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league with Thebes against Athens in 505, and ravaged the coasts of
Attica. The iEginetans did good service to the Greek cause at the
battle of Salamis. The Athenians, to whom ^gina had become, in
the expressive language of Pericles, the *' eye-sore of the Pireeus,**
defeated them in 460, took their town in 456, and expelled the whole
population in 431 : the refugees were settled at Thyroa by the Spartans,
and were restored by Lysander in 404.

In addition to these we have to notice — ^Helina or llaivii, Makronuif
off the E. coast, a long, narrow island, uninhabited in ancient as in
modem times ; Patroeli Iniiila, off the S. point, so named after a
general of Ptolemy Philadelphus, who built a fort on it ; and BelHiia,
Si. George^ at the entrance of the Saronic Gulf, described by The-
mistocles as one of the most insignificant spots in Hellas.

§ 6. The important island of EnboMit Negropont? lies opposite to
the coasts of Attica, Boeotia, and Lo-
cris. Politically it was closely connec-
ted with the first of these countries, to
which we therefore append it. Geo-
graphically it lay in closer contiguity
Coin of Kuboea. to BcQotia, the strait separating them,

named Enxlpiif, being only 40 yards
across at Chalcis. The length of the island from N. to S. is about 90
miles ; its breadth varies from 30 miles to 4. The moimtain-range
which traverses it throughout its whole length may be regarded as a
continuation of !Pelion and Ossa ; on the E. coast it rises to the
height nf 7266 feet ; it terminates in the promontories of GenflBam,*
LWiadJm, in the N.W. ; ArtemMum in the N., opposite the Thes-
salian Magnesia, the scene of the Persian defeat in b.c. 480 ; OaphS-

* The modem name i« compounded of EgripOf a cormption of Euripos, and
ponte^ •* a bridge."

* It iras crowned with a temple of Zens, aurnamed Ccnnus : —

*AjmJ Tt« itrr Ev/3oiW , ivB* ipc^mu

BM^to^, t/Ai| f eyxafira Ki^muV Ait, SoPH. Track. 237.

'.\xTi$ nf cLti^Xmrroq Evfioiaus ojcpsr

Kifi^ou^r ^9Ttr, €r$a irarpif^ Ait

BMfiovv ipti^et, TtiJxyiav rt ^\Mia. /</. 752.


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Chap. XXI. TOWNS. 423

reusf^ Kavo Doi'Of in the S.E. ; and GersBttait^ Mandili^ in the S.E.
Though generally mountainous, the island contains some rich plains,
particularly those about the towns of Histiaea and Chalcis — the latter
being named Lelantum.' The E. coast is remarkably rocky, and
both the prevalent winds and the currents render it extremely
dangerous. The part called the ** Hollows " was somewhat N. of
(Jeraestus. ITie streams are .of trifling size. The island was fertile :
the plains produced com, and the hills fed sheep. The marble quar-
ries of Carystus were far-famed. The original inhabitants were the
Abantes,** after whom the island was sometimes named Abantis ;
but in historical times these gave place to Ionian Greeks, who
founded the most important towns; viz. Chalcis, Eretria, Oreus
or Histiaea, and Carystus.

Ohaldi, Egripoy stood on the shore of the Euripus, just where the strait
ia divided into two channels by
a rock, which now forms a central
pier for the bridge that connects
the island with the mainland. The

extraordinary flux and reflux of

the currents* at this point were

noticed by the ancients. Chalcis

rose to great commercial import- Coin of Cbolcis in EuTxBa.

ance, and planted colonies in

Sicily, Italy,« and Macedonia. The chief events in history are— its

capture by the Athenians in B.C. 506^; its revolt fronf that state in

445, and its subsequent reconquest by Pericles; its second revolt

' On this promontory the Greek fleet was wrecked on its return ftom Troy : —
Tapa^ niXaytK Aiyota? aXii.
'Axreu 8i Mvic6vov, AifAuH r< x^P^*^*
Sitvpo? n Miiiv69 $' ai Kaufniptioi t' a/cpai
HoMmv 9av6vTiay aiaitaff eiowrty vexpAi^.—EUR. Troad. 88.
Scit triste MinerriD
Sidus, et Euboicaj cautes, ultorque Caphereus. — .Kn. xi. 260.
' 'OpTO 6' hrl Aiyw oipoi ai^ittvai' ai 6k ^liA* Suea
'IxBvMvra KiXtvBa SitSpafiMV «v W Tepoiorbv
•EyyUxuu Karayoyrt^, HOM. Od. 111. 176.

