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the Achsean League, and was a place of some importance in the time of
Pausanias : its ruins near Aiarmi are inconsiderable. Fhigalia occupied
the summit of a lofty hill in the S.W. corner of the country, on the
right bank of the Neda. Its origin was traced back to Phigalus, a son
of Lycaon. In b.c. 659 it was taken by the Spartans, and in
375 the place became notorious for the fierce disputes between its
£eu:tions. In the wars between the ^tolians and Achseans it was occu-
pied by the former. Phigalia possessed a beautiful temple of Apollo
Epicurius, erected to commemorate the deliverance of the town from
the plague in the Pdloponnesian War : it stood at Basse, in a glen near
the summit of Mt. Cotilium, and was the work of Ictinus, the archi-
tect of the Parthenon. It was a peripteral hexastyle building of the
Doric order, 125 feet in length and 48 in breadth, with 15 oolumns on
each side. It exists in a tolerably perfect state, and is altogether one
of the most interesting ruins in Greece. Ketliydriiim was situated on
a lofty height " between the rivers " (whence its name) Malcetas and
Mylaon, in the central district of Arcadia: its position is probably near
Nimnitza. It was fonnded by Orchomenus, and destroyed at the
foundation of Megalopolis. Orohom&ras was situated N. of Mantinea,
on a plain' which was bounded on the N. by the lofty chain of Oli-
gyrtus, on the S. by the low ridge of Anchisia, and on the E. and W.
by parallel chains, not distinguished by any special names, from which
spurs project into the centre of the plain, dividing it into two parts.
The acropolis stood on the western of these spurs, a lofty insulated hill,
nearly 3000 feet high, commanding the two plains : this position was
forsaken for a lower site at the foot of the hiU. Orchomenus was
one of the most powerful cities of Arcadia in ancient times : it was
governed by kings, who, down to the time of the second Messenian War,
exercised a supremacy over the whole country, and who continued to
reign in their own territory until the Peloponnesian War. Orchomenus
was generally on bad terms with Mantinea, but was unable to cope
with it. It was taken by Cassander in 313, subsequently by Cleomenes
in the ^tolian War, and retaken by Antigonus Doson. Some remains
of temples and tumuli mark the site of the town at Kalpaki. Stym-
phUns lay on the S. side of the lake of the same name, where its ruins

' Its size was so excessive as to lead to the fcrflowing bon mot of a comic
poet: —

'EpnifUa fityAkri itrnv ii MffyaAoiroA.i$.

' Ol ^Ph^6v T hfiiiovTOf icol 'OpxofUyw noXviiriXov. — U. U. 606.
Dives et Orohomenos peconun. Stat. 77^. iv. 295.


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476 ARCADIA. Book IV.

may still be seen. It is noticed by Homer and Pindar.' Its chief his-
torical importance is due to its position on the road that leads into
Arcadia from Argolis and Corinth. It possessed a temple of Artemis

Of the less important tovms we may notice— Pallantiimi, W. of Tegea,
near Jlfo/crt, a very ancient town, and the reputed residence of Evander,
who transferred the name, together with a portion of its inhabitants,
to the Palatine Hill at Rome;^ Asea, about midway between Tegea
and Megalopolis, near the joint source of the Eurotas and Alpheus ;
Lyooitbra, in PaiThasia, near StalOt reputed by Pausanias the most
ancient city in Qreece ; Acaceirimn, in the same district, with a cele-
brated temple of Despoena in its neighbourhood ; AliphSra, upon a
steep and lofty hill, now named NerovUza, near the borders of Elif ,
with temples of Asclepius and Athena, and a celebrated bronze statue
of the latter ; ThfilptUa, on the Ladon,^ N. of Henea, taken by Anti-
^nus Doson in 222 ; its ruins lie on ^e slope of a hill near Vanena;
it possessed famous temples of Erynnys and Apollo, at a spot named
Onceum; Psophif, Tripotamo^ a very ancient town, situated on elevated
ground at the junction of the Erymanthus and Aroanius, captured by
Philip of Macedon in 219; deitor, ruins at Paleopoli, more to the E.,
situated on a brook of the same name, which falls into the Aroanius
(not the river above mentioned), a tributary of the Ladon : its inha-
bitants were renowned for their love of liberty, and were frequently
engaged in contests with the other Arcadian towns ; a celebrated foun-
torn was in its neighbourhood,^ and the river Aroanius is said to have
produced singing fishes; CyxkSBtliA, Kalavryta^ on the N. side of the
Arcadian mountains, destroyed in the Social War by the iEtolians ;
Hon&erii, more to the E., famed for its vicinity to the nver Styx,^ which
rises a short distance from the town, and descends perpendicularly over
a precipice,^ forming by far the highest waterfall in Greece; it falls into

