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The student's manual of ancient geography online

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the people, an area of nearly semicircular form, gently sloping towards
the agora, artificially formed out of the side of a rocky hill by excavat-
ing at the back, and embanking in front: the bema, whence Ate orators
spoke, faced the N.E. in the direction of the agora ; it is a hu^ stone,
twenty feet high and eleven broad, and commanded a view of the Acro-
polis and city. The area of the Pnyx contained 1 2,000 square yards, and
was unencumbered with seats. Behind the bema, on the summit of the
rock, is an artificial terrace, whence a view of the sea could be obtained:
this has been supposed by some to have been the original Pnyx, but it
was more probably an appendage of the other. The AgSra, or market-

• This 18 the Image referred to by -«;8chylus : -

*I<^ov waXjouhv SyKoBtv Ao^mv fipirus* Eum. 80.

7 'E<rrat ii kqX rb Aoiirbv Aey^K orpar^

'A«l fioMurrwK rovro /SovAcvn^ptoi'

Ilayoi' 3* 'Kpttw nW* *Afia^6i<wK Sfipoy

Smfi^f 9*, it ^k9ov 9i}vewf Kara ^liBovw

SrpanfAaTOvaai, icai n6Xi,v vcoirroAey,

Tiji^ v^irrvpyov avmnipywroM iroT«'

n^po, ndyot r Apetoc. vEscH. Eum. 6^.

* The position of this sanctuary is fi^uently alluded to by the tragic poets : —

Udyotf nap avrhv yaayMi £v90inxu )c$ov6s. Eua. Electr, 1268.

*It« icol <r^<eflt»¥ T«»r8* vnh acfuwy

Karii y^ mifitvai, £aCH. Sum. 1006.


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place, was in the depression between the Acropolis, the Areopagus, the
Pnyx,andthe Museum : it contained several stoSf or colonnades— the Stoa
Eleutherios dedicated to Jupiter; the Stoa Bosileios, where the Archou
Baslleus held his court ; and the StoaPoocIle (so named from the frescoes
with which it was adorned), from which the school of the Stoics derived
their name. The other public bidldings and objects in the Agora were
— the XetrSnin, where the public records were kept ; the TholtiB, where
the Prytaues took their meals ; the Bouleuterion, or council-chamber
of the 500 ; the statues of the ten Eponymi, or heroes of Athens ; the
Prytaneum ; and the central altar of the Twelve GJods. On the hill of
the XuBSam was the monument of Philopappus, who lived in the age
of Vespasian : portions of it still remain. Beneath the S. wall of the
Acropolis, near its E. end, was the stone Theatre of Bionytoi, com-
menced in B.C. 500 and completed in 340 ; the middle of it was excavated
out of the rock, and its extremities supported by strong masonry. The
area was large enough to hold all the population of the city, which here
viewed all the grand productions of the Greek drama. The seats were
arranged in curved rows hewn out of the rock, and, as the area was un-
enclosed, the spectators commanded a view of Salamis and the sea, while
behind them were the Parthenon and the other buildings of the Aero-
polis.® Adjacent to the theatre on the S. was the LenflBnm, contcuning
within its enclosure two temples of Dionysus; and immediately E. of the
theatre was the Odium of Pericles, the roof of which is said to have
been an imitation of the tent of Xerxes. On a height N. of the Areo-
pagus stands the ThesSnm, founded in b c. 469 and completed in 4G5,
containing the bones of Theseus, which Cimon brought from the isle of
Scyros : it was built of Pentelic marble, and in the Doric style of archi-
tecture, 104 feet long by 45 broad, with six columns at each end, and
thirteen on each side, thirty-four in all, and divided in the interior into
a central ceUa 40 feet long, with apronaus, facing the E., 33 feet long,
and an opisthodomus facing the W., 27 feet long; the porticoes beiug
included in each case. The pediments of the porticoes and the metopes
of the E. front were filled with sculptures, rapreseuting the exploits of
Theseus and Hercules. The building is nearljr perfect at the present
time, having been formerly used as a Christian church dedicated to
St. George, and now as a national museum. The great temple of Zeus,
named the Olympieiim, stood S.E. of the Acropolis, near the right bank
of the Ilissus : its erection was spread over nearly 700 years, having
been commenced by Pisistratus and his sons, carried on by Antiochus
Epiphanes b.c. 174, and again in the reign of Augustus by a society of
princes; and finally completed by Hadrian. Its remains consist of 16
gigantic Corinthian columns of white marble, 6^ feet in diameter, and
above 60 feet high. The temple was 354 feet long, and 171 broad.

