Sir William Smith William Latham Bevan.

The student's manual of ancient geography online

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of action : rather was it the rule that feuds raged between the leading
cities of Larissa, Pharsalus, and Phersa, and that the power of this
wealthy province was frittered away in petty squabbles. In the Persian
War the Thessalians designed resistance to the invader, but on the re-
fusal of the allied Greeks to make a stand at Tempe, they medized and
aided Xerxes. After the battle of CEnophvta the Athenians invaded
Thessaly under Myronides, in B.C. 454, without any effect. In the
Peloponnesian War the Thessalians took little part, but their sym-
pathies were with Athens ; and although Brasidas succeeded in crossing
the country with the aid of the nobles, the p>eople would not suffer

* It is noticed by Aristophanes : —

ITpurtfrra t^ 'Exivouvra koX rhv Mi}Xia
K6\nov. Lytittrat, 1169.

• Xamque ferunt olim Pagas® navalibus Argo

Egressam longe Phasidos is«e viam.^PfiOPEBT. 1. 20, 17.
Jamque fretnm Minyee Pagasfloa puppe secabant.— Ov. Jlet. vii. 1.
Ut Pagas8Ba ratls peteret cum Phasidos undas. — Luc. ii. 715.

* The hill was regarded as a favourite haunt of Pan, and of the Centaurs and
the Lapithes : —

Svyxoproi 8' 'O^oAov ivav
Xot, irevKaiaiv o$€v x^P*"-'^
IlAijpoviTef, x96va 9c<r<raA(ov
*Iinrc^« iiafiojCov. EuRiP. Here. Fur. 371.

Descendunt Centauri, Homolem Othrymque nivalem
Linqaentes cursu rapido. Vmo. JEn. vli. 675.

* Homer characterises it as the " rough ** or " craggy " 01ixon>: —

Kot HcXt^oiov •X***'* ***' 'OKi^itva rpaxtlav* — //. ii. 717.


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remforcements to be sent to him. In 395 the Thessalians joined the
Boootian league against Sparta. Thessaly was afterwards the scene of
internal discord through the rise of Phera; under Lycophron, who de-
feated the Larissasans and their allies in 404, and introduced the Lace>
dsemonians into the country. Jason, the successor of Lycophron, suc-
ceeded in obtaining the supremacy over Thessaly, with the title of
TaguB, in 374, and exercised an important influence in the affairs of
Greece, particularly after the battle of Leuctra. The tyranny exercised
by the successors of Jason, Polyphron, Polydorus, and Alexander, led
to the interference of Alexander of Macedon, and, after his withdrawal,
of the Thebans, who invaded Thessaly under Pelopidas in the years

369 and 3C8, and again in 364; by which the power of Pheres was
checked, but not cinished. It remained for the Macedonians under
Philip to effect this in 352, when the last of the tyrants, Lycophron,
was defeated and expelled. Thessaly henceforth formed a part of the
Macedonian empire, to which they remained attached, in spite of an
attempt to throw off the yoke after Alexander's death, until the Romans
established their supremacy (b.c. 197).

Islands.— Off the coast of Thessaly lie the follo\ving islands : —
Soi&thiui, ShiaOio, opposite the promontoi*y of Sepias, originally occu-
pied by Pelasgians, afterwards by Chalcidians of Euboea, with a town
of the same name, which was destroyed by the last Philip of Macedonia
in B.C. 200 : the island produced a good wine. Halonnggm, Skopdo,
more to the E., now one of the most flourishing isles of the .^^gsean, in
consequence of its excellent wine : it was the cause of a dispute be-
tween Philip and the Athenians in b.c. 343. Pepardfhiii,^ KUtdhromiay
still more to the E., said to have been colonized by Cretans, famed for
its wine and oil,^ and possessing three towns, the chief one of which was
destroyed by Philip in b.c. 200. BwtndTla, Skandolet a small island be-
tween Pepai-ethus and Scyrus. And, lastly, Seyroi, Skyro, so called
from its ruggedness, E. of Euboea, divided into two parts by a narrow
isthmus. The town stood on the sides of a high rocky peak^ on the E.
coast, and contained a temple of Athena, who was the patron deity of
the island. Scvros is frequently noticed in mythical legends : Thetis
concealed Achilles, and Pyrrhus was nurtured there ; Theseus retired
thither from Athens, and was treacherously slain there ;• his bones
were conveyed to Athens in B.C. 469. The island thenceforth belonged
to Athens. Its soil was unproductive, but it possessed a famous breed
of goats, and quarries of variegat-ed marble.

