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inland. Argos became prominent in the Peloponnesian War : its

1 It was with this lower portion of the Achelous that the Greeks were hest
acquainted. Homer dignifies it with the title of '* king " : —
oAA' ovx coTi Au KpovUtvi fiaxt<r$<u'
T<(» ovii xpctwf 'AxcAMtbf Ivo^ttiipi^et,

OitSi ^pBvpptirao tUya <r0^y<n 'Chctavolo. II. xxi. 193.

* The legend of the contest between Hercules and Achelout* for the hand of
DeTaneira, the daughter of (Eneus, may have been based upon the efforts made
by the inhabitants to restrain the river within due bounds by dykes and dams ;
several of the coins of the country represent the god Achelous as a bull with
the head of an old man.

* Et tnus, CEneu,

Pene gener erastis oblimat Echinadas imdi*. — Lvc. vi. 868.


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Book IV.

Coin of Anactorinm.

origiiial inhabitanta, who were a Don-Hellenic race, were expelled by
the Ambraciot Greeks, but were afterwards restored by the Athenians
in B.C. 432. The Ambraciots invaded the Argive territory in 430 and
426, but were utterly defeated on the latter occasion by Demosthenes.^
At a subsequent period of history, we hear of Argos as in the hands of
the ^tolians, and it was here that the Roman general, M. Fulvius,
concluded a treaty with that people. Anaetorinm was on the S. coast

of the Ambracian Oulf, at
the W. entrance of the pro-
montory, now named C.
Madonna, It was colonized
by Corinthians and Corey-
rseans jointly, but, in the
war between the two states
in B.C. 432, it fell into the*
hands of the former, with
whom it remained until 425,
when the Athenians restored it to the Corcyrajana. Diyreiixii was
pituated either on or near the Ionian Sea, a short distance S. of the
canal which separated Leucas from the mainland. It is first noticed
in B.C. 373, when Iphicrates invaded its tei-ritory. At the time of the
Roman wars in Greece, the meetings of the Acamantan League were
held there. ngwIMaa was an important place on the right bank of the

Achelous, about 10 miles
from its mouth. It com-
manded the access to the
interior, and was fortified
both by art and nature,
being surrounded by exten-
sive marshes. The Mes-
senians took it in b c. 455,
but did not retain it. The
ColnofCEniadiB. Athenians under Pericles

besieged it without success
in 454, and with a different result under Demosthenes in 424. The
.^tolians occupied it until 219, when it was taken by Philip, who in
turn was deprived of it by the Romans in 211. Its ruins are found at
Trikardho and consist of remains of a theatre, arched posterns, and a
larger amhed gateway.

In the Interior. — Stratni stood on the right bank of the Achelous
and was a military post of importance, as commanding the passes
towards the N. In b.c. 429 it was vainly attacked by the Ambraciots.
It afterwards fell into the hands of the i£tolians, nor could Philip V.
or Perseus wrest it from them. It is frequently noticed in the Mace-
donian and Roman wars. Extensive remains of it exist at Surovigli.
Of the less important towns we may notice. On the Sea-Coast —
ft, in Amphilochia, at the S.E. comer of the Ambracian Gulf,

* The following places are noticed in connexion with this campaign — Olpie, a
fortiflcd hill which the Ambraciots captured, about three miles N.W. of Argos on
the shore of the gulf; Crenic, where the Acamanians took up their position,
somewhat S.W. of Argos ; Metropolis, where the Spartan general Eurylochus was
posted, a little E. of Olpoe ; and the pass which was closed by the Greater and
Lesser Idomene, now the Past of MakrinorOf near the coast on the road to


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between Argos and Stratus; PalsBriM, on the sea-coast between Leucas

and Alyzia, noticed as an ally of Athens in B.C. 431 ; SoUiom, on ihe

coast near Palserus, but of uncertain position, a Corinthian colony,

captured by the Athenians in b.c. 431; Alyna, about 2 miles from the

sea-coast, with a sanctuary

of Hercules adorned witn

works of art by Lysippus ; a

naval battle was fought

near it in b.c. 374, between

the Athenians and Lacedse-

monians ; and Ast&difl, near

Prom. Crithote, a colony of

Cephallenia. In the Interior Coinof Alyzla.

— Hedeon, S. of Limneea, a

strong post unsuccessfully besieged by the i£tolians in B.C. 231, and

occupied by Antiochus in 191; Fhytia, on a height S. of Medeon,

strongly fortified, but nevertheless taken by the iEtolians after the

time of Alexander the Great, and by Philip in b.c. 219; and lastly,

Hetropolii, S. of Stratus, captured by the ^tolians, and taken by

Philip in b.c. 219.

