Sir William Smith William Latham Bevan.

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Phocis, and on the S. by the Corinthian Gulf. This district is
mountainous, and for the most part unproductive. It was but little
known. The mountains, which emanate either from Pamastus in
the N.E. or from Ck>raz in the N.W., received no specific names ;
and the only river worthy of notice is the Hylflothns, Momo, which
rises on the slopes of Parnassus, and runs with a S.W. course into
the Corinthian Gulf, near Naupactus. The line of coast extends
from Prom. Antirrhium in the W., at the entrance of the Corinthian
Gulf, to the Sinus Grissniu in the E. The towns were unimportant,
^vith the exception of Amphissa, the capital, in the interior on the
E. frontier ; and Naupactus on the coast, for a long period the re-
sidence of the exiled Messenians.

ITaapaetnB, Lepanto, was situated just within the entrance of the
Corinthian Gulf, a little E. of Prom. Antirrhium, and possessed the
best harbour on the whole of the N. coast of that gulf. The Messenians
were settled there by the Athenians in B.C. 455, and in the Peloponnesian
War it became the head-quarters of the latter power in Western
Greece. It was regained by the Locrians after the battle of iEgospo-
tami. The AchsDans held it before the time of the Theban supre-
macy, and the ^tolians from the time of Philip. II. of Macedonia
until its capture by the Romans in 191. Amphissa, fidUmat was
situated in a pass at iha head of the Crissfeau plain, and about seven
miles N.W. of Delphi. The Locrians took refuge here at the time of
Xerxes' invasion. The town was destroyed by Philip in B.C. 338 by
order of the Amphiotyonic Council, but was soon rebuilt and was able
to witlistand a siege n>om the Romans in 190. On the foundation of
Nicopolis many of the iEtolians betook themselves to Amphissa, which
thus remained a populous place.

Of the less important towns we may notice — (EBeon, E. of Naupactus,
where Hesiod was said to have been killed and whence Demosthenes
started on his iEtolian expedition in B.C. 426 ; Antiojhnu more to the
E., noticed by Livy (xxvL 26), and to be distinguished from thePhocian
town of the same name ; Eupaliom, a short distance from the coast,
the place where Demosthenes deposited his plunder in 426, and which
was afterwards taken by Euryloohus; Srythns, the port of Eupalium,
where Philip landed in 207 ; and (Eanjhe, a port at t^e W. entrance of
the Crisssean Bay at Gaiaxidhi, the spot whence the Loon Epizephyrii
are said to have embarked.

Hi$tory. — The Locri Ozolse are first noticed in the time of the Pelo-
ponnesian War, when they appear as a semi-barbarous nation along
with the ^tolians and Acamanians. In B.C. 426 the Locrians pro-
mised to aid Demosthenes ; but, after his retreat, they yielded to the
Spartan Eurylochus. At a later period they belonged to the iEtolian
League.

IV. DoKis.
§ 9. The small state of Doris • lay nestled between the ranges of

> Doris was regarded by the Greeks as the mother oountry (ji*i|Tpo»wXt«, Herod.
yIU. 81} of the whole Dorian race. It is, howerer, very imlikelj that so small a
district could supply a military force sufficient for the conquest of the Pelopon-
nesus, and other statements are at rariance with the view.



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Chap. XX. PHOCIS :— BOUND AEIES— MOUNTAINS. 387

(Eta and Paraassus, and bounded by uEtolia on the W., Locris on
the S., Thessaly on the N., and Phocis on the £. It consisted of a
single valley watered by the Pindnt* Apostdia, a tributary of the
Cephissus. It thus opened eastwards into the plain of Phocis, but
in other directions was surrounded by mountains. An important
route crossed this district, leading from Heraclea in Malis to Am-
phissa in Locris. The Dorian state consisted of a tetrapolis, or con-
federacy of four towns, named EriiUhif , Boinm, Qjtiiiiiim, and PindnSi
of which the first ranked as capital, while Cytinium commanded the
route just referred to, and is hence noticed in the military opera-
tions of Demosthenes and Eurylochus in b.o. 426, and of Philip in 338.

History. — Doris is seldom noticed in history. In the inyasion of
Xerxes it submitted to the Persians. Subsequently the Dorians
received assistance from the Lacedaemonians against the Phooians and
others. The towns suffered much in the Phocian, iEtolian, and Mace-
donian wars.