II. Epikub.

§ 1 3. Epinu was the name given to an extensive district in the
N.W, of Greece, lying between the Ionian Sea in the W. and Pindus

< Atyoi r', Eipcauu t« koX aYXioAi} Ilcvapt)^.— HoM. HyvMi, in ApoU. 32.
" Nitidfcque ferax Peparethoe oUtw.— Or. Met. vii. 470.

' AvT?K Yop fiiy ryi* #coiXi^ hri nji? itaiii
*Uyayor he Sicvpov fUr' ci>inn^fii4ac 'Ax<uovf.— Od. xL 607.

Z^GpoF iAitv alirctai', 'Ewrjof vrokUBpov, II. ix. 668.

9 *0 ^fiibv n-fuf, Sicvpof & Xvypov« rd^ovf
Kfnnivmv tvepBtv aiytXtif/ poi^wfi^trnv
UdKan, doiccvei rat drapx^rouf ^i^f. Lycoitir. 1324


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in the E., and extending from the Acrooeraunian Promontory in the
N. to the Ambracian Gulf in the S. It is for the most part a wild
and mountainous country : the valleys are numerous, but not ex-
tensive, and have at no period supplied suflBcient com for the support
of the inhabitants.
There is but a single
extensive plain, in which
Dodona was situated.
Epirus has always ,
been a pastoral country.
Among its most valued
productions were oxen *
(which supplied the na-
tional emblem), horses,^ Coin of Epirua.
and dogs.*

Name. — The name is derived from ijireipoSf "mainland," and was
originally applied to the whole W. coast of Greece as far S. as the Co-
rinthian Gulf, in contradistinction to the islands that skirt the coast."*
This use prevailed as late as the time of the Peloponnesian War.

§ 14. Tlie mountains that traverse Epirus emanate from the
central range of Findns. The only one that received a specific
designation was the Ceraunii Montes in the extreme N.W., which
attains a great height as it approaches the Ionian Sea, and terminates
in the promontory of Aoroceraunia* Lingitetta, the dread of ancient
mariners.* lliis range marks the limit between the valleys which
fall towards the N.W. and those which fall towards the S.W., the
latter being to the S. of the Ceraunian range. The rivers (with tho

1 Hence Pindar alludes to the " lofty ox.feeding hills " of Epirus : —
9^19 6i xparei
<M£f • Ncoim$\cfio« 2* 'A-

TTcipw Stairpvo-tf ,
Bovfi&rai riBi irpwi^cf ef-
oxot KaraieetvTai. I*IXD. yem. Iv. 81.

^ Eliadum palmas Epiros equanun. Georg. i. 59.

3 Yeloccs SpartsB eatulos, acremque Molossmn

Posce sero pingui. Oeorg. lii. 405.

Simul domus alta Molossis

Personuit canibus. Hor. Sat. ii. 6, 114.

'Oi T* 'Hireipoi' ex^v, ^3' avrvripaxa ivifJkovro. — H. 11. 634.
^ Quern mortis tlmuit gradum

Qui siccis oculLs monstra natantia.
Qui Tidit mare turbidum,'et

Infamcs scopulos, .\croceraunia ? — Hob. Cttrtn. i. 8, 17.
£t mag:no late distantia ponto
Temierunt pavidos accensa Ceraunia nautas. — Sil. Ital. vili. 6S2.

R 3


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370 EPIRUS. Book IV.

exception of the A6iif« the head waters of which fall within the
limits of Epirus) seek the sea in nearly parallel courses in a soath-
westerly direction, llie most imi)ortant of them is the AeheUvi,
Aspropotamo, which traverses the eastern part of the province.
The others, in order from E. to W., are — the Araokthni) Art't, which
falls into the Amhracian Gulf, and which was regarded as the
hoimdary between Hellas Proper and Epirus ; the AehSroiit* Qurla,
a stream of no gjreat size, which falls into a small bay named
Glycys Limen, " Sweet Harbour," Port Fanari ; the Tby&iiiii*
which joins the sea opposite the island of Corcyra ; and the
Celydnnst N. of the Ceraunian ran<Te, which formed tlie N. limit
of Epirus. In the eastern part of Epirus was a lake named PamMtif,
now Joannina, The line of coast is irregular and forms numerous
inlets : in the S. the Ambradns Sinus penetrates into the interior to
a distance of 25 miles, and attains a width of about 10 miles ; the
entrance to it is by a narrow and tortuous channel, which we shall
have occasion to describe more minutely hereafter.

