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vnth the seceding town and war followed, in which Plateea was rendered
independent, probably in B.c. 519. In the Persian War the Thebans
sidea with the invader, much to the dissatis&ction of the other towns ;
and they retained their supremacy only through the aid of the Spartans.
The Athenians invaded Boeotia in 457 and 456, meeting with a defeat
at Tanagra, but succeeding at CEnophyta, and for a while establishing
democracy. The invasion of Tolmides in 447 was unsuccessful, and
oligarchy was reinstated. The attack on Platsea in 431 was the first
act of the Peloponnesian War, throughout which the Thebans steadily
opposed Athens. Jealousy of the Spartans produced an opposite
policy after the conclusion of the war : Thebes and Sparta became
hostile, and the Boeotian War at length broke out in 395, signalized by
the death of Lysander at Haliartus and the victory of Agesilaus i^
Coronea in 394. The peace of Antalcidos in 387 and the seizure of
the Cadmea in 382, by which Sparta endeavoured to humble Thebes,
were followed by the expulsion of the Spartans in 379, and the increase
of Theban power. The peace of Callias in 371 permitted the con-
centration of the Spartan efforts against Thebes ; but these were foiled
on the plain of Leuctra in 371, and, imder Epamifiondas, Thebes became
the leading military power in Greece until the battle of Mantinea in
362. Throughout all this period Orchomenus and Theepiro had sided
with the enemies of Thebes : the former was burnt in 368, and the
latter deprived of its inhi|kbitants about the same period. War vrith
Athens ensued in connexion with Eubooa in 358, and this was followed
by the Sacred War in 357, which, through the intervention of Philip,
terminated in the recovery of the cities which Thebes had lost in the
early part of the war. The alliance with Athens was renewed in 339 in
opposition to Philip, who defeated the joint army at Chseronea in 338,
deprived Thebes of its supremacy, and held possession of the Cadmeia.
The attempt to expel the Macedonian garrison led to the total destruc-
tion of the city by Alexander in 335. It was rebuilt in 316 ; was twice
taken by Demetrius in 293 and 290; its walls were destroyed by
Mummius in 146 ; and it was finally reduced to insignificance by Sulla
in the Mithridatic War.


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The Parthenon in its present sUte.


CENTRAL GREECE — Continued, attica, heoauis.

VIII. Attica. § 1. Boundaries ; general character. § 2. Mountains.
§ 3. Rivers. § 4. Inhabitants ; divisions. § 5. Athens and the
other Attic towns ; history ; islands. § 6. Eubcea. § 7. The Cy-
clades. IX. Meoabis. § 8. Boundaries ; mountains. § 9. Towns ;

Vlll. Attica.

§ 1. Attitoa is a j^eninsula (as its name, derived from a<m7,' pro-
bably implies) of a triangular form, having two of its sides washed
by the sea, viz. by the ^ga?an on the E. and the Saronic Gulf on
the W., and its base united to the land, being contiguous on the N.
to Boeotia. In the N.W. it was bounded by Megaris, which natu-
rally belongs to the peninsula, tod was originally united to Attica,
but was afterwards separated from it. The area of Attica is about
700 square miles ; its greatest length is 50, and its breadth 30 miles.
The position and physical character of this country destined it for
commercial and political supremacy. Standing at the entrance of
the Peloponnesus, it commanded the line of communication between
Northern and Southern Greece ; and yet, being actually oif the high
road, it was itself tolerably .gecure from the passage of invading

1 The name would thus hare been originally 'Ajrrur^: this etymology has
been questioned of late, and the name referred to the root Attj or Ath, which we
see in Ath-enn.


