Larissa; Mfltropdlu, near Atrax^ taken by Antiochus in 191 ; and
Laoffria, on the W. side of lake Bo&beis, situated on a very remarkable
hill with two sdmndts,* which rises like an island out of the plain. In
r/i«8saIiot/s— Aittrium, or P6irea», an Homeric town, situated on a
hill, with white, <»dcareous olifllB,' near the junction of the rivers Api-
danus and Enipeus ; Pliylliii,^ situated on a hill of the same name on
the opposite side of the Apidanus, with a famed temple of Apollo ; and
Arne, afterwards derinm, near the Cuarius, the chief town of the
.^Eolian Bodotians. In Phthiotts—TlijVkoet between Pharsalus and
Thebes, an old Homeric town belonging to Ftotesilaus, and possessing
a temple in his honour ; Iton, or Itdnni,' on the Cuarius, with a cele-
brated temple of Athena;' Antran, at the entrance of the Maliac Qulf,
existing in Homer *s time,i ^^^^ noticed in the Roman wars as having
been purchased by Philip, but taken from him by the Ronums ;
Proema, near the sources of the Apidanus, a place captured by Aniio>
chus, but recovered by Acilius in B.C. 191 ; Varthaoiiim, on a hill of
the same name in the valley of the Enipeus, near which Agesilaus con-
quered the Thessalian cavalry in b.c. 391 ; Thunmirt, Dhomoho, S. of
Proema, strikingly situated on a precipitous rock, whence the traveller,



» Homer (77. a. 729) characterises It as "rocky," Itfiiftiir K)mtiajt6wirmit,

* Homer gires it the epithet " white," from the argillaceoos soU about it : —

*Op^F, 'HAMnyr t«, ir^ii' t* 'OXoow^pa Afvffi^.— //. II. 739.

* These are the ** twin hills in the Dotian plain," of which Hesiod [ap Sfrab.
ix. p. 442} speaks : —

^ 0(1} Aiiiiiiovf Uftovt vaimura KoXttvob^
AutC^ i¥ wtiC^, wokvPirpvof ayr' 'Afivpoco.
• Ot d' «xo»' *AoT<p4or, TirdvoU rt XtwcA Kapirpm.—Il. II. 736.
' Aptior armentifl Midee, peeoroMque Phyllus.— Stat. TVfc. It. 45.
" The Homeric epithet ** mother of flocks," was applied to it probably from its
possessing a portion of the uplands of Othrys : —

Ot 6' tXxov ^Xdicif¥, KoX Hv^pairov iiAtttMvra.
Ai^^ifrpoc i^Acrof , Itmi^ rv, M^fr^pa f&i^r. — II. IL 696.
9 nT)Atafi«v KOffu^ijiaxv tOaftfinv C(9«p^M«m
'Epyov 'A$riviiLiilt 'lntviio9. Af<MX. ^yofi. Ix. 661.

'OpfuvHoi KoA^orm. Callim. i7ymn. in Cer, 74.

I The epithet " rocky " is highly appropriate ; some of the best millstones in
Greece came fhrai the rocks of Antron : —

Kiu ndpov iit^tf0h^v, "AyrpMri t« vtrpfi^crreu— Hom. JTjrsMt. in Cer. 491.



Digitized



by Google



Chap. XIX. TOWNS — HISTORY. 3<)7

emerging from the defiles of Othrys, gains his first view of the Thes-
salian plain : it was unsuccessfully besieged by Philip in b.c. 199, and
taken hy the Romans under Aoilius in 191 ; Xjnisd, near the district
of the iSnianeSy and on the borders of a lake of a similar name, now
called Taukli: it was plundered by the iEtolians in b.c. 198 ; Fhftl&ra,
the port of Ijamia, on the Malian Gulf ; and Bdhiniii,' between Lamia
and Larisaa, in a fertile district, at one time held by the iGtolians,
and taken from them by Philip, after a long siege. In Magnesia —
BoBbe, on the E. shore of the lake named after it ; Pag&MB, at the head
of the Pagasasan Bay, celebrated in mythology as the port where
Jason built the ship Argo>; AphStSB, a port at the neck of the same
gulf, whence the Ai^onauts are said to have sailed, and where the
Persian fleet assembled before the battle of Artemisium ; HdnUUe, on a
hill of the same name * connected with Ossa, near the outlet of the
Peneus ; Enrym^nflB, on the sea-coast, more to the S. ; Thavmacia,
still further down the coast, an Homeric town, to be distinguished from
Thaumaci in Phtbiotis ; CaithansBa, at the £. foot of PeUon, noticeable
as the place whence the chesuut-tree derived its name ; and Oliion,^
opposite Artemisium in Eubosa, on the neck of land which runs into the
Pagaseean Gulf. In DcHopia — CtimSne, probably near the sources of
the Cuarius. In (Etxa—Ky^t^ at the foot of (Eta, S. of the Sper-
cheus, a town whose inhabitants were famed for their skill in sorcery :
it belonged to the ^tolian League in the time of the Roman wars in
Greece. In 3fa2t«— Antiojhrat at the mouth of the Spercheus.

History. — The history of Thessaly is comparatively devoid of interest..
The various tribes and districts were very rarely united in any course



Online LibrarySir William Smith William Latham BevanThe student's manual of ancient geography → online text (page 42 of 82)