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palities of these parts; Eporedia, itrea, on the Duria Major at the
entrance of the valley of the Salassi, founded for the purpose of
checking the Salassi, and, after the subjugation of this tribe, a place of
wealth and importance; Novaiia^ Novara, between Mediolanum and
VercellflB, noticed as one of the cities which declared in favour of
Vitellius in a.d. 69; and, lastly, Segniio, Susc^ at the foot of the
Cottian Alps in the valley of the Dtiria Minor, the capital of the chief-
tain Cottius, and of importance as commanding the passes over Mont
Oenevre and Mont Cents.

(2.) In Gallia Cispadana. — ^Ravenna, Ravenna, was situated near
the coast of the Adriatic at the S. extremity of the long range of
lagunes which stretch northwards as far as Altintim. It was originally
an Umbrian town. No mention of it occurs until a late period of the
Republic, nor is it known when it received a Roman colony. Its sub-
sequent importance was due to Augustus, who constructed a port


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named Portos CUans, or siniply Clasais, ci^ble of holding 250 ships
of war, and made it the chief naval station on the Adriatic. The
town was very secure, being not only surrounded by lagunee, but
built on piles in a kgune like Venice,' and also being well fortified.
The later emperors frequently made it their military quarters, and
from the time of Honorius, in ▲.d. 404, it was selected from its ^reat
securitT to be their pennanent residence. The Qothic kings retained
it as their capital until 539, when it passed into the hands of the
Byzantines, and became the residence of the Byzantine erarchs. • It
was captured by the Lombards in about 750. The sea-coast has now
receded more than four miles fr^m the town. The only Roman
remains are a few basilicas and a sepulchral chapel. Bononia, BdhffnOf
lay at the foot of the Apennines on the river Rhenus. It was originally
an Etruscan town with the name of Felsina ; it afterwards passed into
the hands of the Boian Gauls ; and finally it became a Roman colony in
B.a 189. It was centrally situated in reference to the lines of commu-
nication opened by the Romans. In B.C. 43 it was garrisoned by M.
Antonius, but was seized by Hirtius. It was under the patronage of
the Antonian fsunily, and hence was not required to take up arms
against Antony in b.c. 32. Subsequently to the battle of Actium,
however, Octavian sent a oolony tMther. In a.d. 53 it was much
damaged by a fire, but it was restored by Claudius. Kutibm, Jfodeno,
lav 25 miles W. of Bononia, on the Via .Emilia. It fell into the hands
of the Romans p*obably in the Gaulish War, b.c. 225-222, and was
made a colony in 183. It played a conspicuous part in the Civil Wars.*
In 44 D. Brutus occupied it, and was besieged in it by M. Antonius,
who was defeated, however, outside the walls in two engagements in
43, and was obliged to raise the siege* In a.d. 452 its territory was laid
waste by Attila, and in about 600 it fell into decay. It was particu-
larly famed for its wooU PannA, Parma, between Mutina and Pla-
oentia, was established as a Roman colony in B.C. 183. It is seldom
noticed until the Civil Wars, when it sided against M. Antonius, and
was- consequently taken and plundered in b.c. 43. Its territory was
celebrated for its fine wool.' It survived Attila's invasion, and was a
wealthy city after the Lombard conquest. Plaoentia, Piaeema, was
situated near the S. bank of the Po, near the confiuenoe of the Trebia.
It was founded in B.C. 219 by the Romans, and supplied with 6000
colonists. In B.C. 200 it was captured by a sudden attack of the Gauls,
and for some years was liable to their incursions, so much so that in
190 a fresh body of 3000 colonists were sent there. Thenceforward it
prospered, and under Augustus it is noticed as one of the most fiourish-
mg cities of Cispadana.

* AU the allusions to Ravenna bear upon its ** watery *' character : —
Qniquc gravi remo limosis segniter nndls

LtntA paludo$a prosoindunt stagna Rarenns. — Sil. Itau tUL 602.
Sit cistema mihl, quam vineo, malo Rarennse ;
Qnum poasim multo rendere pluris aquam. — ^Maat. liL 56.