Among the less important objects we may notice — the OdSom of
Herodes, near the S.W. angle of the Acropolis, built in the time of
the Antonines by Herodes Atticus, and capable of holding about
6,000 persons ; tiie Cave of Apollo and Fan, at the N.W. angle of the

' Allusion is made to its poeition in the folloi^iiig lines : —
Xotprr* ootmcJk Ac«s,

TlapBivov ^iXa« ^lAoi

ITaXAii^ S" virh nrcpotf

'OvT«« o^ot iran^. Mocn. Kum. 997.


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416 ATTICA. Book IV.

Acropolis, 18 feet long, 30 high, and 15 deep, frequently noticed in
the Ion of Euripides; the Clepsydra, a fountain so named from its
being supposed to have a subterraneous communication with the
harbour of Piialerum; the Aglanriimi, a cave in the Long Rocks,
whence a flight of steps led up to the Acropolis ;• it was the sanctuary
of Aglaurus, a daughter of Cecrops ; the Gynmashim of Hadrian, to
the N. of the Acropolis ; the Horologhun of Andronicus Cyrrhestes,
commonly called the ** Temple of the Winds," which served as the
weather-cock and public clock of Athens, supposed to have been
erected about B.C. 100 ; the Street of Tripods, along the E. side of
the Acropolis, so named from the tripods which the victorious choragi
dedicated to Dionysus in the small temples in this street : one of these
temples, erroneously called the ** Lantern of Demosthenes," was
erected by Lysicrates in b.c. 335, and still exists ; Osllirho^, a spring
situated S. of the Olympieum, yielding the only good water in
Athens ; the Pisistratidae erected over it a building with 9 pipes,
hence called Enneaorflnus ; ^ the Arch of Hadrian, a poor structure
still existing opposite the N.W. angle of the Olympieum, and erected
probably, not by, but in honour of Hadrian ; and the Panathenaic
Stadium, situated between two parallel heights on the S. side of the

(3.) Suburbs ofUie City.— The most beautiful and interesting of the
suburbs was tibe Onter Ceramlous,' outside the Dipylon, through which
ran the road to the Academia, some 6 or 8 stadia distant from the gate.
The Academy is said to have belonged to the hero Academus : it was
converted into a gymnasium, and was adorned with walks, groves,*
and fountains, as well as with numerous altars and a temple of
Athena. Here Plato taught, and hence his school was called the
Academic. Sylla had its groves destroyed, but they were afterwards
restored. It still retains the name of Akadhimia. A short distance
beyond it was the hill of GolSniis, immortalized by the tragedy of

1 The positioa of the Aglanriam and its flight of steps are alladed to by
Enripides : —

HapavXi^wcra irifrpa
Mvx*^^**'*'' fMucpatf ,

'Aypoi/Aov xopat rpiyofot

^rdSia xAo«pd vph IXoAAadoc vaur. ibn, G04.

' Et quos Calllrhoc novie^ errantlbus nndis
Iraplicat. Stat. Theb. xii. 629.

' The Cenimicas was the burial place for those who were honoured wHh a
public funeral ; hence Aristophanes says : —

'O KcpOfMUcbf M^CTOi KM,

Atiiioiruf. Y^ Iva ra^fiev. At. 39S.

* The oliYe-trees in the Academy were particnlarly fine : —
rf4e $dXXn /uirytoro xtoptff
FAoviras irotdorpo^ov ^AAor iXaiof
Tb ti4v Tiv owT< vtapbi ovrt YIM
UrifLaivttty aXuivti x^( ir^fxraf .— -Sopn. (Ed. CoL TOO.
*Er rvotrtoif ipo/ioiaiv 'AxajSvifiov Bwv, — ECPOL. Pragm,
Atqoc inter silvaii Academi qnserere vemm. — Hok. Ep, ii. 2, 45.