» Ki^otbv 6' inipvii vavvucXtlryii Ev0otT)«.

Irifi «* hrl XtiXitmf ntiuf. HoM. JSTymn. in ApoU. 219.

* Ot « Evpotav tx<^ Z*'*^* iiT«ibKr«« 'Afiayrn. Tl. H. 636.

XaXint^oyTidiri^, luyaBvymv opx^^ 'A/SovTwi" /<i 540.

» -Arctatus rapido fervet qua gurgite pontus
Euripusque trahit, eursum mutatUilma undU^
Chalcidicas puppet* ad iniquam classibus Aullm. — Luc. v. 234.
• The most famous of these colonies was CumOD, which consequently receivwl
the epithet " Chalcidian :" —

Chalcidicaque levis tandem super adstitit aroe.—ViRO. ^^n. vi. 17.

Ilffic ego Chalcidicis ad te, Marcelle, sonabam

Littoribus, fractos ubl Vesbius egcrit Iras.— Stat. Silr. ir. 4, 78.


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424 EUBCEA. Book IV.

in 411, which was again unsuccessful; the attacks upon it by the
Romans in 207 and 192; and its destruction by Mummius. From
its position in command of the Enripus it was termed by Philip
of Hacedon one of the "fetters of Gh-eece." Eretrim, stood S. of

Chalcis at the S.W. extre-
mity of the plain of Leian-
turn, which was a bone of
contention between the two
cities. The original town,
near Vaihy, was destroyed
by the Persians in b.c. 490
_ for the part it had taken in

Coin of Eretria. the Ionian revolt, but was

again rebuilt more to the S.
at Kastri, The defeat of the Athenians off its harbour, in 411, led to
its revolt from that power. It was governed by tyrants from about 400
to 341 ; and was taken by the Romans and Rhodians in the war with
Philip V. It was the seat of a philosophical school, founded by Mene-
demus, and the birth-place of the tragic poet Achsus. The remains
of the acropolis and of a theatre still exist at Kattri, Qrens stood on
the N. coast, and was originally named HistiiBa:^ it was occupied by
the Persians after the battle of Artemisium, and afterwards became
subject to Athens, from which it revolted in B.C. 445, and was in con-
sequence taken by Pericles, its inhabitants banished, and Athenian
settlers placed in their stead. After the Peloponnesian War, Oreus
became subject to Sparta, and remained so until the battle of Leuctra.
In the wars between Philip and the Romans it was taken by the

latter" in the years 207 and
200. GaijntUB was situated,
on the S. coast, and is
chiefly known in history
as the place where the Per-
sians landed in B.C. 490. The
marble quarries were on the
slopes of the neighbovuing
hill of Ocha : the marble was
,, . ,„ of a green colour with white

Com of Carystus. bands, and was much prized

at Rome.*
Of the less important towns we may notice— Dium,* near Prom.
Censeum, the mother-city of Canse in MoUa ; JEdeptof, on the N.W.
coast, with some warm baths ; OrobiflB, opposite Cynus in Boeotia, with
an oracle of Apollo Seliniintius: the town was partly destroyed by an
earthquake m b.c. 42« ; JEgSB, opposite Anthedon, possessing a famous
temple of Poseidon ;» Amarynthns, about a mile from Eretria, with a

It in noticed under this name by Homer, as abounding in grapes :—
mkuara^vKov 9 'lorutuu'. yi. if. 537.

• Quidve domus prodest Phrygiis innixa columnis,
Tasnare, sive tuU, sive. Caryste, tuis ?— Tibull. Ui. 3, 13.
Idem beatas lautus cxstruit thermas
De marmore omni, quod CarystoA iuvenlt. — Mart. ix. 76.
» KiJptvWi' t' e^oAoi^, A^ t' flufn^ irroXMtfpov.— HoM. II, «. 638.


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temple of Artemis Amarynthia ; Porfhmiu, a harbour on the narroweet
part of the Eub<Ban chamiel opposite to Rhamnus, and hence a place
of importance as a point for attacking the coast of Attica ; Stjra, N. of
CarvBtus, occupied originally by a Dryopian population, a place noticed
in the Persian War and subsequently subject to Athens ; Gerettns, on
the promontory of the same name, with a celebrated temple of Posei-
don ; and, lastly, Cerinthns,* on the N.£. coast.