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406 ATTICA. Book iV.

annies. On the N. it is shut off from Boeotia by a line of lofty and
in most places inaccessible moimtains, while on the S. the passes of
Megaris were easily defensible. The E. coast was guarded by the
isle of Euboea, and by the narrow intervening strait of Euripus, and
the W. by the adjacent islands of Salamis and uEgina. As the
most easterly part of Greece, it was the nearest point to Asia, with
which it held easy communication by the intervening chain of
islands. It was also practically the nearest point to Egypt. The
soil is light and dry, and little adapted to the growth of com. The
primitive limestone, which is the geological formation of the country,
protrudes on the mountain-sides, and even on the plains. The
country was too hilly, and the soil too poor, for the breeding of
horses or cattle. On the other hand, Attica was rich in mineral pro-
ductions. The silver mines of Laurium and the marble quarries of
Pentelicus were sources of national wealth. Hence, though agricul-
ture was held in honour, maritime commerce was the natural occu-
pation of the population ; and this, combined with the centrality
of its position, secured t^at ascendency which rendered Athens so
conspicuous in ancient history.

§ 2. The mountain-chain which separates Attica from Boeotia in
the W. part of the province, where the line of communication be-
tween Northern Grreece and Peloponnesus ran, was named CitluBroiL
This was continued towards the E. in the range of Parnest' Nozia ;
and towards the S. in the On6an mountains of Megaris. The
northern ranges were crossed at three points : viz. in the W. by
the Pass of Dryo8ceph&la9, ** Oak-heads," between Plataea and Eleu-
sis ; in the centre by the wild and rugged Pass of Phyle, through
which ran the direct road between Thebes and Athens ; and in the
E. by the Pass of Decel^a, leading from Athens to Oropus and
Delium. From the N.W. angle of Attica a range runs towards the
S., terminating on the W. of the Bay of Eleusis in two summits
named Keriftai»"the Horns," now Kandili, Another range de-
scends from Pames, under the name of fgalenf i to the E. of the
Bay of Eleusis. Another, also enMmating from Pames, runs in a
parallel direction more to the E., and was named, in ite N. portion,
BrilMtuif or PenteUcoit Mendeli^ and in its S. portion Hymettus.'

2 Parnes was forourable to the growth of the vine : —
tMves et ^aleo« ncmorum, Parnesque benignns
VitibuB. Stat. 7V6. xU. 620.

' Hymettus was famed for its honey ; it was also formerly well clothed with
wood': the passage quoted tram Orid describes the source of the Ilissus on
this mountain : —

Est prope purpureos coUes ik>rentis Hymettl
Pons sacer, et viridi cespite mollis humus.
Silra nemus non alta facit ; tegit arbutus herbam :
Roe maris et laums, nigraque myrtus olent.


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The latter is subdivided into two parts by a remarkable break, — the
northern or Greater Hymettus, now named Teh^Vuni; and the
southern or Lesser, which was formerly called Anhydmtt ** Water-
less,** and now Mauro- Vuni, Between the ranges specified, plains
intervene : viz. the Eleusinian or Thriasian Plain, between Kerata
and ^galeus ; and the Athenian Plain, or, *as it was frequently
termed, " the Plain" (tA Uidiov)^ between jSgaleus and Pentelicus.
The mountainous district at the head of the latter, between Pames,
Pentelicus, and the sea, was named Diacria, ** the Highlands." S.E.
of Hymettus is an undulating district named Mesogaea, ** the Mid-
land ;" and this is followed by the Paralia, ** the Sea-coast," a hilly
and barren district, including the whole southern division from
Prom. Zoster on the W., and Brauron on the E., down to Sunium.
In the S. of this lies the ridge of Lavriiim/ Legrana, probably so
named from the shafts (kavpoj ** a street " or ** lane ") sunk for ob-
taining the silver-ore, some of which still remain, as do also the
heaps of scoria. The chief promontories are Zotter* the extreme
point of Hymettus; Svniiim. at the extreme S. of Attica, rising
almost perpendicularly from the sea to a great height, and crowned
with a temple of Minerva, to the ruins of which the promontory
owes its name of C, Kdonnes ; and Cjnoffkra* " Dog's Tail," a long
rocky projection, bounding the Bay of Marathon on the N.

§ 3. The rivers of Attica are little better than mountain torrents,
almost dry in summer, and only full in winter or after heavy rains.

