Sir William Smith William Latham Bevan.

The student's manual of ancient geography online

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the geographers, Strabo and others. In classical times Opus was
regarded as the capital of the whole district : at a later period
Thronium became the chief town of the Epicnemidians. These
were the only towns of importance in the whole district.

Thronxiiiii^ was situated on the Boagrius, about 2} miles from the
coast. It is but seldom noticed : in b.c. 431 it was taken by the

» AoKpSty M TOurS* uraie aytav
epoKtai* ixkirrmv v^iv. EuK. Iph. Atd, 261.


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Athenians, and in the Sacred War by Onomarchus. Opus stood at the
head of the Opuutian Qulf, a little removed from the coast : it was
reputed one of the most ancient cities of Greece, and was, according to
Homer, the native city of Patroclus.* In the war between Antigonus
and Cas8ander, Opus wajs besieged by Ptolemy for its antagonism to the
former. Of the less important places we may notice : AlpSniu, at the
southera entrance of the pass of Thermopylae; KioSBCt, a fortress close
to the sea commanding that pass, and hence a very important acqui-
sition to Philip in his wars in b.c. 346 and 340 ; Soarphe, on the road
to Elatea, and hence noticed in the narrative of Flaminius's march by
Livy (xxxiii. 3) ; Baphnvs, on the sea-coast, originally belonging to
Phocis ; AlSpe, on an insulated hill farther down the coast; Cynus, the

f)rincipal port of the Opuntians, about seven miles N. of Opus ; and,
astly, Naryx, between Opus and Hyampolis, the reputed birth place of
Amis. J and the scene of an engagement between the Boeotians and
Pnocians in B.C. 352.

History. — The history of the Eastern Locrians is unimportant : the
Opuntians are noticed as taking part with the Spartans in the Persian
and Peloponnesian wars,


§ 15. B<B0tia was bounded by the Euboean Sea on the E., Phocis
on the W., the Corinthian Gulf and Attica on the S., and the
district of the Opnntian Locrians on the N. It thus stretched from
sea to sea, and may be said to close the mouth of the Peloponnesus.
On the S. it possessed a well-defined boundary in Mount Cithseron ;
but towards the N.E. it lay ojien along the vale of the Cephissus,
though in this direction it was partly closed by the ridge of Hyphan-
tium, an offset from the Opuntian range. Within the limits above
specified were two districts, of a widely different character : (i.)
Northern Bceotia, a large basin of an oval form, completely sur-
rounded by hills, and subdivided by subordinate ranges into two main
portions — one containing the plain of Orchomenus and Lake Copais,
the other the plain of Thebes and Lake Hylica; (ii.) Southern
Bceotia, a long and in some parts wide valley, drained by the
Asopus. The sea-coast on either side is irregular, but does not offer
good harbours. The climate of Ikcotia was much influenced by the
presence of so much stagnant water, which rendered the air heavy
and the winters severe. The soil possessed remarkable fertility, that
about Copais being of a deep alluvial character, equally well suited
to the growth of com and to the purposes of pasture: the Boeotian
horses were amongst the best in Greece. The vine and other fruits

^ Deucalion and Pyrrha are also said to have resided near Opns.
' Hence the epithet Naryeius applied to him, Ov. Met. xiv. 468.
The same epithet is applied to Bruttium in Italy, under the idea that Locri was
colonized from Naryx : —

NaryciiBque picis lucos. Vnio. Oeorg. li. 488.

Hie et Narycii posuerunt moenia LocrL — JEn. iii. 399.


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Chap. XX. MOUNTAINS. 397

nourished remarkably well. The mountains yielded iron ore, and
black marble. The plain of Thebes abounded with moles, whose
skins were made an article of commerce. Lake Copais produced
abundance of fish, particularly eels, and water-fowl were numerous ;
while the reeds that fringed its shore supplied the country with flutes.
§ 16. Boeotia is skirted by mountain ranges in all directions. In
the western part of the province rises the long range of HeUooiit the
soft and sylvan character of whose scenery rendered it, in the eyes
of the Greeks, a fitting residence for the Muses;* Aganippe and
Hippocrene were two of the numerous rills which course down its
sides amid groves of myrtle and oleander, — ^the former rising near
Ascra and joining the Termessus, the latter flowing into the Olmeus :
the Grove of the Muses was near Aganippe. One of the heights of
Helicon was named Lelbethriam» Zagora ; another more to the N.,
Laphyitiiiiii, Oranitza ; while between the two was TUphoMiam, ex-
tending almost to the edge of Lake Copais, and separating the plains
of Coronea and Haliartus. On the southern frontier, Oithfleron sepa-
rated Boeotia from Attica, bounding the plain of Asopus on the S. :
it was a well-wooded, wild chain, and hence was aptly selected as
the scene of various mythological events, such as the metamorphosis
of Actceon, the death of Pentheus, and the exposure of (Edipus.* It
was also regarded as the scene of the revels of Bacchus.^ On the
N.E. the range of Cnemis is continued in a line parallel to the sea-
coast, rising into the heights of Ptomn, E. of Lake Copais, Metiapium,
near Anthedon, and Hyp&ton* more to the S., while in the N.W. a