History, — As Eubooa never formed a single political state, its history
resolves itself into that of its separate towns. We have already seen that
Chalcis and Eretria were powerful cities in early times : they continued
so until the time of the Pisistratidse, when Chalcis engaged in war with
Athens, and lost its territory in consequence in b.o. 5u6. After the
Persian War, the whole of Euboea became dependent on Athens: it
revolted in 445 and again in 411, but was reconquered on each occa<*
sion. With the decline of Athenian supremacy, tyrants established
themselves in the towns; these submitted to Macedonia without a
struggle, and the island remained a part of the Macedonian dominions
untiri94, when the Romans took it from Philip V.

§ 7. Not far distant from the coast of Attica lies an important
group of islands, to which the name of Cyd&def^ was given, because
they lay in a circle (tu xvieX^) around Delos, which, though the
smallest, was the most important of them. These islands appear
to be physically connected with Enboea, and to be a continuation of
the same elevation, rising from the sea at intervals. The numbers
and names of them are variously given ; but, according to the best
authorities, the following twelve constituted the group : — Ceos,
Cythnos, Serlphos, Siphnos, Paros, Naxos, Delos, Rhen^a, MycSnos,
Syros, Tenos, and Andros. The order in which they are enume-
rated is in a circle commencing at the N.W. TTiese islands were
for the most part occupied by Ionian colonists.

Ceof or Oea, Zea^ \a about 13 miles S.E. of the promontory of Sunium,
and is 14 miles in length by 10 in breadth. It was said to have been
originally occupied by nymphs who were driven from it by a Hon.
The lonians colonised it and built four towns; of which lulls, the
capital, in the N., was the most celebrated as being the birth-place of
the lyric poets Simonides^ and Bacchylides, and of the philosopher

X^nMTca, itapiieupovTOf Trr«vxaT«&, w^ira mL—'H. xlU. 21.
' The general appearance of these ialands hardly Justifiea the epithet of
" glittering " applied to them by Horace ; they are for the most part bare and
brown : —

Tnterfbsa niUnte§

Vites ffiquora Cycladas. Oarm. i. 14, 19.

Fulgentesqw tenet Cycladas. Id. iil. 28, 14.

* Horace aUudes to him in the lines : —
Non, si priores Mceonius tenet
Sedes Homerus, Pindaricfo latent,
Ceseque, et Alcsei mjnaces,

Stesichoriqne graveH Camoenie. Carm. iv. 9, 5.


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Book IV.


Arisfcon: ite lawB were bo excellent as to pass into a proverb. The
other towns were — Coresaia, which served as the port of lulis ; Car-
thnsa,^ in the S.E. ; and Poeeessa in the S.W. CythniM, Thermia, is

seldom mentioned : ite chief
celebrity in ancient times
was derived from its ex-
cellent cheeses, and in
modem from some hot
springs to which it owes
its present name. It pos-
sessed a town of the same
name on the W. coast at
Hebrseo-kastron, of which some remains still exist : this town was oc-
cupied by Philip*s troops in B.C. 200, and was unsuccessfully besieged
by Attalus and the Rhodians. Sarlj^iot, Serpho, was chiefly famed for

its poverty and insignific-
ance, and was hence used by
the Romans as a place of
banishment.^ It possessed,
however, iron and copper
mines. It was the faDied
scene of the education and
exploits of Perseus.* Siph-
no6, Siphno, attained a high
degree of prosperity from
its gold and silver mines,
and possessed a treasury at
Delphi. These mines, however, were at length worked out, and the
inhabitants became poor even to a proverb. They manufactured a

superior kind of pottery.
The chief town lay on the
K. side of the island on the
site of the modem Kastro,
Paros, Faro, is one of the
largest of the Cyclades ; it
consists of a single round
mountain, sloping evenly to
a maritime plain which sur-
rounds it on all sides. It
was celebrated for its fine
marble, dug out of the sides of Mt. Marpessa,' and for its figs. The

Coin uf Siphnos.

Coin of I'aros.

* Transit ct ontiqace CartheTa moDiiia Ceie. — Ov. Met. \ii. 868.