* Bis Ciesar, Pemsina fames, Mutinsque labores
Aocedant. Luc. 1. 41.

* Sator oerdo dedit tibi, cnlta Bononia, mnnus ;

FoUo dedit Hutins. Mast. ill. 59.

* Velleribos primis Appolia, Parma secondis

Nobilis. Mart. xir. 155


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Of the less important towns we may notice — ^Fa^entia, Faenxa, on
the Via ^mili% famed for its vines and its manufacture of linen, and
noted in history as the place whei*e Ctirbo and Norbanus were defeated
by Metellus in b.c. 82 ; Forum Oomelii, Imcla, 10 miles W. of Faventia,
said to have been named after the dictator Sulla, the residence of
Martial at one period of his life ; datema, on the Via Emilia, the
scene of some xnilitary operations during the Civil War in B.C. 43, and
almost the only town on the Via JSmilia which has ceased to exist in
modem times: BrizeUum, BresceUo, on the S. bank of the Po, chiefly
celebrated as the place where the Emperor Otho put an end to his life ;
Seginm Lejfidif Beggio, 17 miles W. of Mutina, deriving its surname
probably from ^mUius Lepidus, the constructor of the great road, a
place frequently mentioned in the Civil War with M. Antonius ; and,
lastly, Claitidium, Casteqgio, on the borders of Liguria, 7 miles S. of
the ro, chiefly celebrated for the victory gained there in B.C. 222, by
Marcellus over the Insubrians, and a place apparently of some import-
ance until the end of the Second Punic War.

Boads, — We have ft^uently mentioned the Via ?KiniHa in the pre-
ceding pages. It was constructed in b.c. 187, by M. ^milius Lepidus,
to connect Placentia with Anminum. It runs in a direct line for 180
miles through a level plain, and is still the great high road of that dis-
trict. So great was its importance that its name was transferred to the
province through which it passed.* From Placentia the road was con-
tinued to Mediolanum, probably after the complete subjugation of the
Transpadan Gauls. From Mediolanum brandi-roads led to Augusta
Pretoria in the W. and to Aquileia in the N.E. There were also
branch-roads from Mutina to Patavium, and from Placentia to Ticinum
and Augusta Taurinorum, and so on to the Cottian Alps. There were
five important passes over the Alps in this province : — (1.) Across the
Rhsetian Alps, between Verona imd Augusta Vindelicorum, by way of
Tridentum, the valleys of the Athesis and Atagis, and the pass of the
Brenner, (2.) Between the Lacus Larius and Brigantia, on the Lake
of Constance, either by the Splugen or by ihe Septimer, both of which
passes are noticed in the Itmeraries. (3.) Across the Pennine Alps,
between Augusta Prsetoria and Ootodurus, Mariignyf by the Oreat St.
Bernard. (4.) Across the Qraian Alps, between Augusta Pnetoria and*
the valley of the Isara, by the Litue St. Bernard. (5.) Across the
Cottian Alps, between Augusta Taurinorum and Brigantio, Brian^on,
in Qaul, by the pass of Mont Qenhre. Lastly, the Apennines were
crossed by a road oetween Bononia and Arretium.

History. — ^The Qauls became first known to the Romans by the
formidable incursions undertaken by them towards the S., in one of
which, in B c. 390, the city of Rome itself was taken and in part de-
stroyed. The first tribe on whose territory the Romans obtained a
permanent footing were the Senones, who lived in the extreme S.E.
and in Umbria: this occurred in 282. It was not until fifty years later
that the great Gallic War took place in consequence of the distribution
of the "Gallicus ager." In this the Romans gradually subdued all
the Gaulish tribes ; Placentia and Cremona were occupied as colonies
in 219 ; the Boii, in Cispadana, yielded in 191 ; and the Gauls of Trans-
padana, among whom the Insubres were most conspicuous for their re-

* This usage appears to hare commenced at a very early period : —
Bomam vade, liber. Si, veneris undo, requiret,
JBmiliie dices de regione vise. Mast. ML 4.


