Sir William Smith William Latham Bevan.

The student's manual of ancient geography online

. (page 54 of 82)
Online LibrarySir William Smith William Latham BevanThe student's manual of ancient geography → online text (page 54 of 82)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

miles from the sea, with Celenderis as its port-town on the Bay of
Pogon, which offered a sheltered harbour. It was a very ancient city,
and derived its name from a son of Pelops ; it was the residence of Pit-
theus the grandfather of Theseus.* The Dorians settled there on their
conquest of Peloponnesus, but the place retained its Ionic character.
It became a powerful maritime state, and founded Halicamassus and
Myndus. It was allied with Athens unti) the time of the Peloponnesiau
War and afterwards with Sparta. The town was adorned with numerous
fine buildings— consisting of the agora surrounded with colonnades ;
the temple of Artemis Lycia, with the stone upon which Oi*estes was

• Hercules is henee fircquently termed " Tirynthian," e. g. : —

Postquain lAurentia victor,
Geryone extincto, Tirynthiu* attigit arva. — Mn. tU. 661.
The epithet is further applied to Herculaneum (Stat. 8ilv. ii. 2, 109), and
Sagantum (Sil. Ital. li. 300), as being founded by Hercules ; and to the Fabian
gm*t as being descended f^om that god (Sil. Ital. viii. 35, vii. 218).
< ' Suus excit in anna

Antiquam Tiryntha Deus. Non fortibus ilia
Infecunda viris, famaque immanis alumni
Degenerat ; sed lapsa situ fortuna, neq^ne addunt
Robur opes. Rarut taeuia habilator in arvit
Monstrat Cyclopum ductas sudoribus acres. — Stat. Theh, Iv. 146.
d Tpoc^v', 'Hitfya? rt koI oftrcA^CKr* 'EirtBaDpoi'. — Ik ii. 661.
It was also famous for its breed of horses : —

Taygetique canes, dmnitrixque Epidaui-us equonun. — Oeorg. iii. 44.

* The hero spent his youth at Troeeen : —

oAAd x<up<r', & ir6Atf
Kal yat 'Epcx^ews' ^ itilov Tpot^'^iaoi',
'Of irfKoBrfi^v ird\A' ex<tv «v8aifi,ova,
Xotp** v<rTttTOi' yap ir' curopMV irpo<r^eyyo^i.— EOR. Hifft. 1097.


by Google

468 ARGOLIS. Book IV.

purified in front of it ; the temple of Apollo Theariu8» with the so-
called tent of Orestes before it ; the temple of Hippolytus ; and the
Acropolis, posted on a rugged and lofty hill : the ruins of Troezen lie
near DhavwJa, and are insignificant. Methftna stood on the W. coast
of the peninsula of the same name N. of Troezen, to which it belonged :
the Athenians occupied the peninsula in 425, and fortified the isthmus.
HenniSne originally stood upon a promontory on the S. coast, but was
afterwards removed about ^ a mile inland to the slopes of a hill named
Pron. It was founded by the Dryopes, and is noticed by Homer.
It came under the power of Argoe probably about B.C. 464, and was
thenceforth a Doric city, but it regained its independence, and was
idlied to Sparta in the Peloponnesian War. The territory of Hermione
extended over the S. angle of Argolis. Of the buildings in the town
the most famous was the sanctuary of Demeter Chthonia on a height of
Mt. Pron, which was an inviolable sanctuary.^ The ruins of Hermione
lie about Kaitri.

Of the less important towns of Argolis we may notice — Ornesi, on
the borders of Phliasia, about 14 miles from Argos, a town which

retained its independence
until B.C. 416, when it
was destroyed by the
Argives; (&iioe, on the
Charadrus, W. of Argos,
the scene of a victory
fl;ained by the Athen-

^RuinsofaPjnmildlntheAiBefa. ^^ ^^ Argives over

the Lacedflemomans ;
CenohresB, S. of Argos, near which were the sepulchral monuments of
the Argives who fell at the battle of Hysias ; a pyramid still existing,
near the Enutinus, is probably one of these; Hynss, on an isolated
hill below Mt. Parthenium, the scene of a battle between the Ai^givee
and Lacedaemonians in b.c. 669, destroyed by the Argives after the
Persian War, and by the Lacedemonians in 417; and A^Ine, on the
coast near Nauplia, probablv in the plain of Jn*, founded by the
Dryopes, and destroyed by the Argives in consequence of its having
joined the Spartans against them ; its inhabitants removed to Asine
in Messenia.