Nee densnin foliis Iraxnm, fragilesqne inyric«

Nee tenues cytUi, cnltaqoe pinos abest.
Lenibns impuls® Zephfris, auraque salubri,

Tot genemm frondes, herbaque somma tremont. — Ov. Art. Am, ill. 687.

Hoc tibi Thesci popalatrix mialt Hyractti

Palladoa a tfLria noWle nectar apis.— Mabtial. xiil. 104.

Ingenimn, duldqae senex rieinos Hjmetto. — Jvv. xUi. 1»5.

The marble of HymettQS was also famed : —

Non trabes Hymettis
Premont columnas ultima recisas
Afdca. Hoe. Carm, ii. 18, 3.

♦ Homer gires it the epithet "sacred;** the epithet "ailTcry** in Euripides
has reference to the mines of Laurium : —

'AAA' oTt lavviov ip6v aj^uconett^ axpw '\Btpmv. Od. ill 278.

TtvoifJMV .
Ir' vAoev lire^Tt irrfiTov
np^^Aiffi* oAucAvOTOv, axpav
'Yirb irAoxa Soviobv,
Ta« iepAi Siwk npwrti'

irot/** av 'Atfoww. Soph. Aj. 1217.

Atof 'AWfw <rik vnapyvp^ Jtirpa. ECR. Cyd. 293.


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408 ATTICA. Book IV.

The Athenian plain is watered by two riyers: the Cephitrafl,^ a
perennial stream which rises in Fames and flows on the W, side of
Athens into the Phaleric Bay; and the IlisaiiB, a less important
stream rising in Hymettus, and, after receiving the Erid&aut flowing
through the S. of Athens towards the Phaleric Bay. These rivers
still retain their ancient names. The former is now subdivided into
several streams for the purpose of irrigating the olive-groves and
gardens ; the latter is generally exhausted before it reaches the sea.
The Cyolobdnu® was a torrent descending from Fames, probably
the Megalo Potamo. The Eleusinian plain is watered by a second
Cephissns, Saranda/oro, which rises in Cith^ron, and by another
stream now named the Janida,

§ 4. Tlie population of Attica belonged to the Ionian branch of
the Hellenic race, and made it their particular boast that they were
autochthonous/ a circumstance which Thucydides (i. 2) attributes
to the poverty of the soil. The Athenians were originally named
Cranai, and afterwards Cecropidfle, and did not assume their later
name imtil the reign of Erechtheus. The earliest political division
of Attica was attributed to Cecrops, who parcelled out the country
into twelve independent communities, which were afterwards con-
sohdated into one state by Theseus. Another ancient division, attri-
buted to the sons of Pandion, was based upon the natural features of
the country, A^geuB receiving the coast-land (okt^X ^^^ ^^^ fMn
of Athens (Trtbtds); another brother the highlands (SioKpla); and
another the southern coast (ntipfikia). These districts supplied the
basis of the three political parties in the time of Solon and Pisis-
tratus. Another diWsion was into four tribes (<^Xat), the names of
which varied at difierent times, the most important designations
being those which prevailed in the time of Cleisthenes into Geleontes,
Hoplites, Arg&des, and iEgic5res. Iliis division was superseded
by that of Cleisthenes into ten tribes, named aftjer Attic heroes ; two
more were Added in B.C. 307, named after Antigonus and his son
Demetrias ; and a third in the reign of Hadrian, after whom it was
named. There was a further division into townships or cantons
(d^fiot), of which there were 174 in the third century B.C.* The

* Ov6' avnvoi

Ki)^aov voftdBti pt49ptov,
'AAA' euiv in' ^fuiri

'Qmmkof ntli^v twiyUramn. Soph. (Ed. Col. 685.

' Aristophanes refers to the roaring sound of its waters :—

*Apira^, xcxpoicn^, Kvickofiopov ^vtiv ex*)v. EquU. 137.

7 tlval itaax riug avnxOovws

KXeivi^ 'A^i'oc oinc imiiraKTov ytfi'Of. EuB. fan. 592.

' Herodotus (v. 69) appears to give 100 as the original number of the demi ;
there is, however, some little doubt about the meaning of the passage.