V. Phocis.

§ 10. Fhoeif lay between Doris on the N.W., Eastern Locris on
the N.E., Boeotia on the S.E., the Corinthian Gulf on the S., and
Western Locris on the W. The only direction in which the bound-
ary was well defined with regard to the contiguous provinces was
on the side of Eastern Locris, where the Gnemidian range inter-
vened. On the side of Doris and Boeotia it lay quite open, the
valley of the Pindus connecting it with the former, and that of the
Cephissus with the latter. The country is divided physically into
two distinct regions by the range of Parnassus — the northern con-
sisting of the valley of the Cephissus, which opens into a wide plain
in the neighbourhood of ElatCa ; the southern, of a rugged, broken
district, extending from Parnassus to the coast of the Corinthian
Gulf. The line of the coast itself is broken by the bays of Crissa
and Anticyra.

§ 11. The chief mountain range in Phocis is Pamastnst' which
attains an elevation of 8000 feet, and terminates in a double peak ;
the northern and eastern sides of the smnmit are covered with per-
petual snow. The highest peak was named LycorCa. Between the
central mass and the precipitous cliffs which overlook Delphi, an



* The poetioal references to Parnassus are numerous, partly from its proximity
to Delphi, and partly as the supposed reddenoe of Apollo and the Muses ; we
select the fcdlowing : —

Nee tantum Phoeho gaudet Pamassia mpes. — Ynu>. Eol, vi. S9.

Hesperio tantum, quantum semotus Eoo

Cardlne Parnassus gemino petit eethera coUe,

Mons Phcebo, Bromioque saeer. Luc. v. 71.

Themis hano dederat Pamassia sortem. — Ot. Mel. iv. 642.
Vox mihi mentitas tulerit Pamassia sortes.— Val. FlaccIU. 618.

S 2



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388 PHOCIS. Book IV.

extensive upland district intervenes, partly cultivated, and elsewhere
covered with forests. A subordinate range, named Oirpbii, runs
parallel to Parnassus, on the S. side of the Pleistus. The only
important river is the Oephimu* which rises near Lilasa,' where it
was said to burst forth from the ground with a thundering noise.
It tirst flows towards the N.E., and then to the S.E., through the
plains of Elatea : near the Boeotian border it receives a small tribu-
tary, named the Assuif from the slopes of the Cnemis. In the S.,
the small river Pleiitnf derived some celebrity from its proximity to
Delphi.-*

§ 12. The Phocians are said to have derived their name partly
from Phocus, a grandson of Sisyphus of Corinth, and partly from
Phocus, a son of -^Eacus. They thns seem to have been regarded as
a mixed ^olic and Achaean race. Their seats were in the valley of
the Cephissus, where they had a confederacy of towns, which held
their meetings at Phocium, near Daulis. The Delphians were a
distinct people, probably of the Dorian race, who were said to have
come from LycorCa in the first instance. They were always bitterly
opposed to the Phocians. Among the towns of Phocis, Delphi stands
pre-eminent in point of interest and importance, as the seat of the
most celebrated fane of antiquity. It brought other places about it
into notice, such as Crissa, and its port Cirrha, Daulis, and Panopeus,
which lay on the joad to Boeotia. The towns in the plain of the
Cephissus were important in a strategetical point of view, as they
commanded the passes across (Eta into Northern Gh-eece. Elat&i
was one of the keys of Greece, and Hyampolis was hardly less im-
portant. Many of the Phocian towns suffered from the position
which the country thus occupied. Xerxes destroyed twelve of them
in his march southwards. Most of these were rebuilt ; but they
suffered a more sweeping destruction at the end of the Sacred War,
when all the towns, with the exception of Abae, were destroyed by
Phihp. They were a second time rebuilt, and are in several in-
stances noticed in the Roman wars in Greece. These towns are de-
scribed in order, conmiencing from the N.W., and taking the circuit
of the province.



> or r* apa irip mrofthv Kri^iovhv Slov ivaiovt
Oi re AtXauof cxoc, wjfyiJK iwi Kiy^ovoiO. -H. it 523.

PropeUentemqoe Lil»ain
Cephissi gUciale caput. Stat. Theb, vU. 848.

*09Tc Axkauyfiw trpox^t icoAAip^y v^p. Hou. JTjfmn. in ApoU. 340.
* nXcurrov re mfyais leal UoaviSity^f icpdrot
K«Aov<m, Kflu riiJ^iov vtfiurrw Ata. ^EscH. JSumen. 21.