8 SnJfi^i)Xov T* cZxoy, ical nappa<riV iviiimm. Ik iL 608.

Oucodev oucoS* «ur6 2rvfi^»aAu«y

Mar^' tviiiXovo Ae^iroiV 'ApKoiCa^. Pnn>. Oljfmp. v{. 167.
* Arcades his oris, genus a Pallante profectum.
Qui regem Evandrura oomites, qui slgna secuti,
Delegere locum, et poeuere in montibus urbem,
Pallantis proavi de nomine, Pallanteum.— Yieo. J?n. viii. 51.

Aa^MK aft4>< ptlBpa. raiovtra <ricvAa(. LroOPHB. 1040.

This spring was supposed to be a spedflc against the love of wine : —

Clitorio quicunque sitlm de fonte levarit,

Vina ftigit ; gaudetque meris abstemius undis. — Or. Met. xr. 822.
^ Nonaorius is used by Ovid as a synonym for Arcadius : —

£t matri et vati paret Nonaerim heros (se. Evander).— ibsf. t. 07.

Dum redit itque frequens, in virgine Nonacrina.— if«^ ii. 409.
« It is correctly described by Homer and Hesiod : —

Srvybf v^arof otirsk p4e0pa. lU vlil, 369.

Kat rb Ka.'nifi6ft€vov Xrvyht vi**p. Id. XT. 37.

^vxpitv o t' ix rrrp^i xaraXe^Tcu ^Ai^drou)
'Y^lniXfit. ' Theng. 785.

'QyvytoK, rb 3' li|<rt KaTOtfrv^Aov 3mL x**P<w* — ^^ ^^^-
The description in Herodotus (vl4 74) is less correct. The old belief still holds
good among the inhabitants of the neighbourhood ; whence the modem names
Mavro-Jiero, "black waters," and Drako-Nero^ ♦* terrible waters."


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Chap. XXIII.



the Crathis below Nonacris; its waters were believed to be poisonous,
and hence the stream was transferred to the imagery of the nethei*
world; Pheneus, Fonia, W. of Stymphalus, in a plain enclosed on every
side by mountains, and
watered by two streams,
which disappear in a
katavothra, and emerge
as the sources of the
Ladon : this outlet
has occasionally become
choked, and an inunda-
tion has ensued; a canal ^^__
which was formed for Coin of Pheneus.
the purpose of guiding

the streams to the katavothra was ascribed to Hercules; the town is
noticed by Homer, emd is represented by Virgil as the residence of
Evander;*' lastly, GaphysB, N.W. of the lake of Orchomenus at KhO'
tu88a, the scene of a battle between the ^tolians and Achseans in 220;
its territory was protected from inundation by embankments and

History. — The early history of Arcadia is imimportant. The people
were divided into three separate bodies, named Azanes, Parrhasii, and
Trapezuntii, governed by their separate kings. Homer notices only one
Ar<^ian king, Agapenor. The Dorians did not conquer Arcadia on
their first entrance into Peloponnesus, but the Spartans succeeded in
gaining vafious districts adjacent to their frontier. The Arcadians were
thus opposed to Sparta, and it was not until the defeat of the Tegeans
in B.C. 560 that they changed their views, and^ became allies of that
power. Between 479 and 464 they vainly endeavoured to shake qff the
supremacy. In the Peloponnesian War ful the towns, except Mantinea,
remained faithful to Sparta, and even Mantinea was obliged to succiunb
in 417. After the battle of Leuotra in 371, the Arcadians became inde-
pendent, restored Mantinea, which had been destroyed in 385, and
founded Megalopolis as the seat of a federal government. A battle, in
which the Spartans were victorious in 367, and a war with the Eleans for
the Olympian supremacy in 365, were the next events of importance: the
latter le.l to disputes between Tegea and Mantinea, which were not
settled until the battle of Mantinea in 362. The country subsequently
joined the Achsean League, to which it belonged imtil the dissolution of
the league by the Romaus, when it became part of the province of

§ 13. 11)6 islands of the ^gsean Sea, which were not included in
the Cyclades, were grouped together under the general name of the
Spor&dei , " scattered." Some of these lie in close contiguity to the
eastern and northern coasts of the iEgfran, and have been already
described in connexion with Asia Minor and Thrace. Another
group is found between the coasts of Peloponnesus and Crete, con-
sisting of Melos, Cimolos, Oli&ros, Pholegandros, Siclnos, los,
Thera, and Anftphe ; while a third„ lying E. of the Cyclades, in-
cluded Amorgus, Astypaleea, and some lesser islands.