JilV 'EAucwfoc ixovfTKv opo« fi^ya re CaJMv rt^

Kflu re wept Kfntvr\v heiSca mfav* airakounv

'OpXtvvTtu, KoX pttfihv ipur^p^Oi Kpottwvos'

Kat TC \ot<r<rdti0vat. riptva XP^ ncp^i)(r<n>iO,

*H 'Iinrov#cpi}Fi)f, tj 'OA/<«ioG ^otfeoio,

'Ajcporary 'EXucmvi x**fi^ ^ttvoii^avro

KoAot^, ititp6im^' cWpcMrarro H winraiy. Hb8. l%«og. 1.

Pandite nunc Helicona, Dese, cantusqne movete. — ^Vibo. ^h. tU. 641.
Hence the Moses were oamed Heliconiadee : —

Adde Heliconiadnm oomites, quorum unus Homerus.

LrcfiET. iii. 1050.

'AAA* *a fit vaUiv optatVf ivBa Kk^trai
Ovfibc Kt^atpwf o^rtK, hv ^^nup r4 f*oi

Ilanip r' iB4<r^ C^vrt K^fnov rd^v. SOFH. (Sd. Tyr. 1451.

*0 ^oBiuv wtriXuv woXv0Tip6ra'
Toy fairof, 'Apr^i^ xto^P<>^*' Ofitia KiBaipiip,
MifiroTC rbv Bavd-nf irportBevrOy A^xevfi' 'Iwc^ffnyv
*0^cA«c Oiiiiroiav epitfKu fip*^ Ufiokov outwK.— Eus. Phcen. 801.

Quails comrootis exdta sacris
Thyas, nbi audlto stimulant trieterica Baccbo
Oi^^ noctumusque vocat clamore Cithaeron. — ^n. iv. 801.


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398 BCEOTIA. Book IV.

projecting spar of the Cnemidian range, named Hypkaatiiim* pene-
trates close to the banks of the Cephissus, and separates the plains of
Boeotia and Phocis. In addition to these, we have to notice a series
of elevations which separate the basin of Lake Copais from that of
Lake Hylica, the most prominent height being Phflndeiiim, Faga ;
and again another series between the Theban plain and the valley of
the Asopns, of which Tniimsiini is the most conspicuons. The
approaches to Boeotia from the N. were (i.) by the valley of the
Cephissus, which was oonmianded by a defile near Chasronea, and
(iL) by a track across Hyphantinm.

§ 17. The only river of importance in Northern Bopotia is the
Otpldssiis* which enters it from Fhocis in the N.W., and, after a
short oonrse across the plain of Chaeronea, discharges itself into Lake
Copais. This lake forms one of the most striking features in Boeotia.
So completely do the mountains shut in the basin, that no opening
existed for the escape of the waters ; these, therefore, collected in
the deepest part of the basin, and formed a considerable lake, origi-
nally named Csphlssiit from the chief river flowing into it, afterwards
Oopais» from the town of Copse, and now TopoiiaSf whence the surplus
waters escaped by subterranean channels (called katavothra) to the
Eubcean Sea, distant between four and five miles. These kcUavothra
are four in number, three conmiunicating with the sea, and one with
Lake Hylica ; the central, or main stream, emerges at Upper La-
rymna, and the two others on either side of it These natural outlets
being found occasionally insufficient, two artificial tunnels were
constructed in the heroic age, probably by tlie Minyae of Orchome-
nus. As long as these channels were kept clear, the greater part
of the bed of Lake Copais was under cultivation. The size of the
lake has varied at different times. Stro^ states its circumference at
forty miles ; it is now sixty, in consequence of the channels becoming
choked. Numerous lesser streams poured into Lake Copais from all
directions. In the plain of Thebes is a large lake named HyUoa,
Livadhiy filling a deep crater surroimded by mountains : it lies at a
lower level than Copais, and received some of its surplus waters by
a tunnel. Another lake, now called MorUziy more to the eastward,
forms a connecting link between Hylica and the sea. Southern
Boeotia is watered by the Af6piis» which rises in Mount Cithaeron,
and flows in an easterly course with a sluggish stream' to the

* Homer oharMteriMs the Aeopiu ta '*rttiby ** and ** abounding in graaa :

*K9mith¥ F Lkokto /ia#ir9x<M>'0i', KixtwoiTiv. II. iv. 383.