Islands. — ^The coast of Ai^olis is fringed with islands, of which the
most important are— Upaiiiiiu, more probably Tricarenus, another
form of Triorana, TrikJiiri, though 'frequently identified with Spetiia:
Hydrea, Hydra, off the coast of Hermionis and Troezenia : and
Cidaiiriaf Porot opposite Troazenia, possessing an ancient temple of
Poseidon, in which Demosthenes terminated his life.

History. — The authentic history of Argolis commences at the time
of the Dorian invasion, when that country fell to the lot of Temenus,
and Argos vras constituted the Dorian capital. The conquest of the
towns was gradual, and most of them retained their Aohsean popula-
tion. The sovereignty of Argos extended over the whole E. coast of
Peloponnesus and even over Cythera, and she was the head of a league
simikr to the Amphictyonic, of which Phlius, Cleome, Sicyon, Epi-
daurus.. Troezen, Hermione, and iEgina, were members. Under Pheidon,

Euripides refers to this : —

0wlat vw aXo>of, *fLpium¥ r* *\<ik m^Ksui. Here Fur, 614.


by Google


B.C. 770-730, the power of Argos was at its highest, and an attempt
was made to subject the whole of Peloponnesus. Subsequently, her
power declined before that of Sparta, and the loss of Cynuria in 547
was followed by the decisive victory of Cleomenes near Tiryns. Argos
took no part m the Persian Wars, but Tiryns and Mycenee joined
Sparta. These cities were destroyed by Argos about 468, and their
population added to the capital, which thus regained its former supre-
macy. In the Peloponnesian War the Argives remained neutral for
the first 10 years; in 421 they formed a league with the Corinthians
and others against Sparta, which was dissolved in 418 by the battle of
Mantinea. For a short period after this Argos joined Sparta, but soon
withdrew from the alliance, and took an active part in the various
combinations formed against that power. The subsequent history of
Argos is unimportant : its towns fell under tyrants : it joined the
Achaean League in 229, and yielded to the Romans in 146.

§ 8. The district of Cynuria was situated between Argolis and
Laconia, and was debateable ground between the two states of Argos
and Sparta, belonging alternately to each. The district consisted
of a remarkably fertile plain, extending about six miles along the
coast S. of Anignea, bounded inland by the spurs of Pamon, and
watered by two streams, named the Taim/i»^lruA;u, and the OharadniB}'
Kaniy which join the sea respectively N. and S. of the Thyreatic
Gulf : the former was the boimdary between the two states in
the time of Euripides. The inhabitants were of Pelasgiaii origin,
but were regarded as lonians; they were a semirbarbarous and
predatory tribe. There were five towns in the district — Thyreaf
which may be regarded as the capital, and which is described as
being situated about 10 stadia from the coast ; Prasiae, more to the
S., on the coast ; Anthena, Neris, and Eva, in the interior. The
exact position of these towns is undecided.

History, — ^Upon the conquest of Peloponnesus by the Dorians,
Cynuria was subdued by Argos.' As Sparta rose to power, there were
numerous conflicts for it : Agis gained possession of it for Sparta about
BC. 1000, but Argos recovered it, and retained it until 547, when the
dispute was decided in favour of Sparta by a pitched battle of 300 on
eacn side. The ifiginetans were settled there by the S|)artan8 in 431,
but were expelled by the Athenians iu eight years. Philip, the &ther
of Alexander the Qreat, restored Cynuria to Argos, which thenceforth
retained it.

VII. Arcadia.

§ 9, Arcadia, the central province of Peloponnesus, ^vas bounded
on the E. by Argolis, on the N. by Achaia, on the W. by Elis, and
on the S. by Messenia and Laconia. Next to Laconia it was the

* *0c ^^01^ irorofiby Tainihv 'A/yycia; Spov«

14ii¥Ovra yauK. EuBD'. Ekdr. 410.