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Sophocles.^ On the E. of the city was Cynofargef, where the Cynic
School was established by Antisthenes : a grove, which surrounded
it, was destroyed by Philip in b.c. 200. A little S. was the LjoSum,
the chief of the Athenian gymnasia, where Aristotle and his suc-
cessors in the Peripatetic School taught: it was sacred to Apollo

Hittory, — The foundation of Athens was attributed to Cecrops, the
first king of Attica, in whose reign Poseidon and Athena contended
for the possession of that country. The greatness of the town, how-
ever, dates from the reign of Theseus, who consolidated the 12 states of
Attica into one kingdom, of which Athens became the capital. The
first attempt to embellish the town wy made by Pisistratus and his
sons, B.C. 560-514. Xerxes redueed it to a heap of ashes in 480, but
it was afterwards rebuilt with great splendour under the direction of
Themistocles, Cimon, and Pericles, the former of whom secured the
town by walls. On the capture of the city in 404, the Long Walls and
fortifications of Pineus w^re destroyed by the Lacedeemonians, but
were again restored by Conon. After the battle of Chseronea in 338,
Athens became a dependency of Macedonia, but it retained nominal
independence down to the lime of the Roman dominion. Having
sided with Rome, it was attacked by the last Philip of Macedonia in
200, when all the suburbs were destroyed. A greater calamity befell
it in 86, when Sulla took the town by assault, and destroyed the
Long Walls and fortifications of the city and Pirseus. Though the
commerce of Athens thenceforward decayed, the town enjoyed a high
degree of prosperity as a
school of art and litera-
ture. The Roman em-
perors, particularly Ha-
drian, added new build- i
ings, and the town was |
never more splendid
than in the time of the
Antonines. The walls
were restored by Valerian

in A.D. 258, and it was Q^xn of Athena,

thus secured against the

attacks of the barbarians. In the sixth century, the schools of phi-
losophy were abolished by Justinian, and the temples converted into

The other Towns of Attica.— AehanuBf the largest demus of Attica,
was situated near the foot of Parnes about 7 miles N. of Athens : its
soil was fertile, but the chief occupation of its inhabitants was the
manufacture of charcoal for the supply of the capital : its exact site is

* An altar of equestrian Neptune stood there, to which reference is made by
Sophocles : —

EviWov, {cVe, rao-Sc Xtapcus

*Lcov rd xpariOTa ya? riravAa

Tov apy^ra Kokuy6y. SoPM. (Ed. Col. 668.

01 Hi irA^aioi yvai
Ttfvd* inr^nyf KoAttirby wxonnut, 9^C<nv
'Xpxyiyhv elvoi. Id. ft8.

T 3


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418 ATTICA. Book IV.

not known.* Xleniifi Lejmruit stood uppn a height near the sea,
opposite the island of Salamis ; the fertile Thriasian plain spread inland
from it, and tlie road from Athens to the isthmus passed through it.
Eleusis owed its celebrity to the worship of Demeter, whose coming
(fXcvo-is) appears to be implied in the name : the road which connected
the place with Athens was named the *' Sacred Way/' ^ from the solemn
procession which travelled along it annually at the time of the Eleu-
sinian festival. The temple of Demeter was burnt by the Persians in
B.C. 484 ; its restoration was commenced by Pericles, who employed
Ictinus as architect, but it was not completed until d.c. 318 ; it was
the largest in Greece, and regarded as one of the four finest specimens
of Grecian architecture in marble. The only noteworthy remains at
EUeusis are the fragments of the Propylsea, the platform of the temple,
and traces of wharfs. The plain of Eleusis was exposed to periodical
inundations of the Cephissus ; to check these Hadrian raised some
embankments. OrOpni, Skala, was situated on the shore of the mari-
time plain, which lies about the mouth o( the Asopus on the border
of Boootia : from its position it was a frequent cause of dispute between
the Athenians and Boeotians. In h.c. 412 the latter people gained
possession of it, and in 402 they removed the town 7 or more pro-
bably 17 stadia from the sea, to the site now named Oropo^ whence
it was shortly removed back to its old site. It changed hands fre>
quently ; after the battle of Chseronea Philip gave it to the Athe-
niaus. In 318 it became independent, but in 312 it was taken by
Cassander, and, after the expulsion of his troops, handed over to the
Boeotians. It possessed a temple of Amphiaraus. Bhamniii, (hrio-
Kagtro, stood on a rocky peninsula on the E. coast, between Oropus
and Marathon, and was chiefly celebrated for the worship of Nemesis ;
the temple stood near the town, and contained a colossal statue of the
goddess by Phidias : traces of two temples have been discovered,— a
smaller one which is supposed to have been destroyed by the Persians,
and a larger one subsequently erected on a contiguous site ; the latter
was a peripteral hexatyle, 71 ft. by 33 ft., while the former was only
31 ft. by 21 ft. Karathon was the name both of a place and of a
plain ' about 26 miles N.E. of Athens, the latter of which has obtained
an undying celebrity from the victory which the Athenians hei-e
obtained over the Persians in B.C. 490. The plain skirts a small bay
formed by the promontory of Cynosura on the N. and a projection of
Pentelicus on the S. ; inland it is backed by the heights of Brilessus