§ 15. The inhabitants of Epirus were not considered by tlie Greeks
as an Hellenic race : tlie southern tribes were, nevertheless, closely
allied to it, while the northern bore affinity to the Illyrians and
Macedonians. They were divided into numerous clans, of which
three gained a pre-eminence — the Chabues, Thesproti, and Molossi.
Epirus was hence divided into three districts — Chaonia* uix)n tlie
W. 'coast from the Acroceraunian promontory to the lliyamis ;
ThetprotiE from the Thyamis to the Amhracian Gulf, including the
district of the Cassoi)aji in the S. ; and MoloMis» in the interior from
the Aous to the Aml)racian Gulf. In the latter division are included
two districts which were i)olitically distinct from Epirus, viz. :
Ambrada the district about the Hellenic town of the same name on
the N. of the Amhracian Gulf; and Athamaniat an extensive district
in the valley of tlie Achelous and on the slopes of Pindus. The
towns of Epirus Proper are few and unimportant ; shut off as this
countrj' was from the rest of Greece, and adapted to pastoral pursuits
alone, it can be no matter of surprise that the people Uved (as we
are expressly informed tliat they did) in villages. It was not until
the Molossian kings introduced habits of Greek civilization that any
advance was made in this respect. The only place in Epirus Proper
which gained any fame in early times was Dodona, the seat of a
famous oracle ; and even this must have been unimportant in point
of size, otherwise its site would not have remained doubtful. The
Corinthians planted a colony, Ambracia, on the shores of the Ambra-

* This river was invested with many dread associationB, as being nnder the
rule of Aidoneus the king of Hades. In one part of its conrse it flowed through
a lake named after it, Aeherusia, and it received a tributary, the Cocytus, Vuro.


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Chap. XIX. TOWNS. 371

cian Gulf, which became historically famous. When the Romans gained
possession of Greece, Epirus became a little more " in the world," a8
several of the ports were favourable for communication with Italy. A
large town, Nicopolis, was founded in B.C. 31 by Augustus, at the
entrance of (he Ambracian Gulf, which became the chief city of
Western Greece, and survived to the Middle Ages. We shall notice
the tovms in their order from N. to S.

Fhoenloe, in Chaonia, was situated upon the banks of a river at some
distance from the sea- coast. It is described in b.c. 230 as the strongest
and richest of the cities of Epirus : it was taken in that year by the
Illyrians. Peace was concluded there between Philip and the Romans
in 204. The hill on which it stood retaios the name of FinQci. Bnth-
rOtnm was situated at the head of a salt-water lake,^ named Pelodes,
which was connected by a river with the sea. It is said to have been
founded by Helenus, son of Priam, after the death of Pyrrhus. Ceesar
captured it after he had taken Oricum, and it became a Roman colony.
Nicopolis was founded by Augustus in commemoration of the victory
gained at Actium: it was situated on a low isthmus separatiog the
Ionian Sea from the Ambracian Gulf, about 3 miles N. of Prevem, the
spot on which the town was built being the place where Augustus en-
camped before tho battle. The scene of the engagement is illustrated
by the accompanying
plan, which shows a
double entrance to the
Ambracian Bay— the one
in the W. guarded by a
promontory named La
Punta (3), the other by
C. Madonna (4), be-
tween which lies the
Bay of Preveaa (p),
about 4 miles broad.
Actium is to be identi-
fied with the former of

the two promontories. Plan of Actium.

The battle was fought

outside the straits, the fleet of Antony having been previously in the Bay
of Prevesa. The position of the temple of Apollo, where Antony's camp
was pitched, was at 5 ; while the ruins of Prevesa are at 1. Augustus
established a quinquennial festival at Nicopolis in commemoration of
his victory, and made the place a Roman colony. A church appears
to have been planted -there, as it is probably the place noticed by St.
Paul in his Epistle to Titus. DodSna was probably situated at the S.
extremity of Lake Pambotis, where is a ridge, Mitzikeli, corresponding
to the ancient Tomftrus, and a fertile plain surrounding the end of the
lake. The oracle of Dodona ranked with those of Delphi and Ammon,

' The epithet "celsam," which Virgil gives it, is roisplaceil, as the town
lies low : —

Protinus aerias Pheeaeum abscondimus arceft,
' Litioruque Epiri lefrimns, portuque subimiia

Chaonio, et criitatn Buthroti aacendimuB urbem. — .En. iii. 201.