Enripidea alao apeaka of the " low apreading plaina ** about ita banks : —

Efiffopiror iitfiiXkevox ^ifialmv araxvf »

N^>Srv HQ.ti^Kom». Bacck. 748.


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Euboean Sea : its valley (in length about forty miles) is divided into
three parts by spurs of Teumessus — the plain of Parasopia along its
upper course, the plain of Tan&gra, and the plain of Ordpus.

§ 18. The original inhabitants of Boeotia were a Pelasgic race,
and were known by various tribal names. The later inhabitants
were an ^olian race, who immigrated into this province from Thes-
saly.' A Phoenician colony also settled at Thebes under the name
of Cadmeans. The Boeotian character was supposed to be influenced
by the cUmate, which was* dull and heavy : it may, however, have
been equally affected by the sensuality of the people. To whatever
cause it was due, the stupidity of the Boeotians passed into a pro-
verb.^ It should at the same time be stated in their favour, that^
they cultivated a taste for music and poetry, and that they reckoned
among their countrymen Hesiod, Pindar, and Plutarch, llie
Boeotian towns occupy a prominent place in Greek history. This is
due to a variety of causes : (i.) their wealth was great, in conse-
quence of the extreme fertility of the soil ; (ii.) their sitiiations were
secure, the spurs of the ranges surrounding the plain, offering re-
markably fine sites ; (iii.) the position of Boeotia between northern
and souUiem Greece rendered it the passage of every invading host ;
and (iv.) the plains of Boeotia offered the very best ground in
Greece for military evolutions. Boeotia was what the Low Countries
were at one time to Europe, the " cock-pit*' of Greece. Orchome-
nus, at the N.W. extremity of the Copaic Lake, originally took the
lead of all the Boeotian towns. After the immigration of the
Boeotians, Thebes gained the supremacy, and Orchomenus took the
second place, remaining however, for a long period, a powerful rival,
and retaining its position as capital of its own plain. The chief
towns were formed into a confederacy, under the presidency of
Thebes : of these there were originally fourteen, of which we can
certainly name ten, viz. : Thebes, Ordiomenus, LebadSa, CoronCa,
Copce, Haliartus, Thespire, Tanagra, AnthSdon, and Platsea, while
the remaining four are supposed to have been Ocalea, Chalia, On-
chestus, and Eleutherae. Oropus was probably once a member, but
afterwards became subject to Athens ; and Plataea withdrew from
the confederacy as early as B.C. 519. The towns of Boeotia flou-
rished until the extinction of independence, consequent upon the
battle of Chaeronea in 338 and the capture of Thebes in 336. They
then simk so fast that in the Roman age Tanagra and lliespiaa were
the only ones remaining : the rest were a heap of ruins. We shall

' The expressions were Bouor^ ts and Bouitnov o^ : —
TvotvcU r* cK'cir', apxMv 6r<t3o$ oAa*

$^<riv Aoyotf el ^cvyoficv, BowTCay
*Yr. Pnc0. 01. vl. 161.


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Book IV.

Coin of Orchomeniu.

describe these towns in order, commencing from the N.W., and pro-
ceeding round by the W. to the S.

ChanronSa, the key of Boeotia on its northern frontier, was situated
at the edge of the valley of the Cephissus, with its citadel posted on a
steep granite rock. It was the scene of engagements between the
Athenians and Boeotians in B.C. 447, between the Macedonians under
Philip and the Boeotians in 338, and between the Romans under
Sulla and the forces of Mithridates in 86. OrohomSniu was strongly

posted on a hill over^
looking the marshes of
the Copaic Lake, the
Cephissus "winding like
a serpent"* about the
base on the S. and E.,
while the small river
Melas washes its north-
em side. The walls
extended to a distance
of two miles in cir-
cumference : the most remarkable object in the town was the Treasury
of Atreus, the ruins of which still remain. Orchomenus was at one

period the first, and after
the rise of Thebes con-
tinued to be the second
city in Boootia, owing its
wealth to the rich allu-
vial plain on which it
stood. It was, in the
Homeric age, famed for
its treasures,^ and was
the seat of the powerful
races of the Minyse ^ and
the Phlegyaj.' It took
the patriotic side in the
Persian War, was on
friendly terms with
Thebes during the Pelo-
ponnesian War, but
afterwards joined the
Spartans, and suffered
utter destruction at the
hands of the Thebans,
B.C. 368. It was after-
wards rebuilt, a^in de-
stroyed by the Thebans,
in 346, and restored^
by the Macedonians,