* It gives title to a well-known play of Aristophanes, in which the sufferings
of the agriculturists during the Feloponnesian War are depicted, the position and
occupation of the Achamians exposing them to serious losses.

' The Sacred Way left Athene hy the Sacred Gate, though it might also be
reached by a branch road passing through the Dipylum. It traversed the Outer
Ceramicus, where it was lined with tombs and statues; it then crossed the
Cephissus and surmounted the range of .£galeus by the pass of Dfu^fni; the
temples of Apollo and Venus were in this part of its course : it then descended to
the sea, near where the Rheitl or salt-springs gush out tnm the base of .fgaleus,
and thence followed the line of the shore to Eleusis.

* It was noted in mythology as the place where Theseos destroyed the
CreUn bull :—

Te, maxime Theseu,
Mirata est Marathon CretoDi sanguine tauri. — Ov. Met.xVL, 433.


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Obap.XXI. towns. 419

and Diacria, and on either side it is closed in by marshes.^ It is about
6 miles long, and 3 miles at its greatest breadth, and of a crescent
form. A small stream, the Mara£<ma, flows through the centre of it.
On this plain stood a Tetrapolis, or confederacy of four towns, via. :
Marathon, which occupied the site of Vrana^ on a height fortified by
the ravine of a torrent ; Probalinthus, probably at the S.W. of the

5 lain J Tricorythus at the other extremity, near 8uU ; and (Enoe, at
noi, near the head of the valley of Maraihona. The village which
now bears the name of Maraihona is on the left bank of the river
below (Enoe. In the plain, about ^ a mile from the sea, is the 8oro or
artificial mound which covers the bodies of the Athenians slain in the
battle : it is about 30 ft. high and 200 yds. round. Near Vrana are
tbe traces of a temple, probably that of Hercules noticed by Herodotus,
while 1000 yds. to the N. is the Pyrgos, or remains of the tower, which
may be the site of the trophy of Miltiades. Branronf near the E. coast
on the river Erasiuus was chiefly celebrated for the worship of Artemis,
who had a temple both here ' and at its port, named Halsc Araphenides ;^
the latter contained the statue brought from Tauns by Orestes and

Of the less important places we may notice — Eleiithera and (Enod,
which commanded the Pass of Dryoscephalee over Cithseron ; their
positions are uncertain, — the latter is prolMibly represented by the ruins
of Ohyflo-ca^stro at the entrance of the pass, and the former by Myupcli
about 4 miles to the S.E.; FhylOi Filij a strong forti-ess ou a steep
rock, about 10 miles from Athens, commanding the pass across Parnes,
and memorable as the point selected by Thrasybulus in B.C. 404 as the
base of operations against the Thii*ty Tyrants; Deoel§a, on a circular
and isolated spur of Parnes, which commanded the pass across Panies
to Oropus, now named the Pass of Tatoy, through which the Athenians
drew their supplies of com from Euboea : the Lacedeeraonians under
Agis seised it in b.c. 413, and thence earned on a guerilla warfare
against the Athenians ; Aphidna, between Dacelea and Khamnus,
probably on the hill of Kotroni, the birthplace of Tyrtceus the poet,
and of Harmodius and Aiistogeiton, and celebrated in mythology as
the place where Theseus deposited Helen; PallSne, on the road from
Athens to Marathon, between Hvmettus and Pentelicus, possessing a
celebrated temple of Athena; ^ Stim, on the E. coast, S.E. of Brauron,