® Accofisi et cupidus Phenei sab mocnia dn%i.—jEn, vUi. 16ft.

Digitized by VjOOQ IC

478 SPORADES. Book IV.

Milo, stands midway between Crete and Peloponnesus, 70
miles from the former, and 65 from the latter; it is about 15 miles
long and eiglit broad, and resembles a bow in shape : it is mountainotis,
and of volcanic orig^, and has warm springs : its chief productions
were kids, sulphur, alum, pumice-stone, and a red pigment. A deep
bay occurs on the N. coast, and served as the harbour of the chief
town, which etood on its shore : remains of polygonal walls, of two
theatres, and of the necropolis, still exist. Meloe was originally occu-
pied by Phoenicians, and afterwards by Lacedsmonians. It was cruelly
ravaged by the Athenians in B.C. 416, when the population was exter-
minated, and Athenian settlers introduced. Cimolot, Cimolu lies
between Melos and Siphnus, in size 5 miles long by 3^ bi-oad : it
was paiiiicularly celebrated for its chalk ' {Gimdia creta), used by
fullers, and in medicine. The chief town stood opposite Melos on a
rock, named Da$kalio, which was formerly unite<1 to the island by an
isthmus, but is now diqoined from it. Oliaios,' Antiparo, near Paros,
is now famed for a sUilactitic cavern, which appears to have been
unknown to the ancients. Pholegandrot, Sidnot, and lot, He in a line
from W. to E., to the S. of Par<>s» and retain their names with but
slight variation: los is celebrated as the burial-place of Homer; the
alleged discovery of his tomb in 1771 is, however, problematical.
Thflm, Santorin, is the chief of the group, and lies nearest to Crete : it
has the form of a crescent, with its horns elongated towards the W.,
and has a circumference of 30 miles, with a breadth nowhere exceeding
three miles. It is said to have been first occupied by Phoenicians, but
it was afterwards colonized by Spartans,' and itself colonized Cyrene, in
Airica. Opposite the N. point of Thera is Therasia; and between this
and the S. point is the islet of Aspronisi: these three were originally
united, and they form the walls of a vast crater, now a gulf of the sea,
from the centre of which have arisen three peaks, named the Kammenis,
the first of which made its appearance in B.C. 197, the second in a.d.
46, and the third in a.d. 1707. The volcanic eruptions in these islands
have been very numerous and violent. There are remains of several
ancient towns on Thera, particularly of one of considerable size on the
summit of Me$sa Vouno. Anapihft lies E. of Thera, and contained a
famous temple of Apollo iEgletes, said to have been founded by the
ALigonauts, of which considerable remains still exist: it has at all times
abounded in partridges. Aitypalaa, Stampalia, lies R. of Anaphe, and
consists of two large rocky masses, united in the centre by an isthmus :
two deep bays penetrate on the N. and S. coasts, and off the latter lie
several desert islands.^ It was colonized by Megarians, and is said to
have been subdued by Minos: in B.C. 105 the Romans concluded a

» Cretoeaque mra Cimoli.— Ov. MeL rii. 463.

« It Is noUccd by Vh^ :—

Olearon, niveamque Paron, sparsasque per cequor.— .I?n. iii. 126.
> ItB earliest name is said to have been Calliste : —
Kat, AojccJat-
fjMvUty inxl^tyrti avifmv
HBtvu^i iv iroTc KoA-

N5<rw. PiND. PyOt. Iv. 467.

< Ovid allndes to these in the line : —

Cinrtoque piseoeis Astypalea vadis.— Ov. Ar, Awu iL 82.


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Chap. XXIII. GRETA. 479

treaty with it, and made it subsequently a ** libera ci vitas." The town
stood on the S. bay, and appears to have possessed handsome buildings.
AmorgOB, Amorgo, N.W. of Astypalsea, is chiefly celebrated as the
birth-place of the poet Simonides, and for its linen fabrics. It was
fertile, and was considered by the Romans as one of the most favour-
able places for banishment : it contained three towns. Cinanii, named
after the artichoke {Klyapa) it produced, and Lebinthns, lie £. of
Amoi^os; Lelaadras and HicatU N. of it; PhaoCkia and Schamliia W.
of it.