* JBstuat infellx angusto llmite mundi,

Ut Oyarse clausua Bcopulis, parvaqae Scripho. — Juv. x. 169.
« nep<r<^ hm&n rplrov a-
w«rev KOJtnyvufray lUpoi,

Aaoi<rt re fioipav aTwv.— PlND. Pytk. xit. 19.
' Nee magis incepto vultum ttermone movetur,
Quam si dura sllex aut stet Marpesia cautes. — Viko. jEn. vi. 470.
SroAoy BifuVy Ilapiov

Atdov ktvKoHpay, PiKl>. Nem. Vr. 131.

Urit me GlycerSB niter
Splendentis Pario marmorc purins. — Hob. Cam. i. 19, 5.


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Chap. XXI.



Coin of Naxoe.

Cuin of Deles.

capital was on the W. ooaat: remains of it exist at Paroichia. Its chief
historical event is the unsuccessful attempt of Miltiades to subtlue it
after the battle of Marathon. The poet Archilochus was born there.
Vazoi, Naxia, was the largest of the Cyclades, being 19 miles in length
by 15 in breadth : it was also
eminently fertile, producing
com, wine, oil, and fruit of
the finest description. In the
centre of the island a moun-
tain, named Drius, rises to
the height of 300u feet. Its
capital stood on the N.W.
coast, on the site of the modem
town. Tlie ruins of a temple
still exist there. Naxos was the seat of a tyranny before the Persian
War. The failure of the Persian expedition against it in luc. 5*)1 was
indirectly the cause of the Ionian revolt. The island was cruelly ravaged
by the Persians in 490. After the Persian War it was subject to Athens,
from which it revolted in 471 to no good effect. Beloi,^ Dhile*, lies in
the centre of the Cyclades,
between Rhenea and Myconos.
It is little more than a rock, ,,_-^_

being only five miles in cir- / U^ ^HV I ■*
cumierence, but it was re-
garded as one of the holiest
spots in all Hellas, having
been called into existence (as
was believed) by the trident of Poseidon, and fixed in its place by
2ieus ' that it might become the birth-place of Apollo and Artemis. It
enjoyed a singular immunity from earthquakes, which was attributed
to its miraculous origin. The worship of Apollo was celebrated by a
great periodical festival, in which the Athenians and other nations took
part. The sanctity of the isle is attested by the regard shown to it by
Datis and Artaphemes, as well as by its being selected as the treasury
of Greece in B.C. 477, and by the purification of it by the Athenians
in 42*>. After the fall of Corinth, in 14H, it became the centre of
an extensive commerce, and was particularly celebrated for its bronze.
It was ravaged by the generals of Mithridates, and thenceforth sank
into insignificance. The town stood on the W. side of the island,
just under Mount Cynthus,' a bare granite rock, about 400 feet

* Dclos had a variety of poetical names, of which the most important was
Ortygia, connected with the legend, that Latona was changed by Jupiter into
a quail (oprvf). The name Ortygia occurs in Homer, Od. v. 123; xv. 403;
but in the latter passage it is described in terms (5#i rpoiral ^eAioto) which make
it doubtful whether it can bo applied to Delos. See note*, p. 428.
^ Sacra mari colitur medio gratfssima tellus
Nercidum matrl, et Neptuno iEgseo :
Quam plus Arcitenens, oros et littora circum
Krrantem, Oyaro celsa Myconoque revinxit,

Immotamque coli dedit, et contemnero ventos. — Viro. .ffn. ill. 73.
*H «i»c (r« Wfmrov A*^ r/jcc, X'^^PI"*- /Sporoia'tt',
KAu<^ura wf^ K^Mcv opot Kpava^ ivX in7<r((»
AifAy i¥ ofb^i^. HoM. l/yntx. in ApoU. 25.

' Ipse Jugis Cynthi graditnr, moUiquo fluentem
Fronde premit crinem flngens, atque iroplicat auro. — Vibo. ^h'n. iv. 147.