Ovi4 r» wm riBniKW &^c ft^yoc* oAA' ert leetro
0^pi*r atvoy^i^ior inh IlAciOTOio xmBipirov
IIapia}<r6r yv^6wTCi. wtpivr^i ciWa ffi^xAoif .— Callim. Hymn, in Dtt 91.



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Chap. XX. TOWNS. 389

IdlsBa was situated at the foot of Parnassus, and at the sources of the
Cephissus. It was destroyed at the end of the Sacred War, but was
soon afterwards restored. It was taken by Demetrius, but subse-
quentl^threw off the Macedonian yoke. Its ruins, at Paleokastro,
consist of the circuit of the walls, and some of the towers. Delphi was



Map of Delphi.

situated S. of Parnassus, in the narrow valley of the Pleistus. Its
position is very remarkable ; the uplands of Parnassus terminate
towards the S. in a precipitous cliff, 2000 feet high, rising to a double
peak,^ named the Phaedn&des (b b), from their "glittering" appearance^
as they faced the rays of the sun. Below the cliffs the ground slopes
off in a double ridge toward the maritime plain, and in a semicircular
recess on this slope the town was placed. Between the peaks, the
southern of which was sometimes called Hyampea (k), there is a deep
fissure, down which a torrent pours in rainy weather, receiving near



^ These peaks were sometimes supposed to he the summits of Parnassus
itself:—

Mons ibi ▼erticihos petit ardnus eastra duobus.

Nomine Parnassus, superatqne cacumine nubes. — Ov. Met. i. 316.

* li ft vnkp diAo^<n; wirpat

"irifto^ &1FWVC Atyvvf, iv

0a K»pvKuu Nv^ot

Zrcixovtri Baje\iin,

Kturrakioi re vofui. Soph. Ant. 1126.



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390 PHOCIS. Book IV.

the base of the cliff the waters of the celebrated fountain of Castalia?
[l)j in which visitors to Delphi purified themselves, and whose waters
were in a later age supposed to communicate poetic inspiration.' On .
the uplands between the Phsdriades and the central mass of Parnassus,
about seven miles from Delphi, was the Corycian cave,' in which the



V ->-^



Mouth of the Coryciaa Cave. (From a Sketch hj Sir Gardner Wilkinaoo.)

Delphians took refuge in the Persian War : the main chamber is 200
feet long, and 40 high. The greater portion of Delphi stood W. of the
stream, though the walls of Philomelus (a a) enclosed a certain amount
of ground on the £. of it. In the former direction was the sacred



' 'AAA', £ *Oifiov AcA<^i Mpairtf,
Tdf KacrraAiof apyvpiMilitU

'A^vJpoi^cFOi, <rrctx<T« Kounff . EcR. Jen. 94.

Qui rore pura Castalias lavit

Crines solutos. Hoa. Oarm. iii. 4, 61.

Inde ubi libatos irrorarere liquores
Vestibus et capiti, flectant ventigla sanctSB
Ad delubra de<B. Ov. Met i. 871.

> Mihl flavufl Apollo

Pocula Cai«talia plena minlBtrat aqua. — Ov. Am. i. 15, 35.
Me miserum ! (neque enim verbis soUennibuB ullis
Incipiam nunc CastulisD vocalibu$ undia
InvisuB, Phocboque gravis). Stat. Silv. v. 5, 1.

KotAif, ^iXopvit, iojifjuiimp avcurrpo^* .£8CH. Kumen. 32.
n69( Nvmfc £pa rat ^- ■

Kopv^oif KwpvKiOiv; EcR. Baoch. 556.



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Chap. XX. TOWNS. 391

enclosure {rffxtrosy w^u) containing the following buildings : the Temple
(1), divided into three parts — the Pronaus, Naus and Adytum : the
second containing the hearth with the perpetual fire and the stone



Interior of the Coryciau Cave. (From a Sketch by Sir Gardner Wilkinson.)

which was supposed to mark the centre of the earth,* and the third the
subterranean chamber whence came the oracular responses ^ ; tlie



* From the numerous references to this stone, we select the following : —
*Op«i> S' iv* 6ii*<^aA(p ftkv avSpa BtOfivfr^
'Eipav cxoKxa npovrpoiraiov. JRacn. Eumen, 40.

'i/lt<r6fij^aXoif 9 i6pvfia Ao^t'ov w&ov^

Uvp&i T« ^eyyof a^irov MKkiuLivov. JEacR. Cheoph. 1035.