^ This name occurs only in Statins : —

Quseqae pa vet longa spnmantem valle Charadrum
Neris. Theh. Iv. 46.


by Google

470 ARCADIA. Book IV.

largest province in PeloponneBus, its greatest length being about 60
miles, and its breadth from 35 to 41. In its position it resembles a
fortified camp, being surromided on all sides by a natural wall
of mountains which separate it from the other Peloponnesian
states. The interior is broken up by irregular mountain-
ranges, and the general appearance of the country justifies
the name of ** the Switzerland of Greece,*' which has been applied
to it. The mountains vary in character and altitude in the E. and
W. : in the latter they are wild, high, and bleak, with valleys of
small extent and of little fertility ; in the former they are of lower
elevation, with small fertile plains embosomed in them, and so
completely surrounded by hills that the streams can only escape by
subterraneous outlets. These plains furnished the only atti'active
sites for towns, and we accordingly find all the chief places of
Arcadia on this side of the country. Of the productions of the
country, the best known were its asses, which were highly prized
throughout Greece.

§ 10. The following were the principal mountains : in the N.E.,
CyUhsie,^ Zyriay 77§8 feet high, reputed the loftiest in Peloponnesus,
but in reality inferior to Taygetus — ^a massive, isolated peak,
crowned with a temple of Hermes ; Crathit and Aroanins, more to the
W., forming the connecting links between Cyllene and the lofty
and long range of Erymantkus' in the N.W. ; Lampea and PholoSi
continuations of Erymanthus, separating Arcadia from Elis ; LyosBUi,
Dioforti, in the S.W., in the district of Parrhasia, 4659 feet high,
with a summit named Olympus, on which were situated the grove
and altar of Zeus Lycajus,* together with a hippodrome and stadium

* It was celebrated a» the birth-place of Hermes, or Mercury, In whose honour
a temple was erected on the summit : —

'Ep/iiji' vfivti, Movaa, Aibf koX MoulSof vibv,

KvkX^vrii fititovra icax 'Apica86^ iroAv/ii^Xov.— HoM. Hymn, in Max. 1.
Tobis Mercnrius pater est, quern Candida Maia
CyUenai gelido oonceptum vertice Aidit. — J7n. viii. 188.
He was hence termed Cyllenius by the poets : —
Hie primum paribus nitens Cyllenius alis
Constitit. jEn. iv. 252.

2 Erymanthus was covered with forests abounding with wild beasts, and was
hence one of Diana's haunts and the fabled scene of Hercules's victory over the
wild boar : —

Oiif 6* *Afmiui tUri kot ovpco? cox^upa,
*H Kori. Tij<>y«Tov wtptfii^trw, ^ '^vfiavOov,
Tepirofi^ xairpot<ri xal wicet^t cAa^KH<n. Od. vi. 102.

Ut Tegeseus apcr oupressifero Erymantho
Incubet, et vasto pondere leedat humum. — Ov. Heroid. ix. 87.
Monstrifenimque Erymanthon. Stat. Tkeh. iv. 298.

a Ta Si Haft^aa-lif (rrpar^
Oavfuurr^ Utv ^ni
Zif^bv ofi^i wayayvpip AvKOtov* Pnn>. Olymp. Ix. 143.


by Google


for the celebration of the Lycsean games/ a temple of Pan,* and in
the E. part of the mountain a sanctuary and grove of A])ollo Parr-
hasius ; KemUns. in the interior, between the territories of Mantinea
and Tegea, a well- wooded range rising to above 5000 feet in the sum-
mit of Apano-Khrepa, regarded as especially sacred to Pan;* and,
lastly, Partheniiim, Art6misimii» and Lyreenm, on the borders of Argolis.
§ 11. The chief river of Arcadia is the AlphSns, in its upper
course named Karitena, in its lower /?M/?a, which rises in the S.E.,
on the borders of Laconia, near Phylace, and thence probably flowed
in ancient times to the N.W.,' and disappeared in the Katavothra
of Thki : it then reappeared near Asea, and mixed with the Eurotas
in the copious spring called Frangovrysi: the combined streams
again disappear, and the Alpheus emerges at Pegw, and flows
towards the N.W., receiving the Helisson, on which Megalopolis
was situated, then penetrating through a defile near Brenthe which
separates the upper from the lower plain, and receiving, below
HersBa, the Ladon>' Rufia, and the Erymaathiu,' on the borders of

'0<ra T«

<m AvKotov fitafiiK oMoi. Pnn>. Olymp. xHi. 162.