Plan of Orchomenus.

A A. Th* OvphkMM.
C. Mount AcoMlam.
1. Acropolis.

BB. The Melas.
D. OrdxmemM.
%. Timmtj of MisTM.

' Ka^ re <i' 'Opxofiepov tiXxyiUros clot ipcjcmv Mf .— HisTon. ap Strab. ix. p. 424.
> Ovi* 6<r ii 'Opxc/uMybf iroru'iovcrat, ov<* Sou 9i)^a9

AiywFTtoi, 0*1 wkturra MfUK9 ey fcnJMara iceircu. /I. ix. 381.
• *Ot iroT* iv 'OpxofMnp MtKviy^* l^ oi^aotrcy. Od. xi. 2«3.

7 'Iffv y «9 ^kryimv Mpmr vdAir vfipurrdmv,

Ot Aibc ovK oMymrrtt iwl x^oyi f(u«r«a<nror

*Ey leoAg ^1(vo9> Ki|^ot^ iyyv0t. Ai^Kiff.— UoM. Hymn, in Apoll. 278.


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Chap. XX.



but it never afterwards flourished. LebadSa, Livadhia, was situated
near the western border, with its acropolis on a spur of Helicon, by
whope base the Hercyna flowed. It owed its importance to the pos-
session of the oracle of Trophonius which was delivered from a cave
in the rock. Lebadea was taken and plundered both by Lysander
and by Ai*chelau8 the general of Mithridates. Coronda was situated on
a height overlooking the Copaic plain : at this point the roads from
Orchomenus and Lebadea in the N. joined those from Thebes and
Platsea in the S. It was thus the scene of several important military
events —of Tolmides's defeat and death in B.C. 447, of Agesilaus's
victory over the Argives and Thebans in 394, and of a double siege
in the Sacred War. Haliartns stood on the southern side of Lake
Copais, amid well-watered meadows,^ on the road between Coronea and
Thebes. It is chiefly memorable for the engagement in which Lysander
perished, B.C. 395. It was twice destroyed— by the Persians in 480,
and by the Romans in 171. Thebtt was situated in the southern plain
of Boeotia, on a spur of
Mt. Teumessus, which rises
about 150 feet above the
plain: at the base of the
hill, on either side, run the
streams Ismenus and Dirce,^
which unite in the plain
below the city : a third
stream of less importance,

named Strophia, runs Coin of iliebes.

through the city.' The

Cadmeia, or citadel, is supposed to have stood at the southern end of
the town, and the temple of Ismenian Apollo a little to the E. of it,
while the Agora and other buildings stretched out towards the N. Of
the seven gates ^ for which Thebes was so celebrated, three opened

• Hence the Homeric epithet, " grassy," applied to it : —

OZ re Kopw^etov, kox iroiritvV 'AXiapmv, Tl- li. 503.

'Ev0t¥ op* et? 'AXiaprov o^^uceo irotijeKTo. — Hymn, in Apoll. 243.
9 The streams of Dirce and Ismenus are frequently commemorated by the
Greek poets, particularly by Euripides, who speaks of them as the " twin streams,"
and applies to the water of Dirce the epithet ** white," or " limpid," and " fair-
flowing ;" and by Pindar, who applies similar epithets to it.
^iZvpMv iroTOfiStv, ir6pov ofi^i fUfrov
Atp«caf, x^^P^^P^^*' ^ iredibc
np<$irap 'Ifffifiyov icarairvci.
Ncicpwv aircuV 'lanjiviiv ifjurXyjint 4^vov,
AipKJii Tt vofia ktvKhv aifiaxBria'ertu.
Aipxa 0' a KaXXippMp<K.

irurw (Ttfn Aipxaf
'Ayvw v^p, t2> /3oi9i^a>rot K6fiat,
XpvooviwXw MKo^UHrvfas av4-

TciAov wap' «vTe4x^<rn» KaS^ov irvAat«. — PlND. Tilhm. vi. 108.
> From the two more important streams, Thebes is described as " the two-
rivcrcd city :" —

Aix6ra4iov Iva v6kip ^oXw.* EUK. SuppL 623.