§ 14. The large island of Creta, known to us imder the name of
Candia, but to its own inhabitants as Kriti, lies at the entrance of
the jEgsean 8ea, about 60 miles distant from the Peloponnesus, and
double that distance from Asia Minor. Its length is about 160 miles,
and its greatest breadth about 30. It is very mountainous and woody,
and was celebrated in ancient times for its medicinal herbs (parti-
cularly the "dictamnon"), for its raisin-wine and honey, and its
dogs. A chain of monntains traverses the whole length of the
island : the central height, named Idai* P«i7on7i, terminates in three
lofty peaks at an elevation of 7674 feet : the eastern prolongation
was named DietOi Juktas, and the western LenoO)^ Leuki. The coast
is irregular, and contains numerous promontories, of which we may
notice, as most important — Corfouf. C, Orahusa, in the N.W. ;
IHetymiaram, or Psaonm, C, Spadka, a little to the E., the termina-
tion of a ridgQ of the same name, which was crowned with a temple
of Dictynna ; Crimnetdpoxi, O, Crio, in the S.W. ; Mat&la, Matala,
on the S. coast ; AmpiloBt C. XacrOf in the S.E. ; and Samonium, the
Salmone of Acts xxvii. 7, C, St. Sidero, in the N.E. The chief
river, named Lethani, Maioyniti, runs from E. to W. through the
plain of Gortyna, joining the sea on the S. coast. The other streams
derive their whole importance from poetical associations : they are
the lard&nns,' Flataniaj on the N. coast, near which was the rock
Lissa ; and the Oazes.'* or Axus, flowing down from Ida to the N.
coast, and still retaining its name.

§ 15. The earliest inhabitants of Crete were j^mbably a mixed

* Ida, and particularly its sinnmit, named Panacra, was regarded as especially
sacred, to Jupiter, where the bees nurtured him with their honey : —

IIoAAi} re Aiirapi} re koX evjSoTO$* ^ virep *Idi},

I5i7, KoXXueSfiotiriy {>nh Bpvai r7i\t$6ti><ra.

Kai TtjK Toi fiiytBoi ntpuaaxov. DiOK. 1'kkieo. 601.

r^rro yap i(aMivaui HayaxpiSot tpya fuXiirayii

'Ijaiois ci' opc<ro%, rd re jrActbvcn ndvaxpa.

Callim. Hymn, in Jov. 50.
« Leuca was well clothed with wood : —

/Soufc W Kovpr)
Acvfcby eiri, KpiTTOtov opo«, K9KoiLy\ixivov tfATy.— CxLLni. B. in Dian. 40.
7 i7;(i Kv^i^9 iviuo¥, 'laplavov ofK^i pitBpa. Od. III. 292.

* At nos hinc alii sitientett ibimus AfTos,

Pars Scythiam, et rapidam Crctco venicmuH Oaxen.— Viro. Eel. 1. 05.


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480 CRETA. Book IV.

race of Carians, Pelasgians, and Phoenicians. In the heroic age,
Dorians were the dominant race, sharing the country with the Eteo-
oretans, Cydonians, and other races.* The Cretans had a high
reputation as light troops,* and served as mercenaries in Greek and
barbarian armies. They lived in separate communities, each town
having its own senate, coins, Ac, and only coalescing, or " syn-
cretizing," when their common mother-country was threatened by
a foreign foe. The towns are said to have been as many as 100.*
Many of them were very ancient, and they existed until the invasion
of the Romans under Q. Metellus. The most important were
Cnossus, Gortyna, Cydonia, and, after the decay of the latter,
Lyctus. ITie first two had a " hegemony," and were generally
hostile to each other.