^ Theee games resembled the Roman Luperealia : —
Quid vetat Areadio dictos a monte Lup^cos ?
Faunus in Arcadia templa LyctDOS habet. — Ov. Fast. ii. 423.
A See qnotationii in next note.

« *0 Hdj^ frdv, eiT eo-crl icar' wp«a luucpa Avxouiw,

Elrt nJy' oiL^iiroKtU fUya MotVoAov.— Theock. IdjfU. L 123.
Pan, ovium custos, tua si tibi Maenala curee,
AdslB, o Tegeee, favens. Viao. Oeorg. i. 17.

Pinifer ilium etiam sola sab rape Jaoentem
Mwnalus, et gclidi aeveront saxa Lyceel.— ^/. x. 14.
Msenala traneieram latebris horrenda feraram,
Et cum Cylleno gelidi pineta Lyceei.— Ov. Met. i. 216.
Mienalius and Msnalis are frequently used by the Roman poets as equivalent
to Arcadian : —

Pinigerum Fauni Miendlis ora caput— Ov. Fast. Hi. 84.
Sive ftigSB comite*, Maenali Nympha, tua. — Id. i. 634.
7 It now flows to the N.E., and disappears in the katavothra of Persia at
the foot of Mt, Parthenium ; its course is said to have been thus diverted in
modem times.

» The Ladon is fomed in mythology as the nver into which Syrinx plunged
when pursued by Pan : —

Donee arenosi placidum Ladonis ad amnem
Venerit ; hie illi cursum impedientibus undis,
Ut se mutarent, liquidas orasse sorores. — Ov. Met. i. 702.
Ito stream Is described as being very rapid :— ^ *

Testis erit Pholo6, testes Stymphalides undsB ;

Quique eitis Ladon in mare currit aquis. — Ov. Fast. ii. 273.
Arcades hunc, Ladonqne rapaXf et Msenalos ingens

Rite colunt, Lunft credita terra prior. Id. v. 89.

9 AoJM^ oAX* oww lUyai tppttv^ oW 'E^^aoj^o?
Aewit<iTaT<K jroTOfiAr, en «' afipoxof W artura
•Apito^iii. Callim. H. in Jov. 19.

Et celcr Ismenus cum Phocalco Erymantho. — Ov. Mrt. ii. 244.


by Google

472 AECADIA. Book IV

Elis. Of the numerous streams which rise in the E. district, the
most important is the BtymphUiui, which feeds the lake of the same
name, and disappears in a kcUavothra, emerging (as it was univer-
sally believed) in the Argolic river Erasinus t the water of the
Stymphalus was conveyed to Corinth by an aqueduct built by

§ 12. The inhabitants of Arcadia regarded themselves as the most
ancient inhabitants of Greece,^ and derived their name from Areas,
a son of Zeus. The Greeks described them as autochthonousy by
which they understood that they were Pelasgians who had never
changed their abode. They led a primitive and secluded life among
their mountains, tending their flocks and herds, cultivating music
with success,* but otherwise rather famed for stupidity,* — ^brave and
hardy, and hence, like the Swiss, constantly employed as merce-
naries, lliey lived for the most part in villages, in a state of political
independence.^ The country was divided into nimierous districts,
which were for the most part named after well-known towns in
each. The exceptions are Parrhasia,' on the border of Messenia,
which appears once to have possessed a town of the same name ;
Cynuria," to the N, of it ; Eutresia, N. of MegalopoUs ; and Azania,
which included numerous lesser districts in the N. of Arcadia. The
towns were unimportant, with the exception of a few in the eastern
district, particularly Tegea and the neighbouring Mantinea, which

1 They termed thenmelTes vptxrAiivoc, as haTing existed "even before the
moofn :** —

Zil»€iVf ^Tfyitv iSorrts iv ovptaw ovM ncAa<f7is

X9i»¥ ttirc Kv^aXitiountr dKdo-<mt> ^tvKaX£iffOW. — APOLL. Jrgon. iv. 264.
Orta prior Luna (de se si creditor ipsi)
A magno tellos Arcade nomen habet. — Or. Fast, i. 469.
' Henoe ** Arcades " became synonymoos with pastoral poets :—
Ambo florentes setatibos. Arcades ambo. — Yibg. £ci, vii. 4.

Tamen cantabitis. Arcades, inquit,
MontlbTis hffio vestris : soli oantare periti
Arcades. Id. x. 81.