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428 MEGARIS. Book IV.

high, which served as its acropolis, A small stream, named Inopus,
and an oval lake are noticed by the ancients. The foundations of
the theatre, of a stoa, and of a few houses, are all the remains of the
once splendid town: the rest of the materials were transported to
Venice and Constantinople. BhenSa' is separated from Delos by a
strait about half a mile wide: it is about ten miles in circumference,
and is divided into two parts by inlets. It served as the burial-plaoe
of Delos. MyoSnot,* Myhono, is little else than a barren granite rock,
ten miles in length and six in its greatest breadth, with two towns on
it : its inhabitants were famed for their avarice. Syroi, SyrUy was a
more fertile island, but hcurdly deserves the praises bestowed upon
it by Homer, ^ though it still produces good wine. It possessed two
cities, one on the £. the other on the W. coast. The philosopher
Pherecydes was a native of Syros. Tenot, Tino, lies about fifteen
miles from Delos, and is about fifteen miles long. It is one of the
most fertile of the Cyclades. The inhabitants were wealthy, and paid '
a yearly tribute of 3600 drachmas to Athens. The capital stood on
the S.W. coast, and possessed a celebrated temple of Poseidon. The
island was famed for its fine garlic. Androt, Andro, the most north-
erly of the group, is twenty-one miles long and eight broad: it was
fertile, and particularly famed for its wine. The town lay in the middle
of the W. coast: it was besieged by Themistocles after the Persian War,
and by the Romans in their war with Philip. S W. of Andros is the
small island of (Jy&ros, Jura^ a barren rock, about six miles in circum-
ference, which the Roman emperors used as a place of banishment:* a
purple fishery was carried on there.

IX. Megabis.

§ 8. The small district of Meg&ris occupied the northern portion
of the Isthmus of Corinth, extending from the confines of Boeotia
on the N. to Corinthia on the S. ; the limit in the latter direction
having been originally at Crommyon on the Saronic, and Thermae
on the Corinthian Grulf, but afterwards more to the N., at the Sci-

> N<£{<K r*. ^ n^tpof , 'Pi^auL r* ircrp^e<r<ra.— HoM. Epmn. in ApdU, 44.
* The epithet humilem, applied to this island by Ovid, is incorrect : it was one
of the islands to which Delos was anchored (see note *, above).

Hinc hnmilem Myconon, cretosaque mra Cimoli. — Or. Met. vii. 46S.

Ipsa toa Mycono Oyaroque rcrelli,
Dele, times. Stat. 7%<*. iii. 438.

* Ni}a<(f rtc Svpi)) icueAi^o'icerat, ci irov oicovcif,
'OprvyliiK Ka9virtp$evt Stfi rpoireu ^cA£oio,
OvTt ircpiirAif^f \Criv T6aoif oAX* ayaJBq fikv,
Ej//3oro¥, cvfi))A<K, oiKOirAiftfifc, wokvirvfKK. — Od. xv. 402.
There is room for doubt whether Homer's Syrie is identical with S3nrot, or
whether it is not rather a poetic fiction. The question turns partly on the
further question whether Homer's Ortygia represents Delos.

* Aude aliquid brevibus Gyaris, et caroere dignum. — Jrv. i. 78.
Ut Oyarse clausua seopuUs, parvaque Seripho.— Id. x. 170.
It is noticed by Virgil as one of the rocks to which Delos was anchored (see
note *, p. 427}, though it is not particularly near that island. The epithet eel^a
is misplaced, whether it be applied to Gyarus or (as in some copies) to Myconns.


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ronian rocks. In the N.E. Megaris was contiguous to Attica ; else-
where it was bounded by the sea, viz. by the Corinthian Gulf on
the W., and the Saronic on the E. It thus lay open on the side bf
Attica alone, and was naturally connected with that country rather
than vnih any other. It is a rugged and mountainous country, and
contains only a single plain about 6 or 7 miles long, and about the
same in breadth, which opens towards the Saronic Gulf on the S.,
and was named Leucon, " the White Plain." The chief moimtain-
range was named Oerandat Makriplayi, a southerly extension of
Cithaeron, which stretches across the isthmus like a vast wall, and
forms the natural boundary between Northern Greece and the Pelo-
lH)nnesus. It was crossed at three points : on the W. by a road near
the sea-coast, little frequented from its distance ; in the centre by
the pass now nabied Dervenia, which was probably the main line of
communication in early times ; and in the E. by a coast- road, which
afterwards became the main line of communication, and which
is celebrated for its difficulty, being carried for several miles along
a narrow ledge cut in the face of the cliff some 600 or 700 feet above
the sea. This pass is the Scironia Saza' of antiquity, jthe Kake-
scalay ** Bad Ladder,'* of modern times.^ On the border of Attica
were the heights of Kerata» before noticed. The promontory of
JEgiplanotus ° is on the W. coast.