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602 LIGFRIA. . Book IV.

sistance to Rome, yielded about the eame time. Of the history of
Qallia Cisalpina, as a Roman province, we know little, except that in
B.C. 89 the Jus Latii was conferred on the towns N. of the Po, in re-
ward for the fidelity of the Qauls in the Social War.

in. LlOURIA.

§ 16. The province of Ligoxia extended along the N. coast of the
Tyrrhenian Sea, from the river Varus on the W., separating it from
' Gaul, to the Macra on the E., separating it from Etruria ; north-
wards it extended inland to the river Padus, the right bank of which,
down to the confluence of the Trebia, formed the boundary. This
district is throughout of a mountainous and rugged character, being
intersected in all directions by the ridges of the Apennines. The
chief exports were timber, cattle, hides, and honey. Certain por-
tions of the country were adapted to agriculture, but the majority
of the inhabitants subsisted on the produce of their herds and flocks.
Among the special productions may be noticed a breed of dwarf
horses and mules, and a mineral resembling amber, called ligurium.
The coast is steep, and affords few natural ports. ITie rivers on
the S. of the Apennines are small, and call for no special notice : on
the N. of them there are several important tributaries of the Padus,
particularly the Tan&nis» Tanaro, with its confluent the Stora.

§ 17. The inhabitants of Liguria (the Ligyes and Ligystini of the
Greeks, the Ligtlres of the Romans) were a wild and hardy race,
chiefly noted for their excellence as light-armed troops. TheV were
divided into a number of independent tribes, which coalesced only
on occasions of public danger. Of these tribes the most important
were — the Apoaaif in the valley of the Macra ; the Ingauxii, on the
W. coast; the Intemelii, on the borders of Gaul ; the Vagienni* in
the mountainous district N. of the Apennines to the sources of the
Padus ; and the Tauxlni, who occupied the country on both sides of
the Padus, but whose capital (Turin) was on the left bank of the
river. The Ligurians lived for the most part in villages and moun-
tain fastnesses, and even under the Romans the towns along the sea-
coasts were few. Genua served as the chief port, and LunoB Portus
in the E. was also a place of trade. In the interior there were
several flourishing places under the Romans, situated at the points
where the mountains declined towards the plain, such as Augusta
Vagiennorum, Alba Pompeia, Asta, and Dertona. These are seldom
noticed in history, but nevertheless appear to have been of import-
ance. We sliall describe the towns in order from W. to E., taking
first those on the sea-coast, and afterwards those in the interior.

{I.) On the Ooa«t. —Nicaa, Nice, was situated at the foot of the
Maritime Alps, and on the borders of Qaul. It was a colony of Mas-
silia, and was therefore not a Liguiian possession. In B.C. 154 it was


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attacked by the Ligurians. In the later period of the Boman empire it
was attached to Oaul. EMCvlif MoncBoi Portns, Moncuio, was also a
Massilian colony, and derived its name from a temple of Hercules. It
possessed a smdl harbour, which was frequently resorted to by vessels
trading to Spain. Albium Xntemflllum, VirUimiglia, the capital of the
tribe of the Intemelii, was situated at the mouth of the Rutuba, and
derived its name Albium from its proximity to the Maritime Alps.
AlUmn Inganniini, AXbenga, the capital of the Ingauni, on the coast
more to the £., became a municipal town of importance under the
Romans. Qe]I1U^ Qenoa, stood at the head of the Ligurian Gulf, and
was the chief town in Liguria, an eminence which it owed partly to its
excellent port, and partly as being the point whence the valley of the
To was most easily accessible, — a road crossing the Apennines at this
point. Hence it was visited by Scipio and by Mago in the Second
Punic Wai". By the latter it was destroyed in b.c. 205, but was rebuilt
by the Romans in 203. It is seldom mentioned afterwards.