* Arcadicns Javenis was tantamount to a *' blockhead :" —

Nil salit Arcadioo JavenL Jmr. Sat, tU. 160.

^ It is worthy of remark how the habits, mythology, and political condition of
the Arcadians were influenced by the phyrical characteristics of their country.
The poverty of the soU and sererity of the climate necessitated a pastoral rather
than an affrionltural life ; hence their love of music and their devotion to Pan,
the inventor of the pipe, and Mercury, the god of the lyre. The great hydraulic
works necessary to keep the eastern plains trota inundation wert ascribed to
Hercules. The mountain-ranges which encircled and subdivided it precluded
both external and internal union for political purposes.

A It is noticed by Homer {II. ii. 608). The terms ParrhaHtu and ParrhaHs
are used by the Latin poeta as equivalent to Arcadicus : —

Parrhaaio dictum Panes de more Lupero».— Visa. JEt^. viii. 844.
Cum Parrhasio AncsDo.— <>v. Met, viiL 815.
So also i«^ xi. 81 ; FasL i. 618, iv. 577 ; Tritt. ii. 100.


by Google

Chap. XXIII. TOWNS. 473

were exposed to inroads from the adjoining states of Sparta,
Corinth, and Argos, and were not unfrequently rivals for the su-
premacy over each other. Megalopolis was founded at a compara-
tively late period, b.o. 370, and became the capital of the country.
The towns fell into decay under the Roman dominion, and in the
time of Strabo Tegea alone was inhabited.

Kaatinto stood in the oentnd portion of the plain of TripoHiza^ and
was the capital of a territory lying between the mountains Mienalus on
the W. and Artemisium on the E., and separated by a low ridge from
Orchomenia in the N., and by projecting spurs of the mountains already
mentioned from Tegeatis on the S. The town itself was in nearly the
lowest as well as the narrowest {Art of the plain. The small river
Ophis* flowed originally through it, and afterwards just outside its
walls, and disappeared in a katavothnt to the N.W. of the town. The
fortifications were regular ; and the circuit of the walls, flanked with
numerous towers, are still traceable on the site, now named Paleopoli,
The position of Mantinea rendered it a place of great military im-
portance : roads led from it to Orchomenus, Tegea, Pallantium, and
Argos ; and the character of the plain was adapted to ihe operations of
an army. It was the scene of no less than five battles, of which the
two first are of most historical importance; the first fought b.c. 418,
in which the Argeans, Mantineans, and Athenians, were defeated by the
Lacedsdmonians under Agis, and the second in B.C. 362, in which the
f^acedssmonians were deroated by Epaminondas, who perished in the
battle. Both these battles were fought in the plain a, of the town,
where it is contracted by the advancing ridge of Msnalos, named Scope.?
Mantinea is said to have been so named after a son of Lycaon : it is noticed
in Homer.* Originally it consisted of four or five vUlages, which were
incorporated into one town. Its constitution was democratical, and hence
it was hostile both to its neighbour Tegea and to Sparta. With the former
it fought an indecisive battle in b.o. 423 ; by the latter it was defeated
in the first great battle of Mantinea in 418, and again in 380, when the
town capitulated, and its inhabitants were dispersed. The town was
rebuilt in 371, and shortly i^ter made an alliance with Sparta against
the other Arcadian towns : this brought on the second great battle in
362, in which Epaminondas died. In 295 the Spartans were defeated
neap the town by Demetrius Poliorcetee, and in -42 by Aratus and the
Achsdans. In the Cleomenio War, Mantinea was taken in 226 by Aratus,
and in 222 by Antigonus Doson, when it was plundered, and its name
changed to iijitigonia. In 207 the plain was the scene of a fifth great

* This stream rose in the territory of Tegea, and more than once was used as
a weapon of oflTence in the Montinean wars, the plain being so flat that the waters
could be easily diverted from their usual channel, or wholly stopped by an em-
bankment, in either of which cases the plain was inundated. This was done by
Agesilaurt in b.c. 385.

^ This dcflle was the " narrow pass '* in which Areithous was slain : —
Thy AvK^opyoi Jn-c^M 66k*f ovrt fcparct yt
ZrtiMorip iv biif. n. yU. 142.

B Kal Try6)v dxov, juu MaynWiyy iparttviiv, IL U. 607.