History. — The Acamanians are not noticed in history until the time
of the Peloponnesian War, when they appear as allies of the Athenians,
and were great supporters of their influence in Western Greece. The
Acamanians particularly distinguished themselves in the battle of
Olpa; in B.C. 426. We next hear of them as at war with the Acheans
in 39 1 , when the Lacedeemonians, as allies of the latter people, invaded
their country. They were afterwards subjected to the ^tolian League ;
lience they were naturally thrown into alliance with the Macedonian
kings, to whom they adhered with great fidelity until the conquest of
Greece by the Romans. It is uncertain whether Acamania was attached
to the province of Achsca or of Epirus.

§ 4. Off the coast of Acamania lie several islands, of which the
most important are — ^Leuoadia. Santa Miiura ; Cephallenia ; Cepha-
Ionia; and Ith&ca. Thiaki: and the less important — the Teleboldet,
consisting of Taphnsi Meganisi, Camiis and otliere, between Leucas
and the coast ; the Eohin&det. " sea-urchins '* (so named from their
jagged outlines), a chister opposite the mouth of the Achelous, some
of which, as Dulichium, have been incorporated with the mainland
(see Map, p. 370) ; and JBgilippa E. of Ithaca. To the foniier class
we may add Zacynthusi Zanie, which, though off the coast of Elis, is
evidently a member of the same group.

Leucadia was originally a peninsula of the mainland and is so de-
scribed by Homer ; ^ it was formed into an island by the Corinthians,
who dug a canal across the isthmus.^ The island is 20 miles in length
from N. to S., and from 5 to 8 miles in breadth ; in shape and size it

' Oloc "SrjfHKov elXoVf ivKTCfitvov vroXitOfiOVf
'Akttiv 'Hirctpoio, KetfuOiki^vtaaiv amo'O'Mi'. Od. xxlv. 3Y6.

• The canal was originally dug about b.c. 665 ; it was, however, filled up by
Rand from the time of the Peloponnesian War until about 200, when It wa« re-
opened by the Romans.


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resembles the Ide of Man. A range of limestone mountains traverses
it from N. to S., terminating in the white cliffs of Leno&te.^ C. Duoato,
which rise out of the sea to a height of above 2000 feet, and were
crowned with a temple of Apollo. The chief town, also named Leaeaa,

a Corinthian colony, was
situated on the Dioryctus or
canal at Kaligoni, about 1^
miles 8. of the modem capi-
tal : in the Macedonian period
it was the chief town uf
Acamania: in the Roman
wars it sided with Philip,
and was taken by the Romians
uomoTi^cas. in B.C. 197. In addition to

this we have notices of HeUomSnom pnd Fhara in the S.

Oephallenia, the Samos or Same of Homer,® lies about 5 miles S. of
Leucas, and is the largest island in the Ionian Sea, being in length from
N. to S. 31 miles, and varying in width from about 8 to 16 miles.
It is mountainous,^ the most lofty range in the S.E. being formerly
named Moqb and now Elato, from the fir-trees which cover it. From
the character of the soil, as well as the want of water, it appears to-
have been rather unproductive. There were four towns — Same, the
capital, on the E. coast ; Proni in the S.E. ; Cranii in the S.W. ; and
Pale in the W. The chief historical event connected with them is the
siege of Same by M. Fnlvius in B.C. 189.
Ith&ca lies off the E coast of Cephallenia ^ at a distance of 3 or 4

' This was the scene of the famed lover's leap : —

Phoebus ab cxcelso, quantum patet, aspicit »quor :

Actiacum populi Leucadiumque vocant.
, Hinc se Deucalion, Pyrrhcc succensus amorc,

Misit, et iUoeso corpore pressit aquas.
Nee mora : versus amor tctigit lentifsima Pyrrhos

Pectora, Deucalion igne levatus erat.
Hanc le^m locus ille tenet : pete protinus altam

Leucada, nee saxo desiluisse time. — Ov. Heroid. xv. 165.

The cape was an object of dread to mariners : —
Mox et Lcucatse nimbosa cacumina montis,
Et formidatus nautis apcritur Apollo. — Viro. JBn. iii. 274.

Totumque instructo marte videres
Fer\'ere Leucaten, auroque effiilgere fluctus. — Id. viii. 676.