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372 EPIRUS. Book IV.

and was visited from all parts of the world. ^ The responses were de-
livered from an oak — in the hollow of which the image of the god was
placed — by means of the rustling of the leaves, which were interpreted
by the priests.^ The temple was destroyed by the ^tolians in B c. 219,
and afterwards restored. The ruins at Kastritza are supposed to repre-
sent the site of the town.* Pasi&ron, the old capital of the Molossi, is
of uncei*tain position. It was taken by the Roman praetor Anidus
Gallus inB.c. 167. Argithea, the capital of Athamania, was situated
on the road between Ambracia and Goraphi, £. of the Achelous. Am-
brada, Arta, stood on the left bank of the Arachthus, about 7 miles
from the shores of the Ambracian Gulf. Originally a Thespi*otian town,
it was occupied by a Corinthian colony about B.G. G35, and became a
most flourishing place The Ambraciots sided with Sparta in the
Peloponnesiau War, and for a time they got possession of Ajnphilochia
in 432. Their attempts to conquer Acamania in 429, and to retake
Amphilochian Argos in 426, both failed, and their power was thence-
forth checked. Under Pyrrhus, Ambracia became the capital of Epirus.
In 189 it sustained a memorable siege by the Romans, and thenceforth
it declined in power.

Places of less importance were — PalsMte, upon the coast of Chaonia,
where Coesar landed from Brundusium in his war against Pompey ;^
Onohetmiu, which served as the port of Phoonice, and was apparently
used as a point of transit to Italy, the wind favourable for crossing
being termed Onchesmltes ; Cestna, on the Thvamis. famed for ite
breed of oxen ; it appears to have been also c(uled Troy ; SybSta, a
small harbour opposite the S. point of Oorcyra, with two small islands
of the same name before it (the Corinth iaus erected their ti*ophy, after
their Corcyrsean engagement in B.C. 482, at the " continental,"' the Cor-
ey neans at the " insular" Sybota); Ghimeriimi, more to the S., used
by the Corinthians as a naval station in the war just referred to ;

* The great antiquity of the oracle is indicated by the epithet ** Pelasgian :'*
Ztv ai«u, AbtSotvaie, TIcAatryued, njAo^t Fot'oiF,

Sol vaCowr' vvo^^rcu avtirr^voScc, x^toicvi'ai. — It. xvi. 23S.

9 Attf&on^y, ^irY6v Tt H^Xavy&v S6p<»yoy ^#tev.

Hbsiod. ap, Strob. vii.^p. 327.
*A Twi' bptCnif jcftt xa/uuu4coirwK cyM
ScAAwi^ iatX6i»y oKaot titrrfpojil/atiriv

npbf T^ irarp^of ical no\vyKu<ra<n> ipvoi' SOPH. TraA. 11^6.

*Oi 7TIIV naXtuiy ^riyhv av^<rai iron
AM^wFt iuTVwv ix ircAcuifiwi' c^. Id, 171.

> Both Euripides and .Sachylus consider Dodona as a Thesprotiaii town,
though, according to the latter, it was in Molossis ; we may also infer that it
wa8 situated in a lofty position, trova. tho^ epithets oimwMixSv and ivtrxtifi^v ap*
plied to it by JGachylus and Homer : —

0«nrpcaTV o^Saf nfivi. AnUttnft fioBpa, Phomiti, 096.

'EiTffl ykp ^A0e« %ph>i MoAotnri Mirc3a,

Tt)!' aimnnaihv r ji^i AcoMk^k, Iva,

M«uT«ia, 0iMcof t' i<rn Ocoirptarov Au>«. Prota, Vinct. 829.

' Inde rapi compere rotes, atque sqnora olaasem
Corva sequi, qusB jam rento iluctaqne secundo
Lapsa Pal^estinas unois o<mfixit arenas. — Lro. r. 458.