MoKTeui. Soph. (Ed. Tyr. 479. <

' In the inmost part of the chamber stood a tripod o^er a deep chasm in the
earth, whence mephitic vapours arose. The priestess sat apon the tripod, when
she uttered the oracles : —

& 4oi/3«, fkcumUav fi* cir^-
jSac ^o^Mtf , T(Uiro6C r iv xpwr4<f
6ao-«rcif, ci' a<^cvdct Oportf^
MaiTCMK ppOTKW ay<ul>aivu»v.
Oco^arwi' iftMP aivrtav
*Yir€p KooToAtof ptiBpwv
rtCn>Vf ixtaov yac ixttv fi4\a9pov. KuR. Iph. Tbur. 1252.



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392 PHOCIS. Book IV.

Great Altar (2) on which sacrifices were daily offered ; the Thesauri, or
treasuries (3), several detached buildings, in which the most valuable
treasures were preserved ; the Bouleuterion, or senate-house (4) ; the
Stoa, built by the Athenians (5), which also served as a treasury ; the
grave of Neoptolemus, son of Achilles (6) ; the fountain of Cassotis,
HeUenico (7) ; the Lesche, a public room where people could meet for
conversation (8) ; and the Theatre (9). The temple was erected by
the Alcmseonida), and was one of the largest in Greece ; the exterior,
which was faced with Parian marble, was of the Doric order, and the
interior of the Ionic. Outside of the sacred enclosure were the follow-
ing objects: the Stadium, of which there are still considerable remains ;
the fountain of Delphusa,* Kema (m), between the Stadiiun and the
enclosure ; the Synedrion (n), in a suburb named Pylaea, on the road
to Crissa ; and, on the E. side of the stream, the (gymnasium (g) ; the
Sanctuaries of Autonous (h) and of Phylacus (f) ; the temple of Athena
Pronoca (e); and thi'ee temples (d). Outside the walls was the ancient
cemetery (ci, of which there are still considerable remains. The ruins
of Delphi are now called Kastri. The antiquity of the oracle was very
great : even in Homer's age Pytho, as it was then called,^ was famed for
its treasures ;* it was even believed that other deities had owned the
place before Apollo The selection of this spot by the latter deity, on
account of its seclusion and beauty, is recorded in the Homeric hymn
to Apollo ; the first priests were said to have been brought from Crete,
and were settled at Crissa. As Cirrha rose to importance, Crissa
declined, and was finally merged in Delphi ; jealousy arose between
Delphi and Cirrha, on account of the exactions practised on pilgrimB
landing at the latter place, and the Sacred War followed in B.C. 595-
585, terminating in the destruction of Cirrha, and in the institution of
the Pythian games. Henceforward Delphi became the seat of an inde-
pendent state, the government of which was of a theocratic character.
The temple was destroyed by fire in 548, and a new one of great mag-
nificence erected by the Alcmseonidae. The Persians approached the
place for the purpose of plunder in 480, but were deterred by divine
interposition. In 357 the Phocians seized the temple, in revenge for
the fine imposed upon them by the Amphictyonic Council : hence the
second Sacred War, which terminated with the restoration of the
temple to its former possessors, and the punishment of the Phocians.
The Oauls visited it in 279, but again heaven (it is said) interfered.
The temple was less fortunate in this respect as far as the Romans were



* This fountain is referred to, though not by name, in the following passages :
'Ayxov Si «cpi)i^ icaAA(ppoof, tv$a Bpaxaipay

Krcti'cv ava{f Aibf vihi, airb ttpartpolo Pioto.—Hov. Hymn, in ApoU. 300.
•Ay Z vtrtBaXis &
KoAAurraf irpoir<iArv^a Sa^i^af,
*A rdf *oifiov BvfiiXav

So^iv inrh ytuuf
K^irwv i( a^omrwv,
'Iva ipovoi r^yyov^ itpaX
ToU' aevyauv wayay

'EKvpouiffat EUK. Ion. 112.

* Ot Kvwdpurvoy cxov, IIv^i^ rt wrrfip^irauy. IL iL 519.
» OW wra katv^ ov5bc A^ifropof «rrb« ^^pirct
•froti(iov *Av<iAAM»>o« Tlv^ot en irrrpfH9<r<rjj, It. ix. 404.