Nee nnbifer Actia texit
Litora Lcucates. Claud, de Bell. Get. 185.

• *Ev vofiBfi^ 'Itfojoff re Sof&oio re iratiraAo€<r<n|s* 671.

Oi Tt ZoKvyBov ixovy rfi' oi Zo/tof eqx^eveiuoiTO. H- il. 634.
•0<r<roi yop viqtnMnv ifriKpariowiv apurroi,
AovAixup re, "Zdfifi t«, leat vMftvri ZatcvvBtf. Od. xvi. 122.

» Hence the Homeric epithet wotiraAorftroij. Sco previous note.
• Its position is thus described by Homer : —

AvTT) Bi xBofJMXri iran;ircpraTi) eiv oAi iccirou
Tlpiti ^64>ov, al 8i T* avtvBt frp^ n» t', ^eAu$K rt.—Od. ix. 25.
where x^aM^Xif probably refers to the position of the island, lying under the
mountains of Acamania, and vawir€pran\ to its being at the extremity of the
group of islands formed by Zacynthus, Cephallenia, and the Echinades.


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Chap. XX. ISLANDS. 381

miles : its length frum N. to S. is about 1 7 miles, and its greatest
breadth about 4. It consists of a ridge of limestone rock, divided by
a deep and wide gulf, G, of Molo, into two neai'ly equal parts, which
are connected by an isthmus about ^ a mile across. The chief mountain
is in the N. and was named KeiltQB;^ the foi-ests which formerly
clothed it have now disappeared. The island is generally rugged and
sterile, abounding with bold cliffs and indented by numerous creeks.
The localities derive an especial interest from the frequent references to
them in the Homeric poems. The capital was probably in the N.W.
at PoliSy in which case Ht. Keinm^ will answer to Exoge, the isle of
Asterii * perhaps to Dascaglio and the harbour of Bheithrnxn to the bay
of AfcUes. The fountain of Arethusa ^ gushes out of a cliff, still named
Coi-ax, at the S.E. extremity of the island. The i>oi*t of Phorcyi'
may be either Dtrxia on the N . side of the G. of Molo^ or Skhinoa on
the S. side. The Grotto of the Nymphs is a cave on the side of Mi.
Stephanos, and on the summit of the hill of Ados which forms the
isthmus are the ruins of the so-called ** Castle of Ulysses." The
island appears to have been divided in ancient as in modern times into
four parts, of whick three were named Neium, Crocyleium, and iEgireus
(the i£gilip8 of Homer 7), the two latter probably answering to Bathy
and Anoge.

ZacynthiiB lies S. of Cephallenia and about 8 miles from the coast of
Peloponnesus : its length
is about 23 miles, and ■
its circumference 50. It
was celebrated for its
fertility, an attribute
which has obtained for
it in modern times the
title' of **the flower of
the J^evant." The most

impoi^t Wll was CoiuofZacynUiub.

named Elatni , in. Skopo,
and the most remarkable natural object ai*e the pitch- wells which

' Nateraid 6' *l$aKriv tvi^Ctkov iv 4' opoi airrg

Oi p' 'leoKnr elxoi' «cal "SiqpiTOV elvo<ru^vXXov. IL U. 632.

Jam medio apparet fluctu nemorosa Zacynthoe,
Uulichiumque, Sameque, ct Neritoa ardua taxis,
Emigimus scopuloe Ithacas, Laertia regna,
£f terram altricem swvi exsecramur Ullxi.— Viao. ^n. iii. 270.
> Ntyw? W fioi. ri6' i<rniK€v iv' aypov v6<r4H' irrfAijot,

'Ey Ai/A^Ki 'FttBfHf, inrb NijMjp vA^errf Od, i. ll«5.

< "Eart W TIC vficxfi ft^traTi oAl w«Tpiie(r<ra,
Mco-oijyvc 'IBataiK r* ZofU>td t« a-iuiroAoeVaijs,
'AarepU, ov firydXri' Kintvtf 6' evi MivAoxoi avrp
'A^^i«w/*Of rn Tov yt ii4vw Aoxdwrre? 'Ax<M>t. Od. Iv. 844.

6 ai 6i v^vTtu

nop Kopoico? virixiiy hri n Kfr^vri *Apetfav<rD. Od. xlll. 407.

• ^6f>Kvvot id TIC i<rri AifiV* «Auho yipovro^,
•Ev 6r,tuf 'IBoKni' ««Jo W vpofiXiiTtt ev aim?