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Cassope, the capital of the Cassopeei, near the coast, a city of great size,
as its ruins testify ; Pandotia, on the river Acheron, an ancient colony
of Elis ; and Ephynii an old Homeric town,' afterwards called Cichyrus/
situated near the mouth of the Acheron.

History. — The history of Epirus is almost a blank imtil the rise of
the Molossian dynasty after the Peloponnesian War. Alexander, the
brother-in-law of Philip of Macedon, extended his sway over the whol^
of Epirus. He died in B.C. 326, and was succeeded by JEacides, and
^acides by Alcetas, after whom the celebrated Pyrrhus became king,
and raised the kingdom to its greatest splendour. Pyrrhus was suc-
ceeded in 272 by his son, Alexander II., who was followed in succes-
sion by his two sons Pyrrfius II. and Ptolemy, with whom the family
of Pyri'hus became extinct, about 235. A republicar. form of govern-
ment then prevailed. After the conquest of Macedonia in 168, the .
Romans inflicted a most savage revenge on the towns of Epirus on sus-
picion of their having favoured Perseus : 70 towns were destroyed by
^milius Paulus, and 150,000 inhabitants reduced to slavery. The
country thenceforth became a scene of desolation, and prosperity was
confined to the few sea-coast towns which the Romans favoured.

§ 16. Off the coast of Epirus lies the important island of Coro^rat
Corfu,* also named Drepftne IVom its resemblance in shape to a
scythe, and probably the same as Homer's Scheria.* Its length Jrom
N. to S. is about 38 miles ; its breadth varies from 20 miles in the
N. to some 3 or 4 in the S. ; its nearest approach to the mainland
is in the N., where the passage is only 2 miles wide. It is generally
mountainous, and was deservedly celebrated for its fertility in ancient
times. The chief town, also named Corcyra, was on the E. coast,
a little S. of the modem capital. The only other town of importance
was Cassi6i)e in the N.E.

The loftiest mountains are in the N., where San Salvatore rises to
nearly 4000 feet. From these a ridge runs southwards, forming the
backbone of the island. The height named Istdne was probably near
the capital. The promontories were named — Cassidpe, CcUharina, in

*ni;(rro yap #cquc«t<rc Bofjs iiri vijJk 'Oiv<r<revs,
^ipfiaxov avipoitovov di^i^fievof . Od. 1. 259.

'Hi xal /is 'Eiftvpnv iOt/itt, ir^cipoK apovpw,
'EAdeii', o^p' €¥Bev Bviiw^opa ^* iysucff. Od. II. 328.

< Corfu is a coiruption of the medicoval name itopi^w, applied to the two lofty
peaks of the rock on which the modern citadel stands. These were the

Aerias Pho^acmn arces
commemorated by Virgil {jEh. ill. 291).

* *E<m Bi Ti? iropBp.oio rrapoiripti lovCoio
*\pj^iKa4fifi wUipa KtpawCji tiv aXi »^<ro?,

^ptvavn T^v iicKktitimu

OD,^^a ♦<uiijc«v itfAi rpo^Mv. Apollos. Argon, iv. 9^2.

Ov Spa ^njirao"' anipri TKavKSytm 'A^nj
n6vT0¥ iw' arpvyrrw Atire 6k Sx'P**?" «paT«in|F.— Od. vii- 19.


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Book IV.

the N.E ; PhaJftWum, C. Dradi, in the N.W. ; Leneynma, Lefkimo, on
the E. coast ; and Amphip&ffU* ^' Bianco, in the S. The town of
Coreyra stood on a peninsula formed on one side hy the lagoon of

Peschiera, and on the other
by a bay. It possessed two
ports— the Hyllaic in the
Peschiera^ and the other in
the bay. The acropolis was
near the former, on the
long undulating promontory
S. of Corfu, A little N. of
the town was the isle of
Ptyehia, Vido. Coreyra was
700. It rapidly rose to a
and entered into rivalry with the mother

Coin of Coreyra.

colonized bv the Corinthians about b.c,
ligh prosperityj

jBed by
state of hign . . ., , ^

country. War broke out about b.c. 664, and the island was reduced
by Periander (625-585), but soon regained its independence. The
quarrel with Corinth respecting Epidamnus led to the outbreak of
the Peloponnesian War in 431, in which Coreyra sided with Athens.
The subsequent events of importance are the sieges of Coreyra by the
Spartans under Mnasippus in 373, by Cleonymus in 312, by Cassander
in 300, and its capture by the Romans in 229.