* The erection of these walls was attributed to Amphion and Zethus : —

K«u p' €K«Tev 6vo wcuf, 'A§ju^iova t€, ZtjOov t€,

Ol irpMTOi ®1i^^7« tios iicria-ay iirrairvAQto,

HapyHriy t'* iml ov fiir afr&prfmriv y iivvavro

JiaUiJiW rvpvxopov ^/9i^, icpanpw ircp ^i^c— HoM. Od, zL. 262.

EUH. Plum. 825.

Here Fur. 571.
Id, 780.


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402 BGEOTIA. Book IV.

towards the S. and one towards the W. ; the position of the northern
gate is self-evident, that of the two others is doubtful. Thebes was
believed to have been founded by a Phoenician colony under Cadmus,
whence the title of the citadel, Cadmeia, and the old Homeric name
of the people, Cadmeans. The town holds an important place both in
mythology, as the birth-place of Dionysus and Hercules, and in the early
annals as the scene of the wars of the '' Seven against Thebes " and of
the Epigoni. Its subsequent history is involved in that of Bocotia, and
indeed in that of Greece generally. Its fall dates from its capture by
Alexander in 335, when it was utterly destroyed. It was rebuilt, in 316,
by Cassander, and again destroyed by Mummius, in 146. TheqnltB was

situated at the foot of

Helicon, W. of Thebes.

It was generally hostile

to Thebes, and took a

prominent part in the

Persian War on the

patriotic side. It was

several times dismantled

and depopulated by the

early Thebans, but it

ColDofThcspliB. survived to the Roman

era and became then

one of the chief towns of Boeotia. It derived celebrity both as a seat

of fine arts— possessing statues cut by Praxiteles — and as the place

where the Erotidia (games in honour of Love) were celebrated. It had

a port named Creusis on the Corinthian Gulf. PlatflMt stood about

6( miles S. of Thebes, at the foot of Citharon, and commanding the

pass across that ridge into Attica. It was the scene of the remarkable

victory over the Persians in B.C. 479, and of the no less famous siege

in the Peloponnesian War in 429-427. After the destruction of the

town by the Thebans, Platgea remained in ruins until 387, when it

was partly restored, but again destroyed by the Thebans in 374, and

permanently restored after the battle of Chseronea in 338. Tanagra

was on a circular hill
close to the left bank of
the Asopus, and from its
proximity to Attica it
became the scene of en-
gagements between the
AUienians and Lacedse-
monians in b.c. 457,
between the Atheni-
ans under Myronides
Coin of Tanagra. and the Boeotians, the

latter being defeated at
CEnophyta in 456, and between the Athenians and Boeotians in 426.
Larynma was the name of two towns on the Cephissus, one of which,
named Upper Lairmna, was at the spot where the river emerged from
its subterranean cnannel ; the other. Lower Larymna, at the mouth of
the river. The former originally belonged to Locris, the latter was
a member of the Boeotian confederacy. The Romans removed the
inhabitants of the Upper to the Lower Larymna, which became a con-
siderable town: its ruins are named Kastri, and consist of the circuit
~ '^he walls and other vestiges.


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Chap. XX. TOWNS. 403

Of the less imporUnt towns we may notice — Alaloomiiia, at the foot
of Mt. Tilphossium, celebrated for the worship of Athena ;' Onoheftnt,
S.E. of Haliartus, and belonging to it, funed for a temple and grave
of Poseidon ;* Aaera, on Mt. Helicon, W. of Thespiee, the residence of
Hesiod;* Thisbe,^ in the S.W., near the sea, and possessing a low
enclosed plain which was liable to be flooded, but was rendered in
pai'ts cultivable by means of a cattseway made to divert the waters ;
Omiiis,^ at the h^ of a small bay of the Corinthian Qulf, 8ei*ving
as the port of TheepisD but difficult of access in consequence of the
storms and headlands; EatrMs, an Homeric town between Creusis
and Thespifc, possessing a temple and oracle of Apollo; Louotra, a
little S.£. of TheepisBy the scene of the celebrated battle between the
Thebans and Spartans in B.C. 371, the battle-field being marked by a
tumulus in which the Spartans were probably buried; HyiiflB, at the
N. foot of Cithseron, on the high road from Thebes to Athens, and at
one time belonging to Athens ; ErythnSf a little S. of the Asopus, at
the foot of Cithffiron, the extreme E. point to which the camp of
Mardonius reached; Soolus, between Tanagra and Plat8M^ and hence
visited by Mardonius and selected by the Thebans as a spot to throw
up an intrenchment against the Spartans in b.c. 377; SteOnvs, after-
wards named 9oarphef to the right of the Asopus, under Cithaeron;^
B«liiim, on the sea-coast, close to the border of Attica, with a cele-
brated temple of Apollo, the scene of the Athenian defeat in B.o. 424,
and also of the defeat of a Roman detachment by the troops of
Antiochus, in 192; Avlis, on the Euripus,' the place where the Grecian
fleet assembled before they started for Troy,^ identified with the