'Axrcu dvoppwyev, XxfUvot iroTt»"«im|via4. Od. xlll. 96.

» Oi p 'IBoKtiv €txov KoX NijpiTOi' eliwr^wAAoi',
Kal KpoicvAci' JKtfU>Kro, (pt AiyCktva Tpifxcioy. H* ii- «32-


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382 JSTOLIA. Book IV.

are fouud near the shore of the Bay of Cliieri on the S.W. coast. The
ifilaud no longer deeerres the epithet of ** woody "given to it by Homer
and Virgil." The chief town, Zacynthm, on the £. coast, was founded
by AchsBans, and was hence hostile to the Spartans in the Peloponnesian
War. It was taken by the Roman general Valerius Lsevinus in B.C.
211, and was finally surrendered to the Romans in 191.


§ 5. JBtoliA was bounded on the W. by the Achelous ; on the N.
by the ranges of Tymphrestus and (Eta ; on the E. by Locris ; and
on the S. by the Corinthian Gulf. Within these limits are included
two districts — ^tolia Proper, along the coast between the Achelous
and the Evgnus, and uEtolia Epictetus (i.e, "acquired*') the
mountainous district in the N. and K, ; these formed in reality in-
dependent divisions, and the name Epictetns seems merely to indicate
the extension of the geographical title to the mountainous r^ion,
which othenvise would not have been included in any of the provinces.
These districts differed widely in character, llie southern consisted
of an extensive plain, or rather a double plain, one skirting the sea-
coast, the other in the interior, the range of Aracynthus forming the
line of demarcation. The soil was very fertile, producing excellent
com, and affording rich pasture grounds, which fed a fine breed of
horses. On the slopes of the hills the vine and olive flourished.
The interior was a wild unproductive region, infested, with ,wild
beasts to a late period.

§ 6. ITie chief mountains were — Tjrmphrettni. a continuation of
Pindus in the N.E. ; Bomi. containing the sources of the Evenus,
the most westerly part of (Eta ; Cora^ a S.\V. offset from (Eta, a
lofty mountain crossed by a difficult pass into Doris ; HyixiiiSy to the
S.W. between the Ev^nus and Hylaethus ; Ti^hiasiiii» running down
to the sea a little to the westward of Antirrhium, and terminating
in a precipitous cliff, on the face of which the road is carried, whenw
the modem name Kaki-Skala " bad ladder ** ; ChaldSi an offset of
Taphiassus to the W. ; AraoynthuB, the range referred to as separating
the two plains, running in a S.E. direction between the Achelous and
EvCnus ; and, lastly, PanflBtolinni, Viena, near Thermum, deriving its
name from its being the spot where the -^tolian confederacy assembled.
The only important rivers in -^tolia were the AeheloiiSi which has
been already noticed, and the Sygniu, Fidhari, which takes its rise
on the westem slopes of (Eta and flows with a violent* stream in a

* AovAtxi^ re, 2ifii| rt, «u vkJjtava ZiKvrQot. Od. ix, 24.

Jam medfo apparet floctu nemoroea Zac}-ntho«. — ^n. iii. 270.
* Yenerat Evenl rapidas Jore natos ad ondas. — Ov. Mel. ix. 104.


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south-westerly course to the Corinthian Gulf.* In the interior plain
there are two large lakes named Hyria*^ Zygos^ and Trioh(teif« J/o-
ktiro, communicating with each other, and also with the Achelous
into wliich their surplus waters were discharged by the river Cy&thoB.
§ 7. The orio^inal occupants of iEtolia were the Pelasgic tribes of
the Curgtes, LelSges, and Hyantes, the first being the most important.
These were expelled by the Hellenic tribes of the Epeans imder
iEtolis, who crossed over from Elis. ^tolians also settled about
Plem-on. The tribes occupying the interior were — the Apodoti above
Naupactus; the Ophionensei in the upper valley of the Ev6nus
with the subordinate divisions of the Bomieniei and CalUenset about
the sources of the river ; the Eurytftnet more to the N.W., and the
Agmi in the valley of the Achelous. The towns were more im-
portant in the heroic than in the later historical age. Homer notices
five cities as taking part in the Trojan War, viz. Pleuron, Cal^don,
Olfinus, PylChe, and Chalcis; the two first of these were rivals and
were engaged in constant feuds. They were (accortling to Strabo)*
the " ornament " of ancient Greece. Thermum, in the interior, appears
to have been the later capital in the days of the -^tolian confederacy.
The names Arsinoe (applied to the earlier ConSpe) and Lysimachia
originated with the wife of Ptolemy Philadelphus, the founder of those
towns. The final decay of the ^tolian towns was due to the same
cause that ruined those of Acamania, viz. the foundation of
Nicopolis. We shall describe them from W. to E.