(1.) On the Sea-Codtt. — Commencing in. the N.W., the first important
town we meet with ia Cydonia, Khania^ which existed in Homer's time,

but was enlarged and
adorned by the Samians
under Polycrates. In the

IPeloponnesian War it
was at war with the Oor-
tynians and Athenians.
It was besieged by Pha-
Isecus the Phocian after
the Sacred War, and
again by the Roman
ColnofQydonla. general Metellns. The

quince-tree derived its
name from this place. Itinns, on the E. coast, near a promontory
of the same name, was probably a Phoenician town. Lebea, LedcL, on
the S. coast, served as the port of Gortyna, and possessed a celebrated
temple of Asclepius. Phalaaama, on the W. coast, a little S. of

KoAi) KOi frietpa, ircptppimx* ci^ 3* SafBfmvoi,

IIoAAoi, iir«tp^<noi, km. ciao^oiTa v6knt%,

AAAi| 3* oXXmv ykuHTtra fu^JLlyn.iyt|• iv yukv 'Axouh,

*Ev 3* 'ErfoxfnfTtf /iryoAi^'ropcv, iv 3i Kv^mvcv ,

Atapuct re rptx<i(ic<f , 3toi re UtXaoyoL OdL xlz. 172.

Their skill with the bow and arrow is frequently noticed : —
Primosre Teucer tela Ci'donio

Direxit area. Hoa. Carm, iv. 9, 17.

Hastas et calami spicula Gnosil
Vltabls. /rf. L 15, 17.

Xibet Partho torqnere Cydonia coma
Spicula. ViRG. Eel, x. 59.

AAAoi 6^, Oi Kpp/fTjpf cKardfuiiroAtv inL^vifunno. — H. il. 649.
Creta JotIs magni medio jacet insula ponto ;
Mons Tdsus ubi, et gcntis cunabula nostrse.
Centam urbes habitant magnas, uberrima regna. — Jin. iii. 104.
Aut ille centam nobilem Cretam urbibus,

Yentis iturus non suis ;
Exercitatas aut petit Syrtes Noto :

Aut fertur inccrto mari. Hoft. Spod. ix. 29.


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Chap. XXllI. TOWNS. . 481

Prom. CorycuB, was ihe nearest port to Greece, and poMessed a temple
of ArtemU. RemainB of ihe walls, tombs, and of a singular chair cut
out of the solid rock and destined for some deity, still exist.

(2.) In the Infer lor.—Polyrrlienia was the chief town in the N.W.,
and had Phalasama as its port, from which it was distant about 7
miles: its war with Cnossus in uc. 219 is the only historical event
recorded: some walls near KisanuhKastdi mark its site. Lappa, or
Lan^, possessed an extensive district, extending from sea to sea, and
made use of Phconix as its port. After its capture by Metelhis it was
made a free city by Augustus, and at a later period it became an
episcopal pee. Some ruins at Polie represent it. Gortyn, or Gortyna,
stood S. of Ida, on a plain
watered by the river Leth*
sens, and possessed two har-
bours, Leben and Metallum.
It ranked next to Cnossus I
in importance, and in early
times had leagued with that
town for the purpose of sub-
duing the whole of Crete,

but afterwards was engaged Golnof Oortyna.

in constant hostilities with

it. In the Peloponnesian War it sided with Athens. Philopoemen was
elected commander-in-chief of its army in B.C. 201, and, in 197, 500
Gorfynians joined Quinctius Flamininus in Thessaly. Its site is uncer-
tain ; it has been placed at Haghios Dheka, Gnoesni, or Gnoatni, the
royal city^ of Crete, was
centrally situated near the
N. coast, on the banks of
a small stream named
Csuatus,'* after which it I
was originally named. It '
possessed two ports, Hera-
oleum and Amnisus. Its
foundation was attributed

to Minos, who resided there. qqIq of cnosiiua.

The locality abounded with

mythological associations : Jupiter was belieyed to have been bom and
to have died there;* there Dsdalus cultivated his art, and near it was the

S T]^ V M "Kvuwhty fA^yoAi} irtfAif hSti re MtFMf

'ErWiwpov fiaalktvt Aib« fuydkov bafnoT^i. Cd. x\x. 178.

The whole island was occasionally named after it : —

Jupiter omnipotens ! utinam ne tempore prime
OnoMia Ceeropiie tetigissent littora puppes ;
Indomito nee dira ferens stipendia tauro

Perfidos in Cretam religaaaet navita ftuiem. — Catvm.. Ixiv. 171.
* Xatpc M Kotporof wvrofiU lUyaf x<^ ^ Tri(hk.

Galluc. Bywn. in Diatu 44.
* The Cretans pretended that they had his tomb, and henoe ohtained the cha-
racter for lying attributed to them hy Callimachus and Aratus, the latter of whom
is quoted hy St. Paul {TU, i. 12) :—

Kpfrm acl ^rcvoTOf Kol yifi rd/^Vf & ova, <rfio
Kp^Tt« JTUCT^KovTO, CTV ^ ov 0dLm, iwi Y<Bip atc^.