Minoa. Nisjea. Megara.

§ 9. The capital, Meg&ra, stood on a low hill with a double sum-
mit, in the plain already noticed, about a mile and a half from the

* They -were said to have been so namodj after Sciron, a robber whom Theseus
destroyed : —

Tutus ad Alcathoen, Lelegeiu mccnia, limes
Composito Scirone patet : sparsique latronis
Terra negat sedem, sedem negat ossibus unda :
Quae Jactata diu fertur durasse vetustas

In scopulos : scopuUs nomen Scironis inhsDret. — Ot. Met, v]L 443.
' Hadrian rendered this road passable for carriages.

8 ACftytiv &* vwip TopySiwiv iatcq^fnv ^ao$'
'Opos r' hr' AiyiirXayicroy i^iKvovfitvov^
^Qrpvvt 9<a>^ M>l X*^^<^^ irup6i. — iEscB. Ag. 802.


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430 MEGARI8. Book IV.

Saronic Gulf. The siunmita were named Caria and Alcatboe,
Caria being probably the highest, and were each the site (»f an
acropolis. Below the city was a port-town named Visnaf connected
with Megara by long walls, which have now wholly disappeared.
The port itself was formed by a small island named ][in5ai which
was united to Nisfiea by a bridge over a morass. * This island is now,
in all probability, incorporated with the mainland, and \h a rocky
hill on the margin of the sea. It has been otherwise identified
with a small island still existing off the coast, but at too great a
distance (200 yards) to be connected by a bridge, and with the pro-
montory of Tikho more to the E., which is too distant to accord with
the length of the walls. Megara possessed a second port on the
Corinthian Gulf, named Pag» or Pegae, Pmtho.

The town of Meg&ra is said to have been founded by Nisus son of
Pandion, and to have been subsequently restored by Alcathous • son
of Pelops. The Megarians themselves attributed its origin to Car, son
of Phoroneus. Its situation was highly favourable for commerce, as all
the roads between Northern Greece and Peloponnesus passed through
its territory, while its ports gave it communication with' the E. and
W. It was beautified with numerous edifices, particulai'ly the Olym-
picum or inclosure of Zeus Olympius, the Bouleuterion, the Pry-
tancum, numerous temples and tombs, and a magnificent aqueduct built
by Theagenes. The whole of these buildings have distippeared, and
modem Megara is a poor place, occupying the western summit.

^rs/ory.— Megaris was originally a part of Attica, and thus an Ionian
state. It was afterwards conquered by the Dorians, and was for a long
time subject to Corinth. The Dorians were expelled in Solon's time,
and Megara rose to great commercial prosperity, not only attaining
its independence, but becoming the mother-city of numerous colonies
in Sicily and Thrace. Its power was weakened partly by its internal
dissensions and partly by its contests with the neighbouring states of
Athens and Corinth. In d.c. 455 the Megarians formed an alliance
with Athens which lasted for ten years. In the early part of the
Peloponuesian War they sufiiered severely from Athenian inroads: in
427 Nicias blockaded Nicaja, and in 424 they got possession both of it and
of the Long Walls, but did not succeed in taking Megara. The Mega-
rians themselves levelled the Long Walls shortly after. Thenceforward
Megara is seldom noticed. It became the seat of a philosophical
school, founded by Eucleides, and it obtained under the Romans an
ill fame for licentiousness.

* Apollo is said to have aided Alcathous : the stone on which he deposited his
Ifre, when struck, returned a musical sound: the stone was preserved in the
Prodomeis : —

4ol^c oro^, avrb? fAir imipywras irdAiv axmiv,'
'AAxa96y IIAotroc watZl xoAi^dfMvof.— 7%«(>|^. Ill,
Regia turris erat vocalibus addita murls :
In quibus auratam proles LetoVa fertur
Deposuisse lyram : saxo sonua ejus inhttalt — Ov. Met. viii. 14.


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§ 1. Peloponnesus. I. Cobinthta, &c. §2. Corinthia. §3. Corinth.
§ 4. Sicyonia. § 5. Phliasia. § 6. Cleonae. II. Achaia. § 7.
Boundaries; Mountains; Rivera. § 8. Inhabitants; Towns; History.

Online LibrarySir William Smith William Latham BevanThe student's manual of ancient geography → online text (page 49 of 82)