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Chap. XXI.



tribes and the demi were to a certain extent a cross division, the
latter being originally a heal, the former a purely political arrange-
ment ; and thus adjacent townships belonged in many cases to
different tribes. Even the demus lost its local character by degrees,
as change of abode did not affect the original arrangement, the
descendants of a man always remaining members of the demits in
which their ancestor was enrolled in the time of Cleisthenes. The
larger demi contained a town or village, the smaller ones only a
femple or place of assembly. The names of most of them are pre-
s rved, but their positions are very often unknown.

PUn of Athens.

S. ThoAim. a. Thcatro of Dkmymt.

5. Tsmplc of th» Olympkn Jore.

4. Odeum of P«ridei.

§ 5. Ath&UB,' the capital of Attica, was situated in the central
plain already described, at a distance of about 4^ miles from the sea-
coast. The site of the city was diversified by several elevations, the
most conspicuous of which was the AoropoliB» an oblong, craggy
rock rising abruptly about 150 feet, with a flat summit 1000 feet
long from E. to W., and 500 broad ; while grouped around it were
the lesser heights of the Areopftgnf and the Fnyz on the W., and
the XusSnm on the S.W. The river Hisins traversed the southern

* The. name is said to hare been deriyed from the worship of Athena, which
was introdnced hj Erechtheos.



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410 ATTICA, Book IV.

quarter of the city, near the base of the Museum ; the Gephissus ran
outside the walls on the W. side of the town, about 1} mile distant.
In addition to the hills already enumerated, we must notice Lyea-
bettos,^ Moimt St, Oeorge, a lofty conical peak to the E. of the
Acropolis, not included within the limits' of the city. The walls of
lliemistocles passed along the W. base of the Pnyx, and crossed the
Ilissus near the W. extremity of the Musemn ; thence they turned
E., and included some heights to the S. of the Ilissus; on the E. side
of the town they passed below Mt. Lycabettus, and returned with a
broad sweep towards the N. to the neighbourhood of the Pnyx.
The town within these limits consisted of two parts — the Acropolis
or Polis, and the Asty or ** City " — the former, consisting of the
central rock already described, on which the original city' of Cecrops
stood, and which subsequently formed the citadel of Athens ; the
latter consisting of the town, which lay beneath and around it, and
which was divided into the following districts : — Inner Ceramlcus,
extending from the gate of Eleusis to the Agora ; Mellte, comprising

Athens and its Port-Towns.

1 Aristophanes alludes to Lycabettus as a mountain of some oclebritj :->

Koi UapiyairSty i}/uiir /iry/(9i}. JRon, 1059.

* This was the " ancient Cecropia :** —

AvnSy r* ovoicra, mJiia xAcivby Aiy^
Kel TtAt vvp avry> ^(thv rmyfiivovt
K4p9St vvAoiac Kcjcpoiruif ounjTopav. EUKIP. SuffiL 666.


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the hills of the Pnyx and Museum ; Scambonld® and Colyttus, in
the same quarter, and sometimes inchided under Melite ; Coele, be-
tween the Museum and the Ilissus ; Cydathenasum, on the S. of the
Acropolis ; Diomea, including the whole eastern district ; and Agrae,
in the S.E., beyond the Ilissus. The appearance of the town was
striking from the number of fine public buildings in it, and particu-
larly those on the summit of the Acropolis. The streets and private
houses, on the other hand. Were of very inferior character. The
port of Athens was on the Saronic Gulf, at a distance of about
4J miles from the city. The original port was at Plialinim, on the
E. side of the Phaleric Bay (i), at a spot now named Treis Pyrgoi (d).
Subsequently to the Persian War this was abandoned for a more
westerly situation, where the Peiraic jieninsula afforded three natural
basins, — the largest being Pineoi (h) on the W. side, now named
Drako or Part Leone ; and the two smaller ones on the E. side,
Xnnydhia, Fanari (k), and Zea, Stratiotiki (l), the former being
the most inland of the two. Gradually the peninsula was covered
with buildings, and important suburbs grew up at the extremity
and on the W. side of it, named respectively Piraeus (b) and Muny-
chia (c). The port-towns were connected with the city (a) by three
walls, two of which ran in a S.W. direction to Piraeus, in parallel
lines 350 iect apart, and were together named the " Ix)ng Walls," or
separately the Northern or Outer (e e), and the Southern or Inter-
mediate (f f), while the third, called the Phaleric (o o), connected
Athens with Phalerum. The general aspect of Athens thus re-
sembled two circular cities connected by a long street. The port-
town was described as the Lower City, in contradistinction to the
Asty or Upper City : occasionally, however, the latter term, as
already observed, was apj>lied to the Asty itself, in contradistinction
to the Acropolis, which towered above it. The population of the
whole city is variously estimated at from 120,000 to 192,000 souls.
We proceed to a more minute description of the town and its most
remarkable public buildings.