The epithet of "lovely," here applied, is now inappropriate to the plain,
which is bare and oovered to a great extent with stagnant water. In former
times, howerer, forests of oaks and cork trees grew on it.


by Google

474 ARCADIA. Book IV.

battle, in which the AohseanB, under Pbilopoemen, defeated the Laoo-
dnmonians. The old name of Mantinea was restored by Hadrian.
The only remains of it are traces of the walls and of uie theatre.
Tteift stood in the southern part of the plain of Tripclitzay about 10
miles S. of Mantinea. Its territory extended over the surrounding
district, which was divided into the folio winj^ portions : — The Tegeatic

Slain to the N., extending to the hill Scope; the Manthyrio to the
.W. ; and the Corythic to the E. The plain is watered by the upper
course of the Alpheus and its tributaries, as well as by the GUrates :
these streams all disappeared in kaiavothroM. The town was situated in
the lowest part of the plain, and hence the accumulation of soil haa
entu'ely overlaid its site, leaving but a few buildings yisible, — among
them the remains of a theatre, perhaps the one built by Antiochus
Epiphanes in 175, and of a temple of Athena Alea,* erected by Soopas
after the destruction of the former edifice in 394, and deemed the most
magnificent temple in the Peloponnesus. Tegea is noticed by Homer,

and was probably the most
celebrated of the Arcadian
towns in ancient times. Its
contiguity to Sparta brought
it into early conflict with that
state ; and after numerous en-

gagements it was obligeil to

Coin of Teges. yield in about B.C. 560, though

it still retained its independ-
ence. War broke out again between them, and battles were fought in
479 and 464, on each of which occasions Tegea was unsuccessful.
Thenceforth there was a firm alliance between them until 371, when
Teg^ joined the Arcadian confederacy, and fought against Sparta
and B^tinea in 362. It joined Sparta against the Achaean League,
and was hence taken by Autigonus Doson in 222, retaken in 218 by
Lycurgus the tyrant of Sparta, and subsequently by Biachanidas, and
recovered by the Achatans after the tleath of the latter. The town
existed untU the 4th century a.d. ]|egtlop81ii, ''the Great City/'
was situated in the middle of a plain on the banks of Helisson,
about 2^ miles above its junction with the Alpheus: its ruins are
near Sinanu. It was founded in B.C. 370, as the capital of the Ar-
cadian confederation; and it was peopkd with the inhabitants of
forty townships, which thenceforth became desolate. The town itself
was 50 stadia in circumference, and its teiritory extended north-
wards for 23 miles, being the most extensive of all the Arcadian
states. Roads led in various directions to Messene, Sparta, Tegea,
Hersea, and other places. The most important buildings were the
theatre, on the S. side of the river, the largest in Greece; and the
agora on the N. side, which was on a magnificent scale, and was
adorned with colonnades, temples, and statues : the remains of the
theatre are . extensive. Megalopolis was particularly exposed to the
enmity of the Spartans, not only from the object for which it was
founded, but also from its position. It hence allied itself first with
Thebes, and afterwards with Macedonia. It joined^Cassander against
Polysperchon, and was besieged by the latter in 318. It was afterwards

» Templumqae Ale«B nemorale Minervic. — Stat. l%ti. iv. 288.

The site of this temple is sometimes erroneously transferred to the town of
Alea in the N.E. of Arcadia.


by Google

Chap. XXUI. TOWNS. 476

gOTemed by tyrants. In 222 Cleomenes III. reduced the greater part
of it to ruins ; it was soon rebuilt on its former grand scale, which had
at all times been beyond the requirements of the population.^ Mega-
lopolis produced two eminent men — the general Philopoemen, and the
historian Polybius. Hensa was the chief town in the lower plain of
the Alpheus : it stood on the right bank of that river, about 2 miles
above the junction of the Ladon. Its territory was fertile, and it lay
on the high road between Olympia and Central Arcadia. It is said to
have been founded by a son of Lycaon. About B.C. 580 it concluded a
treaty with the Eleans, the original of which, on a bronze tablet, is in
the British Museum. The town was enlarged by the Spartan king
Cleombrotus, and was hence allied to Sparta. It became a member of

Online LibrarySir William Smith William Latham BevanThe student's manual of ancient geography → online text (page 54 of 82)