Tli6rmam, VlokltOy was strongly placed on a spur of Panrotolium, N.
of Lake Trichonis. It was the spot where the meetings of the ^toliaa
League were held, and from its impregnable position was regarded as the
acropolis of all -^tolia. It was, nevertheless, surprised by Philip V.
in B.C. 218, and in 206. Some remains of its walls and of a public
edifice are still existing. Pleuron * originally stood on a plain between

1 It wfts the fabled scene of the death of Nessos by the bands of Hercules : —
*0f rhv fioBvpfMW, worofibv EviyKov /Sporovf
Micrtfov 'w6p€V€ x^po''-*'* ovre vofiwCfioit

Kwirotf ip4irv»Vt ovrc \aC^<nv v«caf . Sora. Tj'aeh. 669

Et Meleagream maculatus sanguine Nessi
Eyenos Calydona secat. Luc. ri. 865.

^ Near this lake was a vale where Cycnus was said to have been metamorphosed
into a swan by Apollo : hence the expression Cycne'ia Tempe : —
At genetrix Hyrie, serrati ncscia, flendo
Delicnit : stagnumque soo de nomine fecit. — Or. Met. rii. 880.

Inde laoua Hyiies videt, et CycneTa Tempe. — Id, vii. 871.
• Tb W iraAatbv npi6axi\iia itfi *EAA<£5oc V rovra tA KrUrfuxTa, — Ix. p. 460.
* In the foUowing passage Homer represents Pleuron and Calydon as united
under one king : —

Ei(re(^cFCK ^^oyyi^ 'Ay^pcufMKif vXl 96airn

*0% ndtrg IIAcvpwrt KaX aimttrff KoAvSwvi

AtTMAoiOXK «yaa(re, Btbt i* t>t tmto 3^^. iL xllL 216.


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384 -ETOLIA. Book IV.

the Achelous and the Eveniis, at the foot of Mt. Curium. This site
was forsaken about b c. 230 in consequence of the place having been
ravaged by Demetrius IL, of Macedonia; and a new Pleuron was
erected at the foot of Mt. Aracynthus, which was a member of the
Achaean League in B.C. 146. The ruins of this town are near Meso-
longhi, and consist of remains of the walls and of a theatre. Calj^don
stood on a fertile plain < near the Evenus at some distance from the
Corinthian Gulf. It was a place of great fame in the Heroic age as
the residence of OBneus, the father of Tydeus and Meleager, and grand-
father of Diomedes.* In B.C. 391 it fell into the hands of the Achffans,^
who retained it until the battle of Leuctra in 371, when it was restored'
to the ^tolians. In the civil war between Pompey and Ciesar it
appears to have been a considerable town : its inhabitcmts were shortly
^ter removed to Nicopolis. Calydon was famed for the worship of
Diana Laphria.

Of the less important towns we may notice— Con5pe, near the £.
bank of the Achelous, afterwards called ArsinoS after the wife of
Ptolemy Philadelphus who enlarged it; Ithoria, S. of Conope, at the
entrance of a pass and strongly fortified, taken and destroyed by
Philip V. in B.C. 219; Pawmimn, yet more to the S., destroyed at the
same time; LysimachiA, on the S. shore of Lake Hyria, probably
founded by Arsinoe and named after her first husband Lysimachus:
ProMhium, near the Achelous, said to have been founded by .^k>lian8
from Pylene/ which latter stood in the Corinthian Gulf, though its
position is uncertain; OlSnm,' an old Homeric town at the foot of
Mt. Aracynthus, said to have been destroyed by the .^olians ; EleeiiBi
belonging to Calydon, a place which was fortified by the aid of

Sophocles represents (Encos as king of Plcnron ; others make him king of
Calydon : all the legends about Pleuron vary considerably : —
*Htic irarpbs fikv iy lotiouriv Olt^nH

*AAyurTOV iir\0Vf *l rvi AItmAIc yvtr^. SoPH. TVocs/L 6.

The Cnr§tes noticed in the Iliad (ix. 525) as attacking Calydon, were inhabit-
ants of Plcnron.