(1.) The Acropolis. — The rock of the AcropoliB stood in the centre of
Athens, and was the very heart of the city, its fortress and its sanc-
tuary.' On three sides it is inaccessible : towards the W. it is ascended
by a gentle slope. The summit was enclosed with walls, said to have
been originally erected by the Pelasgians, but certainly rebuilt after
the Persian War: the northern, which retained the name of the Pelasgic
Wall, was probably restored by Themistocles, and the southern by
Cimon, after whom it was named. The name of Pelasgicum extended
to a space of ground below the wall, probably at the N. W. angle of the

' Hence Ariiitopbanes describes it as —

afiarov dxpoiroAty
'lepbi* r^fuvoi. Lifii$trat. 483.


T 2

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412 ATTICA. Book IV.

Acropolis. The rocks on the N. side were named the Long Rocks/ a
title equally applicable to those .on the S. side, but restricted in use to
the former, probably as being the more conspicuous from the Athenian
plain. The western entrance was guarded by the Propylna (Plan, 3, 3),
erected by the architect Mnesicles in b.c. 437-432, under the direction
of Pericles, consisting of a double central portico, through which a mag-
nificent flight of steps led up from the town, and two projecting wings,
26 feet in front of the western poi*tico — the northern one containing a
chamber named Pinacotheca, from its walls being covered with paintings,
while the southern had no chamber. Opposite the latter stood the small
temple of Nik^* AptSros (Plan, 4), " Wingless Victory," built to com-
memorate the victory of Cimon at the Eurymedon : the whole was of
Pentelic marble, and extended along the whole W. end of the Acropolis,
a distance of 168 feet. Of these buildings the inner portico still remains,
together with the northern wing. The temple of Nik<J Apteros has been
rebuilt in modem times with the original materials, which were found
on the spot. Just in front of the northern wing is the so-called Pedestal
of Agrippa, formerly surmounted by the equestiian statues of the two
sons of Xenophon (Plan, 5). The chief building within the Propvlaca was
the Parthfinon (Plan, 1), which stood on the highest part of the Acix)-

Plan of the Acropolis.

polls : it was built by the architects Ictinus and Callistratus, under the
direction of Pericles, and was dedicated to Athena the '* virgin," so
named as being the invincible goddess of war. It was built entirely of

* *EaTiv yap ovk ao^/tof 'EXXi^vtov iroAis,
Trji xpviTo\6yxov IlaAAaSof KtKXrjiiitnii,
Oi iroZfi* 'EptxB^ ^i/3of e^cvfev ydfiotf
Btf Kp^aav, (vBa vpoirfioftpovt nirftaug

Maxpdf KoXown yiif avaxrti 'A>0tiSoc. EuK. Jon. 8..

^ From the podtion of this temple at the entrance of the Propylsea, the goddess
was invoked by persons qnitting or entering the Acropolis : —

Ni'joj / 'A^aya UokiMf, ^ <r«<et /** ief. SoPH. PhiUxt. 134.

Aecnroiva Nuci} fvyyevov, rwv t* w wdAei ywaucwv.

AauTora. LyHstrat. 317.