(2.) In the itifen'or.— Avgofta Vagiennomiii, the capital of the Vagi-
enni, stood between the Stura and Tanarus, probably at a place near
Bene, where considerable ruins exist, comprising remains of an aque-
duct, amphitheatre, baths, &c. Pollentia, Folmza, was situated near
the confluence of the Stura and Tanarus. Its chief celebrity is due to
the great battle fought there between Stilicho and the Goths under
Alaric, in a.d. 403. Its pottery and its dark-coloured wool ai-e noticed.
Alba Pompeia, AJha, on the Tanarus, owed its distinctive appellation
to Cn. Pompeius Strabo, who conferred many privileges on the towns
of this district. It was the birthplace of the emperor Pertinax. Atta,
Asti, on the Tanarus, became a Roman colony, probably under the
Emperor Trajan. It was noted for its pottery. Aqa» StatiellflB, Acqui,
was the chief town of the Statielli, and owed its name to the mineral
springs there. Some remains of the ancient baths and numerous other
antiquities still exist. Dertdna, Tortona, was foimded by the Romans
under the republic, and recolonised by Augustus. It stood on the
road leading from Genua to Placentia, and was a convenient station for
troops. Cexnenelimn, Cimiez, near Nicsea, the resort of wealthy Romans
under the later empire, on account of its mild air. Vada Sab&ta, Vado,
possessing one of the best roadsteads on the Ligurian coast, and the point
whence a road crossed the Apennines.

Boads. — The position of Liguria made it the greatest thoroughfiEire
between Rome and Gaul. The maritime road was a continuation of
the Via Anrelia, and was constructed as far as Vada Sabata by i£miliuB
Scaurus in B.C. 109. It was not until the time of Augustus, in B.C. 14,
that it was carried on to Gaul. This was a work of some difficulty, the
road requiring to be cut in the &ce of the mountain in certain places.
At the head of the pass Augustus erected a massive trophy or monu-
ment, named Tropsea Augusti, the remains of which may be seen at

History, — We have some few notices of the Ligurians in early Greek
writers, from which we conclude that they were a more powerful and
widely-spread nation in early than in late times. The Romans first
entered mto warfare with them in B.C. 237, and continued a series of
wars for above eighty years. The progress of their arms was very slow.
The Apuani were removed in a body to Samnium in 180; the Ingauni
and Intemelii were conquered in 181, and the Statielli in 173; but the
Ligurians were not really reduced to peaceable subjection until the
oonstruction of the roads just described, in the years 109 and 14.


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view ia the Neighbourhood of VelL

ITALY — continued, etburia, umbbia, picenum, sabini, harsi,


IV. Etbubia. § 1 . Boundaries, and general features. § 2. Mountains
and Rivers. § 3. Inhabitants; Towns; Roads; History. V. Umbbia.
§ 4. Boundaries, and general features. § 5. Mountains and Rivers.
§ 6. Inhabitants; Towns; Roads; History. VI. Picenum. § 7.
Boundaries ; Mountains and Rivers. § 8. Inhabitants ; Towns ;
Roads; History. VII. The Sabini, Mabsi, Vestini, MABBraNi,
and Pelioni. § 9. Sabim. Boundaries, and general features.
§ 10. Mountains and Rivers. § 11. Inhabitants; Towns; Roads;
History. § 12. The Marsi. § 13. The Vestini. § 14. The Marru-
cmi. § lo. The Peligni. VIII. Samnitm. § 16. Boundaries;
Mountains and Rivers. § 17. Inhabitants; Towns; Roads; History.
§ 18. The Frentani.

rv. Etburia.