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Chap. XX. TOWNS. 393

concerned : Sylla and Nero plundered it; ifc was reetored by Hadrian,
and rifled by Constantine : the oracle was silenced by Theodosius. CriiMa
lay S.W. of Delphi, at the southern end of a projecting spur of Par-
nassus. It gave name to the bay near which it stood, and on the shore
of which Ciirha was subsequently built as its port. Between the two
towns was a fertile plain,^ named indifferently the Cirrhsean or Oris-
seean, though the terms are more properly applied to two separate
portions of the plain, the Crisstean mland and the Cirrhsan on the
coast, which were divided from each other by two projecting rocks.
Crissa was one of the most ancient cities in Greece, and is described in
one of the Homeric hynms^ as possessing the sanctuary of Delphi; its
name is even used by Pindar as synonymous with Delphi. It sunk with
the rise of Cirrha, and seems to have become an insignificant place by
B.C. 600. Cirrha was destroyed in b.c. 585 by the Amphictyons, on
account of the toll which was levied there on pilgrims going to Delphi :
it was, however, afterwards rebuilt as the port of Delphi. Anttcjhna
was situated on a bay of the Corinthian Qulf, which was named after
it, and where it possessed an excellent harbour. It was supposed to
represent the Homeric Cyparissus. Though destroyed at the close of
of the Sacred War, it recovered, and was taken by the Roman Consul
Flaminius in b.c. 198. It was particularly famed for its hellebore,
which was regarded as a cure for madness.^ Pandpem, or Panope,' was
near the frontier of Boeotia, between Daulis and Chseronea.^ It was a
very ancient town, originally inhabited by the Phlegyse. It was
destroyed by Xerxes, and again by Philip ; was taken by the Romans
in B.C. 198, and was a third time destroyed in the war between Sulla



• Homer gives it the epithets — " divine," " conspicaons," " vine-bearing :" —
Kptovoy TC iaBh\Vy ica« AauX(8a, koX navoin}«u ii. ii. 520.
*l^w 6* cf KpUnnfv ty^eUXovt afLinK6«9<ra¥. Bymn. in ApoU. 438.

The Pythian games were celebrated on this plain : —
'Ev KpuTf 4* wpwr^evTi^ el-
a* 'Air6\Xȴ fuv, ir6pc r' ayXatay. PiKD. lithm. il. 26.

wav 5* cirifiirXaTO
"Savayitov Kpurcuov Imrucuv xiiov, SoPH. El. 729.

' 'liceo 3* if Kpivipf vvh Uapvfiahv »'i^<J«yTa,

Kyrinhy wphf Zi^pov rtrpafifidyoy^ ovreLp vvtpBtv

TUrpni iwucpiitATiUy KoCKif 8* vvo64fyofit 0^(rcra,

Tinix«T' tyOa ovo^ rtxtn^paro 4o4/3of 'Aw6\Xmv

Nijii' iroi7i<r<ur9M hriiparw, tU4 rt ^Mw.—HoM. -Hymn, in ApoU. 283.

• Neaclo an Anticyram ratio ilUs destinet omnem. - HoB. Sat. ii. 8, 83.
Naviget Anticyram. Id. 166.

Ne dnbitet Ladas, si non eget Anticyra, neo

Arohigene. Jw. xiii. 97.

I, bibe, dixissem, purgantes pectora snccos,

Qoicquid et in tota nasdtor Anticyra. — Or. e Pont. iv. 3, 58.

» Jam vada Cephisi, Panopesqne eraserat arva.— Ov. Met. iil. 19.

Qnis tibi Phcebeas ades, veteremqne revolrat
Phocida ? qui Panopen, qui Daulida, qui Cyparisson.

Stat. Thtb. vii. 843.
' Aiftit yiifi ^Amyone, Aibc KvBfAiv wapdKOcri¥

Uv$M' ipxoiUyiiVj iiA xoAA^x^POV Uwoirfiot. Od. xi. 680.

B 3



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394 PHOCIS. Book IV.

and Archelaua. Daiilii^ stood W. of Panopeus, on the high road to
Delphi. It was a place of importance in the heroic age. It shared the
fate of the other Phocian towns in the Persian and Sacred wars, it
was subsequently rebuilt, and was reputed impregnable, from its
position on a spur of Parnassus. Hyunpdlit stood on a heighi^ at the
entrance of a valley, which formed a natural route across Cnemis into
Locris. It was consequently the scene of several engagements: the
Phocians here defeated the Thessalians ; Xerxes destroyed it ; Jason,
in 371, took its suburb, named Cleonse ; the Boeotians and Phocians
fought near it in .S47 ; and Philip destroyed it. It was rebuilt, and is
mentioned in the Roman wars in Greece. The circuit of its walls may
bo seen at Vogdhani, AbflB, near Hyampolis, derived its fame from its
possessing a temple and oracle of Apollo,^ which was consulted from all
quarters, and particularly by Croesus and Mardonius. It was destroyed
by fire in b.c. 480 by the Persians, and in 346 by the Boaotians.
Hadrian erected a small temple near the site of the old one. Eli^tte
stood in the plain of the Cephiasus, in command of the most important
pass across Mount CEta, and hence a place of the greatest importance
m a military point of view. It was burnt by Xerxes, but afterwards
restored and occupied by Philip in b.c. 338, much to the alarm of the
Athenians. It successfully resisted Cassander, but was taken by Philip,
son of Demetrius, and again by the Romans in 198. The name
survives in Lefia, where are some few remains of the old town.