* Large qoantities of water-fowl frequented the marshes, as well as the ** iJea-
flant mead of Marathon ** itself : —

oo-a t' cvdp6<rov( rt
r^« nSiroiK ^hc^** *«* XetfAii-
wa rbv ipowra MopoAuVof •

'Arrayait arrayav. Abistoph. Jr. 2J6.

Bpavpwias Ui r^odc Kkjiiwx*lv Bta^.—EVR, Iph. Taur. 1474.

* Xmp6t rli iartv *Ar$C8ot wphq ierxarot?
*Opoi<ri, ytCmv ittpdSoi Kapwrruust
' 'Upbi, 'AAo? ny ovixIk ow/mo^ti Ktui'

'Evrav$a rtv^eus vobv, lipvira* fipirtK,
'EwuvvfLov Tii« Tavpwc^. KuB. Jpii. Taur. 1482.

* UaXXiivi&tK yap (rcfivbi' iKirnpitv v6yov

Auic 'A0ava^. EUBIP. Iferevl. 8t9.


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420 ATTICA. Bo<« IV.

oonnected with Athens by a road named the "Stirian Way;" Pniis,
on the E. coast with an excellent harbour, Pario Rafti, whence the
Theoria, or sacred procession, used to sail, and with a temple of Apollo;
PsBaaia, the birthplace of Demosthenes, E. of Hymettus; Thonem,
TherikOf on the E. coast, about 7} miles N. of Sunium, celebrated in
mythology as the residence of Cephalus, whom Eos carried off to the
gods, and a place of importance, as testified both by its ruins and by
its occupation by the Athenians in the Peloponnesian War; SnniuA
on the promontory of the same name, fortified by the Athenians in
B.C. 413, and regM*ded as one of the most important fortresses in
Attica : the temple of Athena which crowned the heights was a Doric
hexastyle, the only remains of which are 9 columns of the S. flank and
3 of the N., together with 2 columns and 1 of the antte of the pronaus;
Anaphlyitiii, Anavyso, N.W. of Sunium, near the mines of Laurium;
Sphettu in the same neighbourhood, connected with Athens by the
" Sphettian Way " which entered the city by the N. end of Hymettus ;
a manufactory of vinegar appears to have existed there;* and Hal»
^BronT d M , nearer Athens, where were some saJt-woiiu.

History. — The history of Attica and of its capital Athens is almost
synonymous with the history of Greece itself: so prominent is the
position which it holds in all ages. Our limits will not permit us to
do more than point out the chief periods into which its history may
be divided, and which are —

(1.) The early period down to the time of Solon's legislation b.c. 594,
during the first portion of which Athens was governed by kings ; the
historical events during the wh(»le of this period are few and un-

(2.) The growth of the Athenian state from the time of Solon, B.c
594, to the attainment of its supremacy in 478. This period is signa-
lized by the Persian Wars (49U-479), in which Athens took a con-
spicuous part, and by the gradual extension of the political influence
of Athens through its maritime powra*.

(3.) The period of Athenian ascendency, which lasted from 478 to
413, when the army and fleet were destroyed at Sicily. Under the
administration of Pericles Athens arrived at the height of its ^lory.
The Peloponnesian War broke out in 431, and proved destructive of
Athenian supremacy.

(4.) From the decline of the ascendency of Athens to the Roman
conquest of Greece in 146. The battle of .£gospotami in 405 and the
capture of Athens by Lysauder in 404 completed the humiliation of
Atheus. In 378 Athens joined Thebes, and again became the head of
an important maritime ascendency, which lasted until 355, when the
Social Wars terminated in the independence of her allies. A subsequent
alliance with Thebes against PhUip was brought to a close by the
battle of Chteronea in 338, where the Athenians were totally defeated.
On the death of Alexander the Athenians endeavoured to shake off
the Macedonian yoke, but the Lamian War ended disastrously in
322, and Athens surrendered to Antipater. The Macedonian governor
was expelled iu the reign of Cassander by Demetrius Poliorcetes in
307, and Athens was captured by him in 295. Antigonus Gonatas,
king of Macedonia, the son of Poliorcetes again reduced Athens in
92. On the death of his successor Demetrius, in 229, Athens joined

Kmriwkmw aviW ri fi\44Mpa. AUSIOPH. Plut. 730.