§ 1. Etrnria (the lyrrhenia of the Greeks) was boiuided on the
^.W, by the river Macra, separating it from Liguria ; on the N. by
ihe Apennines ; on the E. by the Tiber, separating it from Umbria,
the Sabini, and Latium ; and on the W. by the Tyrrhenian Sea.
This province is varied in character ; the N. and N.E. is very moun-
tainous, being intersected with lofty and rugged spurs belonging
to the central chain of the Apennines ; the central district, though


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fitill of a mouutainous character, has ridges of less height intermixed
with valleys of considerable width and fertility, such as are those
of the Amus and the Olanis ; the maritime district, now called the
MaremTna, is a plain of varying width, according as the ridges
approach to or recede from the coast. The general direction of the
ranges in the central region is parallel to that of the Apennines,
t. c, from N.W. to S.E. ; and the rivers find outlets to Uie sea at
places where the ranges are interrupted. Near the coast the hills
strike out at right angles to their former course, and in some
instances descend to the very coast itself. In the S.E. there is a
volcanic region of some extent, connected with that of the Roman
Campagna, The volcanoes have not, however, been active in histo-
rical times, the craters having been transformed into lakes. Certain
portions of Etruria were remarkably fertile, particularly the plain
of the Amus, the valleys of the Clanis and the Umbro, and the
maritime plain. The coast-line is broken at certain points by the
protrusion of the ranges, but still there is a deficiency of good

§ 2. Few of the Etrurian mountains are known to us by special
names ; we may, however, specify Argentarins, ArgentarOf a remark-
able mountain, forming a promontory on the coast ; Soracte,^ Monte
8, OrestCy near the Tiber, a bold and abrupt mass, rising out of the
Roman plain on the N., and hence a conspicuous object from Rome
itself; and dminius Kontt Monte CiminOy a range that stretches
away in a S.W. direction from the Tiber to the sea-coast, and forms
the boimdary of the great plain of the Campagna on the N. The
two chief rivers of Etruria are the Amus and the Tiberis (p. 488).
Of the affluents of the Amus the only one whose ancient name has
come down to us is the Auser* SerchiOf which flowed by Luca, and
formerly joined the Amus, but now reaches the sea by an indepen-
dent channel. Of the affluents of the Tiber, we have to notice the
Olaiiii, Chiana, which drains a valley between the Amus and the
Tiber of such remarkable flatness that the waters can be carried off
in either direction : in ancient times the outlet was to the Tiber : at
present there are two channels, one into the Amus, the other into
the Tiber ; and the Oremira, Fosso di Valcoy a small and generally
sluggish brook,' flowing through a deep valley from Veil to the Tiber,

* It is referred to by Horace in the well-known ode : —

Video, at alta stet nire candidom

Soracte. Oarm. i. 9, 1.

On its summit were a temple and grove of Apollo : — *

Somme deAm, tancti eustoM Sorootis, ApoUo. JSn. xi. 785.

' It is only after heary rains that its stream is violent : —

Ut ccleri passu Cremeram tetigere rapacem
(Turbidus hibemis ille fluebat aquis),

Castra loco ponunt Or. Fast, ii. 205.


Digitized by VjOOQ IC

506 ETRUBIA. Book IV.

and celebrated for the defeat of the Fabii in B.C. 476. On the coast
iKJtween the Arniis and Tiber we meet with the 08Mina« Cedna^
which watered the territory of Volaterrse; the Vmbro* Om&rtwie,
which flowed beneath the walls of Russellse ; and the Minio, Mig^
none, a sin&U stream noticed by Virgil. The chief lakes of Etruria
have been already noticed : two of them were historically famous —
the Lacm TraiiaiSniis* for the great victory obtained there by Han-
nibal over the Roman consul, C. Flaminius, in B.C. 217 ; and the
Lacm Vadimfinift a mere pool near the Tiber, for two successive
defeats of the Etruscans by the Romans, llie Laoos Cloiliiiis was
a stagnant accumulation of water connected Mrith the river Clanis.