* ^Hfni T* *Apy<tiy, ff«u 'AAoAjrofmn^tc 'Aftffwy. IL Iv. 9.

* Onchestufl was famed for a grore of Neptune near it : —

'Oyxri<rr6¥ ft i«p^v, no<rt3i^oK ayAabf aA<rov. Jl- ii* 506.

•Ei^a rtoJ^iK wwAos awmWet ax^M^i^ <c^p.— f^»Ml. i» Apoll. 230.
^ Healed thus describes his native place : —

N^Covaro i' ayx* 'EAutwitK ftt^vpffi iy\ icca^^,

'AtncpnUf x'^M-a «caiq7, Bipti apyoA^, ovW wot* MX^. — Op. H IH. 639.

• The rocks on the sea-coast have in all ages been the resort of vast numbers
of wild pigeons : —

noAvrp^pwrd r« %Urfi^. -H. U. 502.

Qu» nunc Thisbieas agitat mutata colombas. — Ov. Met, xl. 800.
Nysa, Dioncelsque avibus drcomsona Thisbe. — Stat. Tkib, vil. 261.
' A very difficult route led ftrom this place to Megaris, along the heights of
Cithnron. The Spartans passed this way under aeombrotus in b.c. 378, and after
the battle of Leuctra in 87 1.
« Hence the terms which Statins applies to it : —

Qui Scolon demamque Juffis Eteonon iniquis. — Theb. vii. 266.

^^iftM0ov AvAtSof ivaXiatj
BvptTOV 8(A x^^f^"*"^^
KiKtrcurOf o-np&ropBiJiOV

XoAictSa. Iph. in Aul. 164.

I It is characterised by Homer as the " rocky," by Euripides as the " tranquil '»

01 er 'Tpdip Miutyro, leaX AifkOa irrrpij*<nrai'. H «. 496.

A«Aiv oMXvirrtw. Iph. in Aid. Wl.

St' it AvKtta i^«« 'Ax*"*!'
•Hytp^WwTO, icaiea UpUfUf k<u Tp»<rl <f>4powr<u, 11. iL 303.


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404 BCEOTIA. Book IV.

modem VcUhy, a name evidently representing the fiaBhs Ki^'fip of Strabo
(ix. p. 403); Mjealetfiii, an Homeric town ( 17. ii. 498 ) somewhere near the
EuripuB, chiefly £Bunou8 forthe massacre of its inhabitants by the Thracians
in B.C. 413; SalganeoB, on the coast N. of Chalcis, commanding the N.
entrance to the Euripus; AnthSdon, on the coast, celebrated for its
wine, and occupied by a non-Boeotian race; Sdhienus, on a small river
of the same name which flows into Lake Hylica, the birth-place of
Atalanta; Hyla, on LAke Hylica, erroneously described by Moschas
as the birth-place of Pindar; TenmeMQi, N.E. of Thebes, on a low
rocky hill of the same name, chiefly known from the legend of the
Teumessian fox which ravaged the territory of Thebes; AQnBjdiiiiiii,
on the E. of Copais on the slope of Ptoum, with a celebrated oracle of
Apollo near it, which was consulted by Mardonius; Coptt, on the N.
extremity of the lake and the site of TopoUOf a place which, though
a member of the Boeotian confederacy, was of small importance ; and,
lastly, Tegyra, very near Orchomenus, with a celebrated temple and
oracle of Apollo.

History, — The withdrawal of Platsea from the confederacy was the
firsfc event that involved the Boeotians in a foreign war: Athens sided

Online LibrarySir William Smith William Latham BevanThe student's manual of ancient geography → online text (page 46 of 82)