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Pentelic marble in the purest Doric style, its dimensions being 228 feet
in length, 101 in breadth, and 66 in height to the top of the pediment.
It consisted of a cella, surrounded by a peristyle, having eight colunms
in each front, and seventeen at each side — in all forty-six. Before each
end of the cella there was an interior range of six columns. The cella
itself was divided into two chambers, the eastern of which was the
NaoSf or shrine, and specially named the HecatompMon, being ninety-
eight feet long, and the western, named the OpisthodOmus and the
Pai-thenon, in its special sense, forty-three feet long. The former cou-

The lYopylaja restored.

A. PiiMrotbecn. I D. Road leading to the Centml Entrancv.

B. Temple ofNik^ Aplcro*. E. Central Entrance.

C. Pedestal of Agrippa. | F. Hall oormponding to the Pfaiacotheoa.

tained the colossal statue of Athena of ivory and gold, the work of
Phidias, while the latter was used as the Treasury of Athens. Roimd
the summit of the outer walls of the cella was a frieze in low relief,
520 feet in length, representing the Panathenaic procession : the slabs
of which it was formed are the well -known Elgin Marbles in the British
Museum. The Parthenon remained almost entire until a.d. 1687, when
it was accidentally blown up during the siege by the Venetians ; it was
again injured in 1827. The Erecliihfiam (Plan, 2) stood N. of the Par-
thenon, and was the most revered of all the sanctuaries of Athens,
being connected with the most ancient legends of Attica. The original
temple was attribute4 to Erechtheus, and contained the statue of Athena
Poliafl, of olive-wood, which fell down from heaven, the sacred tree, and
the well of salt water — the former evoked by Athena, and the latter by
Poseidon in their contest — and the toibbs of Cecrops and Erechtheus.
The building contained two separate sanctuaries, dedicated to Athena
and Pandrosus. This temple was destroyed by the Persians, and a new
one founded on its Bite about the commencement of the Peloponnesian
War, but not completed until about b.c. 393: its form was peculiar,
consisting of an oblong ceUa, seventy-three feet long, and thirty-seven
broad, with a portico at the E., and two porticoes at the western end,
not facing the W., but the N. and S., and thus resembling the transepts


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414 ATTICA. Book IV.

of a church. The E. portico consisted of six Ionic columns, of which
five are now standing; the N. portico had four columns in front, and
two at the sides, all of which remain ; the S. portico had its roof sup-
ported by six caryatides, instead of columns, and was low : five of these
are standing, and the other is in the British Museum. The building
contained two principal chambers — ^the eastern, or larger one, sacred to
Minerva, the lesser to Pandrosus: the former contained the olive-wood
statue covered with a peplos,^ and the latter the olive-tree. These
compartments were on different levels, the eastern being eight feet
higher than the western. The N. portico, which gave entrance to the
Pandrosium, contained the sacred well; and the S. portico was the
Cecropium, or sepulchre of Cecrops, accessible only from within. The
whole was surrounded by a Temenos, or sacred enclosure, within which
were numerous statues. The Acropolis further contained the colossal
statue of Athena Prom&chus (Plan, 5), seventy feet high, facing the Pro-
pyhea, and so lofty that the point of the spear and cr^ of the helmet
were visible from Sunium ; a brazen quadriga on the left hand as you
entered the Acropolis ; the Qigantomachia, a piece of sculpture on the
Cimonian wall ; and a temple of Artemis Brauronia, between the Pro*
pylsea and Parthenon.

(2.) The Asty.— The first object that meets one descending from the
Acropolis is the Areop&gut, **the hill of Ares, or Mani,**^ memorable
as the place of meeting of the Upper Council, which held its sittings on
the S.E. summit of the rock in the open air: a bench of stone ex6avated
in the rock, forming three sides of a quadrangle facing the S., served as
their chamber. Here it was that St. Paul addressed the men of Athena
(Acts xvii. 22). At the N.E. angle of the hill was a dark chasm, which
formed the sanctuary of the Eumenides.^ About a quarter of a mile
from the centre of the Areopagus is the Pnyz, or place of assembly of

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