Of the less important towns we may notice— DrymsBft, a frt>ntier town
on the side of Doris, taken by Xerxes ; Keon, at the foot of Tithorea,
rebuilt after its destruction by the Persians, and finally destroyed at
the end of the 8acred War ; llthorea, regarded by Palisanias as occu-
pying the site of Neon, but probably a diflferent place, distant 3^
miles, the former being at Vditza and the latter at Paiea Fiva; at
Tithorea the Phocians took refuge from Xerxes, probably in a spacious
cavern, which exists behind Vditza ; Ambr^snSi N.E. of Anticyra, at
the foot of Mount Cirphis, very strongly fortified by the Thebans
against Philip, taken by the Romans in b.c. 198 ; Stirifl, near the
Boeotian frontier, strongly posted on a height, defended by precipitous
rocks, destroyed by Philip, but afterwards rebuilt ; Phocloiim, near
Daulis, where the meetings of the Phocian confederacy were held ;
Parapotamii, on the left bajok of the Cephissus (whence its name), near
the border of Boeotia, never rebuilt after its destruction by Philip in
the Sacred War ; Anemoria, an Homeric town (17. ii. 521), said to be
named fr^m its exposure to the blasts that descended on it from Par-
nassus ; CletoS) near Hyampolis, on the pass crossing to Locris ; and



* Daulis is Cuned in mythology as the spot where Proene was tamed into a
swallow and PMlomele into a nightingale : the latter bird is still found there in
great nombers. West of Daulis was the spot called Sehiste Odos, where the road
from Amhrysus fell into the main road leading to Delphi : —

'Et T«vrb AcA^K KAwb AovAuic oyci. SoPH. <Ed, Tjpr. 733.

* Et ralles Lebadea toast et Hyampolin acri
Subnixam aoopulo ! Stat. TTieb. rli. 849.

* OvK ert rhy SButrw tliu
Tat hr* hiu^aXhv vifimr^
Ovtr it rh¥ 'Afitun m^. Sora. <B(L T^. 897.



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Chap. XX. EASTERN LOCHIS. 395

Tritea, somewhere in the valley of the Cephissus, but of uncertain
position.

History. — The history of Phocis, apart from Delphi, presents few
featui-es of intere^it. In the Peloponnesian War, the Phocians sided
with Athens: after the battle of Leuctra (B.c. 371) they became subject
to the Thebans, and their separation from the Tbebans led ultimately
to the Sacred War. At the battle of Ciiseronea, and in the Lamiac War,
they fought on the side of Grecian independence.

VI. Eastern Locris.

§ 13. The territory of the Eastern Locrians consisted of a narrow
strip of coast land between the continuations of (Eta and the
Euboean Sea, extending from the pass of Thermopylae in the N.W.
to the mouth of the Cephissus in the S.E. lliis district was divided
between two tribes, sumamed Epionemidii and Opnntii, the former
80 styled from the ad-
jacent hill of Cnemis,
the latter from their
capital, Opus. ITie
range of CnemiSi TaU
anda, attains a con-
siderable elevation in
the N. ; the portion of

the range adjacent to Coin of the Locri Opuntii.

Opus was of less height,

and received no special designation. Spurs project in various parts
to the vicinity of the coast, and in one instance form a considerable
promontory, named Cnemldei. The rivers necessarily have very
short courses : the most important are the BogarinB and Hanes.
The valleys were in many cases fertile, as was also the whole of the
coast district. Routes cross the mountains between Alpenus and
Tithronium in Phocis, between Thronium and Elatea, and between
Opus and Hyampolis.

§ 14. Tlie eastern Locrians are noticed by Homer, as taking part
in the Trojan War. The distinction into Epicnemidians and Opun-
tians was not recognized by classical writers, but originated with



Online LibrarySir William Smith William Latham BevanThe student's manual of ancient geography → online text (page 45 of 82)