» Hence the Homeric epithet of "lovely :"—

'Omn^i vi&rarxiv mliov KaAvSwvov ifMW^. Jl. ix. 677.

The epithets " rocky " and " lofty " are supposed to apply to the neighbourhood
rather than the town : —

XaXjcUa "f ayxla\oVt KaXviStpd. re werpr^tavav. H. ii. 640.

See also H. xiiL 2i7, quoted above, note *.

* References to Calydon are frequent in Ovid : thus we hare Catydonu^ applied
to Deianeira, daughter of (Eneus [Met. ix. 112) ; Calydonixts heros, to Meleager
{Id, viii. 324) ; Calffdonius amni*^ to the Achelous, inasmuch as Calydon was the
capital of .£tolia {Id. viii. 727) ; and Caiydonia regna to Apulia, as being the
territory of Diomedes, Uxe grandson of (Eneus {Id, xiv. 512).

' *0t Uktvprnv' Miioyro, koX *OA(voy 1)6^ nvAi^nyv. /(. iL €39.
Sensit seopuiosa Pylene. — Stat. Hub. iv. 102.
> The Boman poets use Olenius as equivalent to i£tolian : —
Olenius Tydexis (fratemi sanguinis ilium

Conscius honor agit) eadem sub nocte sopora. — Stat. Th^, 1. 402.
£t prsBceps Calydon et qu» Jove provoeat Idam
Olenos. Id. Iv. 104.


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Chap. XX. TOWNS — HISTORY. 385

AttaluB, but was taken by Philip in 219; and GhaloiB, also called
Chalcia and Hypocalchis, an old Homeric town E. of the Evenus and
at the foot of a mountain of the same name.

In Epictetus, on the sea-coast, Macynia, at the foot of Mt. Taphiassus,
described by the poet Arch ytas as "the grape-clad, perfume-bearing,
lovely Macyna ;" Hdlyorium, near Prom. Antirrhium, colonised by the
Corinthians, but subject to the Athenians in the early part of the
Peloponnesian War, and taken by the Spartan general Eurylochus,
in B.C. 426 ; Potidania and Crocyliam, on the borders of Lociis, S. of
the Hylsethus; JBgitinni, in the mountains bordering the valley of
the Hylaethus, the place where Demosthenes was defeated by the
iEtolians in B.C. 426 ; Callium, the chief town of the Callienses, on a
spur of Mt. (Eta, and on the road crossing that mountain to the valley
of the Spercheus; it was surprised by the Gauls in 279 ; Aperantia, in
the district of the same name near the Achelous, taken by Philip V.
but i-ecovered by the -^tolians in 189 ; and Agriniiim, also near the
Achelous, but of uncertain position, noticed as in alliance with the
Acarnanians in 3 1 4.

History.—The ^tolians first come under our notice in the historj^
of the Peloponnesian War,
when their country was
unsuccessfully invaded by
the Athenians under Demos-
thenes in B.C. 426. They
next appear as joining the
confederate Ureeks in the
Lamian War, when their

country was again invaded. Coin of iEtolia.

without any results, in 322.
They took a' prominent part in the expulsion of the Oauls in 279, and
particularly in the contest at their own town of Callium. Thence-
forward they became an important people, and extended their sway
over the whole of western Acamania, the south of Epirus and Thcs-
■aly, Locris, Phocis, and Boeotia. Tbey became involved in the Social
War, in 220-217, when their country was invaded and Thermum cap-
tured by Philip. A second war with Philip followed, in 211-205, in
consequence of their alliance with the Romans, and Thermum was
again taken. They joined the Romans at Cynoscephalro in 197, but
being afterwards dissatisfied, they went to war with them in conjunction
with Antiochus in 192. They were unfortunate in that war, and were
obliged to yield to Rome. Tiie league was dissolved about 167, and
iEtolia afterwards added to the province of Aohaia.

HI. Western Looms.

§ 8. Western Loerii (by which we mean the district of the Locri
OzSlfP,' in contradistinction to that of the Epicnemidian and Opuii-
tian Locrians on the shores of the Euboean Sea) was bounded on
the W. by ^tolia, on the N. by ^Etolia and Doris, on the E. by

* The name OxolflB was vmrioosly derived firom H*^f " to smell,** either from a
mephitic spring, or from the abundance of asphodel which scented the air ; or
from o^<M, <* the branches " of a vine which grew luxuriantly in that country.

ANC. 6E0G. 8


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Online LibrarySir William Smith William Latham BevanThe student's manual of ancient geography → online text (page 44 of 82)