§ 3. The origin of the Etruscans • is still wrapped in obscurity.
The ancients, from Herodotus downwards, believed them to be
Lydians.* The probability is that they were a mixed people, con-
taining three distinct elements : the Pelasgi, who supplied the bulk
of the population ; the Rasenna, or proper Etruscans, who entered
from the N. as a conquering race, and subdued the Pelasgi ; and the
I'mbrians, who were regarded as the aboriginal population of
Central Italy. The Etrurians were the most refined of all the
inhabitants of Italy, and were particularly skilful in various kinds
of handicraft. Their architecture resembled the Cyclopean style of
the Greeks, the walls being built of large irregular blocks, rudely
squared, and laid, without cement, in horizontal courses. They
were skilful in the construction of sewers, and in the laying
out of streets ; in the erection of sepulchres, and the adornment of
the interior walls with paintings ; in the manufiwjture of earthen-
ware vases and domestic utensils ; in the sculpture of sarcophagi
and sepulchral urns ; and in the casting of figures in bronze. They
were not united under a single government, but formed a confede-
racy of twelve cities, each of which was an independent state, and
united with the others only in matters of common interest llie
following nine were unquestionably members of the league — Tar-
quinii, Veii, Volsinii, Clusium, Volaterrne, Vetulonium, Perusia,
Cortona, and Arretium : to these may probably be added, Ca?re and
Falerii, though the claims of Faesulae, Rusellae, Pisaj, and Volci are
nearly equally strong. Some of the Etruscan towns were of very
great antiquity : Perusia, Cortona, and a few others, traced back
their existence to the time when the Umbrians occupied the coun-

' The people were named by Latin writers either Etroflci or Tasol, both of
which are modifications of the same original name Tursci.

* Hence the epithets " Lydian " and ** Maeonian *' are naed as eqnlTalent to
Tuscan : —

nbi L J dins arra
Inter opima virftm leni fluit agmine Tibris. jEn, ii. 781.

O Meonis delecta Jnvcntus. Id, viii. 499.


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Chap. XXV. TOWNS. 607

try : others claimed a Pelasgic origin, as Caere (under its older name
of Agylla), Falerii, and Pisas; others again were of a purely
Etruscan origin, aa Tarquinii, Volaterne, and many others ; and>
lastly, a few, as Sena Julia, Satumia, and Florentia, dated only
from the Eoman period. The Etruscan towns occupied remarkable
positions, being generally erected on the summits of precipitous
hills. The walls which surrounded them were of the most massive
character. Possessed of this double security, they appear to have
passed a tolerably peaceable existence subsequently to the time of
the Eoman conquest. We shall describe them in order from N.

Lvna, LuHtf was situated on the left bank of the Macra, on the
bordera of Liguria, At the time the Romans first knew it, the Ligu-
rians had gained possession of it from its old masters, the Etruscans.
The Romans colonized it, first in b.c. 177, and again under the Second
Triumvirate; but it never rose to any eminence.^ Its territory was
fiEunous for its wine and its cheeses,* and still more for its quarries of
white Carrara marble, which was used both for building and for
statuary. 7 About five miles frt>m the town there is a magnificent gulf
called Portus LniUD,^ now the O. of Snezia: a range of rocky hills
intervenes between the town and the o«y, so that it does not appear
how it could have served as the port of Luna. Luoa, Lucccl, was
situated in a plain at the foot of the Apennines, near the left bank of
the Auser, and about 12 miles from the sea. It was rather a Ligurian
than an Etruscan town, and was included within the limits of Liguria
by Augustus. It was colonized in 177, and became a municipium in
49. Csesar, while in charge of the province of Gaul, frequently ap-
pointed it as a rendezvous for his political fneuds. There are remains
of an amphitheatre visible. Pim, Pim^ was situated on the right bank
of the Amus, at a distance formerly of 2|, but now of 6, miles from
its mouth. Most ancient writers connected it with Pisa in Elis,^ and
supposed it to be founded by Peloponnesiai^s after the Trojan AVar. It
appears probable that it was a Pelasgic settlement; but it afterwards
passed into the hands of the Etruscans, and became one of their chief
cities. Its position rendered it an important frontier town in the wars
of the Romans with the Ligurians. A Roman colony was planted there

* It was deserted even hi Lucan's time : —

Aruns incoluit deteriw mcenia Laiue. i. 586.

* Cascus EtmscsB slgnatns imagine Luns>,

Pnestabit pueris prandia mille tnis. Makt. xiii. 30.

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