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the ^tolian League. In 200 Philip V. besieged AtheDs, and she was
only relieved by the Roman fleet : she afterwutls joined Rome against
Philip. Attica was finally added to the other dependencies of Rome
m 146.

Islands off ihe Coast of Attica, — Sal&mif, Kuluri, lies between the
coasts of Attica and Megaris, closing the bay of Eleusis on the S.
Its shape resembles an irregular semicircle facing the W. ; its lengtli
from N. to S. is about 10 miles, and its greatest width from E. toW.
about the same. It had in early times the names of Pityussa, Sciras,
and Cychria,^ the former from the pine-trees on it, the two latter after
the heroes Scirus and Cychreus. The island is mountainous, and the
shore much indented : the most salient points are the promontories
of SileniflB or Tropaea, C. 8t, Barbara, at the S.E., off which lies the
small isle of Psyttalia, Lipsokutali, a mile long and from 200 to 300
yards across ; Sdradium, probably at the S.W., where stood the temple
<if Athena Sciras; and Bvdonim at the W. The old city of Salamit
stood on the S. shore ; the new one on the N. shore. The island is
chiefly memorable for the defeat of the Persian fleet by the Greeks in
B.C. 480, which took place in the channel < between the island and
Attica, and was witnessed by Xerxes from his seat on Mount ^galeus.
Salamis was colonised at an early period by the iEacidse of iEgina, and
was the residence of Telamon and his son Ajaz at the time of the
Trojan War. It was independent until about b.c. 620, when a dispute
arose for its possession between the Athenians and Megarians. The
question was ultimately referred to the Spartans, who decided in favour
of Athena ; and to this power it belonged until the establishment of the
Macedonian supremacy in 318. In 282 the Athenians purchaAed it of
the Macedonians, and expelled the inhabitants in favour of Athenian
settlers : thenceforward it was attached to Athens, fgina, Eghina,
lies in the centre of the
Saronic Gulf nearly equi-
distant from the shores
of Attica, Megaris, and
Epidaurus. In shape it
is an irregular triangle.
The S. portion of the
island is occupied by the
magnificent conical hill

named St. Elias: the n„.„ „f «vi„«

W. side is a well culti- Coin of JIgina.

vated plain. The ori-
ginal inhabitants were Achaeans,' but these were superseded by
Dorians from Epidaurus. The chief town, also called JBgbia, stcod on
the N.W. coast, and possessed two harbours and numerous public
buildings, particularly the shrine of iEacus. The moles of the ports
and walls of the city can still be traced. On a hill in the N.E. of

* This name occurs in .Eschylus : —

'AictAs ofi^i Kvxp<w. - /'«r». 670.

SoAofiiMK oKTol ira« Tf irpo(rxMp<K r6noi.—IEBCa. Pan. 272.
' X^e mythical account of its ori^nal population is, that Zeus changed the ants
(/mvpfiilice?) of the island into Myrmidon^ over whqm JEacjiB ruled. See Or.
Met. vU. 694, seq.


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422 EUBCEA. Book IV.

the island are the remaiiiB of a magnificent temple of the Doric order,
which hajB been varioualy regarded tm that of Zeus Panhellenius, and
that of Athena noticed by Herodotus (iii. 59). The sculptures which
adorned it, and which were discovered in 1 811, represent events con-
nected with the Trojan War. The temple was erected early in the
6th century. Another town named (Ea was in the interior of the
island, ^gina, as a dependency of Epidaurus, became subject to
Pheidon, tyrant of Argos, about b.c. 748. It soon became a place of
great commercial activity : as early as 563 it had entered into relations
with Egypt, and about 500 it held the empire of the seas, and planted
colonies in Crete and Italy. The authority of Epidaurus was renounced,
and iEgina became an independent state. As such it entered into a

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