S. of Coreyra are two small islands, anciently named Pazi, now Paxo
and Antipaxo.

n3lphi from the West. (From a sketch by Sir Gardner AVIlkinson)


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Monnt f^amossus and the Htll above Delphi, with the Village of Chrysd and the port
(Scala) below. (From a Sketch by Sir Gardner Wilkinson.;



I. AcABNANiA. § 1. Bouudaries. § 2. Mountains and rivers. § 3.
Inhabitants ; towns ; history. § 4. Islands — Leucas, Cephallenia,
&c. II. iEroLiA. § 5. Bouudaries. § 6. Mountains arid rivers.
§ 7. Inhabitants; towns; history. III, Western Locris. § 8.
Boundaries; mountains; towns; history. IV. DoRis. §9. Bound-
aries; towns, &c. V. Phocis. §10. Boundaries. § 11. Mountains
and rivei-s. §12. Inhabitants; towns; history. VI. Eastern
Locris. § 13. Boundaries ; mountains ; and rivers. § 14. Inhab-
itants ; towns. VII. B(EonA. § 15. Boundaries. § 16. Mountains.
§17. Rivers; lakes. § 18. Inhabitants-; towns; history.


§ 1. Acamania was a maritime province in the S.W. of Northern
(ireece, bounded on the N. by the Ambracian Gulf and Epinis ; on
the E. by the Achelous, sefttiratinj^ it from iEtolia ; an<l on the W.


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and S.W. by the Ionian Sea. In form it resembles a triangle, the
apex pointing to the S. The sea-coast is irregular and lined with
islands, which render navigation dangerous. The interior is traversed

by mountain ranges of

moderate height, having
a general south-easterly
direction, and covered
with forests. The soil
is fertile, especially the
plains about the lower
course of the Achelous
CoinofAcamanla. which sustained large

quantities of sheep and
cattle ; its resources were not, however, much improved by its in-

§ 2. Its physical features were but imperfectly kno\vn to the
ancients. None of the mountains received special names, and only
two of the promontories, viz. Actiomt La Punta, at the entrance
of the Ambracian Gulf, which we have already noticed in connexion
with Nioopolis, and CrithSte on the W. coast. The chief river is the
Aohelous, Aspropotamo, which attains a width of about f of a mile

Mouth of the AcbcUius.


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Chap. XX.



near Stratii8,^and, as it approaches the sea,' crosses over an aUuvial
plain of remarkable fertility, named Paracheloltis, with an exceedingly
tortuous course.* It brings down an immense amount of deposit,'
which has formed a considerable district near its mouth. There are
several lakes in the interior ; the most important of which, named
Kellte* lay near the mouth of the Achelous.

§ 3. The early inhabitants of Acamania were (with the exception
of the Amphilochians) considered to belong to the Hellenic race,
though they were intimately connected with the ' Epirot tribes.
They were at an early period driven into the interior by the Greek
settlers on the coast : they are described as a rude and barbarous
.l)eople, engaged in constant wars with their neighbours, Uving by
rapine, and famed for their skill in slinging. They lived for the
most part in villages, and had no well-defined form of government.
In times of danger they formed a league, wliich held its meetings
either at' Stratus or at Thyreum, under the presidency of a stralegfis
or general. The proper Acamanian towns were few and unimportant ;
Stratus, on the Achelous, appears to have ranked as the capital.
Colonies were planted by the Corinthians about the middle of the
7th century B.C. at several points on the sea-coast, such as Anactoriimi
and Sollium. Several of the towns are mentioned^ in connexion
with the Athenian campaign in 426, and again in the history of
the ^tolian wars. The foundation of Nicojwlis proved fatal to
Argos, Anactorium, Sollium, ^nd other places in the N.W., which
were depopulated in order to supply the new town with inhabitants.
We shall describe these towns in order from N. to S.

On the Sea^CoasL—Aigo§t
sumamed AmphilooMcom,
stood on the E. shore of the
Ainbracian Gulf, on the
small river Inacbus. Its
site has been identified with
Neokhorif now at some short
distance from the shore, but

near a lagoon which formerly Coln of Angos Amphllochicura.

may have extended further

Online LibrarySir William Smith William Latham BevanThe student's manual of ancient geography → online text (page 43 of 82)