Calliv . Hymn, in Jot. 8.
Kpjirtv acl ^orot, jceuca ^pio, yoar^pct afvyai.



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Book IV.

I.abyrmth,« erected by him and inhabited by the Minotaur, a building
which had no exiatence except in the imaginations of poets. Cnoesus
was colonized by Dorians, and became the leading town in Crete. The
Romans made it a colony. Some rude masaee of Roman brickwork
and parts of a long wall, from which the site is now named^ Makro-
Teicho, are the sole relics of it. loretof was situated in the interior,

S.E. of Cnossus: it was re-
garded as a colony from
Sparta, and the worship of
Apollo prevailed there. It
was a constant rival of Cnos-
sus. In 344 B.O. it. was
taken by Phalaecus, the Pho-
cian, and an ally of Cnossus,
and at a later period was
utterlv destroyed by the
Cnossians : it was finally
sacked by Metellus. Nu-

Coin of LyctQS.

merous remains of buildings, tombs, marbles, and particularly an im-
mense arch of an aqueduct, exist at Lytto. PrsBfns stood under the N.
slope of Moimt Dicte and possessed a considerable territory, together
with a famous temple of Dicteean Jupiter: its ruins still retain the name
of Pra»u$,

History. — ^The history of Crete is somewhat bare of events. At the
time of the Trojan War, Idomeneus, son of Deucalion and grandson of
Minos, was king, and took part with the Greeks. After his return he
was banished, and retired to Italy. The violent quarrels between the
chief towns led to a reference to Philip 17. of Maicedon as a mediator;
but hi^ intervention does not appear to have effected permanent good.
In B.C. 67 Crete was reduced by Q. Metellus Creticus, and was annexed
to Cyrene as a Roman province. This union remained in force until
the time of Constantine, when they were constituted distinct provinces.
Si. Paul's Travels. — In his disastrous voyage to Rome St, Paul
visited the coasts of Crete. Sailing from Myra in Lvcia with a N.W.
wind, his vessel ''ran under Crete over against Salmone," i.e. got
imder the lee of the island, easily rounding the cape, but afterwards
with difficulty getting along the S. coast. Reaching the neighbourhood
of Prom. Matala, whence it would have been necessary to cross the
open sea. it was deemed prudent to put into a roadstead a few miles
E. of the cape, named ** Fair Havens," near which was a town named
Lassca, the ruins of which have been found five miles E. of the cape.
Here the vessel remained some time; but, as the place was incon-
venient for wintering, it was decided to go to Phoenice (the classical
Phoenix) which lay more to the W., probably at Luiro, which is
described as "looking toward the S.W. wind and N.W. wind," mean-
ing probably the aspect which the place bore to one approaching it
from the sea, in which case it would be sheltered from those winds.
They set sail ; but, after passing Cape Matala, they were blown off the
shore of Crete by a N.E. wind, and carried by Clauda, the modem
Chzza, a small island lying S.W. of Crete (Acts xxvii. 7-16).

f 'Er ^ X*^P^ voUiXXt wtpucXvrhv 'Afi^yv^^^t
T^ (KeAor, oUp mrf iv\ Ki^xro^ cvpcqi

n. xviii. 590.


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Peraoniflcatlon of the River Tiber.


§ 1. Boundaries; Names. § 2. General Character; Climate; Produo
tions. § 3. Mountains. § 4. Bays and Promontories. § 5. Rivers
§ 6. Lakes. § 7. Inhabitants. § 8. Divisions. I. Yenetia andlsTBiA.
§ 9. Istria. § 10. Boundaries of Yenetia. § 11. Rivers. § 12. In
habitants; Towns; Roads; History. II. Qallia Cisalfina. § 13,
Boundaries; Name. § 14. Rivers. § 15. Inhabitants; Towns
Roads; History. III. LiouRiA. § 16. Boundaries; Physical Fea-
tures. § 17. Inhabitants; Towns; Roads; History.

§ 1. The peninsula of Italia was bounded on the N. by the Aljie
on the E. by the Adriatic or Upper Sea, on the W. by the Tyr-
rhenian or Lower Sea, and on the S. by the open Mediterranean.
The precise boundary on the N.E. and N.W. varied : in the latter
direction it was originally fixed at Tropsea August!, where an ad-

Online LibrarySir William Smith William Latham BevanThe student's manual of ancient geography → online text (page 55 of 82)