Sir William Smith William Latham Bevan.

The student's manual of ancient geography online

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' Anne metallifera repetit Jam momia Lun® ? — Stat. ^r. Iv. 4, 28.

Lttnaqne portandls tantom soffecta columnis. Id, iv. 2, 29.

" Tunc qnos a niveis exegit Lima metallis

Insignis portu ; quo non spatiosior alter

Innumcras cepisse rates, et claudere pontum. — Sil. Ital. viii. 482.

• Hence the epithet of " Alphean " :—

Hoe parere jubcnt Alphea ab origine Pisee :
Urbs Etrusca solo. ^fn. z. 179.

Nee Alphc€t capiunt navalia Pisse. Claud. B, Gild. 483.

Z 2



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608 ETRURIA. Book IV.

in 180, at the request of the Pisans themselves, and again by Augustus.
Its territory was fertile, producing a fine kind of wheat and excellent
wine. Its port was situated at a point between the mouth of the
Amus and Leghorn. F»siU», Fieeole, was situated on a hill about
three miles N. of the Aruus. It is noticed in the great Gaulish War
in B.C. 225, and in the Second Punic War, as it stood on the route
which the invading hosts followed. It was destroyed by Sulla, and
restored bv a colony of his pAi*ty, who afterwards rendered it the head-
quarters of Catiline.* The circuit of the walls, the remains of a theatre,
a curious reservoir, and other objects, have been found on its site.
Florentia, Florence^ on the Amus. probably derived its origin as a town
from a Roman colony planted here, originally perhaps by Sulla, but
renewed by the triumvu« after the deatb of Csesar. From the latter
of these periods it became a flourishing town, though seldom noticed
in history. There are some remains of an amphitheatre there. Arre-
tinrn, Arezzo, was situated in the upper valley of the Amus. It
became in thet Gaulish Wars a military post ' of the highest import-
ance, as commanding the communications between Cisalpine Gaul and
Etruria. In the civil wars of Sulla and Marius it sided with the latter,
and suffered severely in consequence. Crosar occupied it in B.C. 49,
at the commencement of the Civil War; but subsequently to this* its
name is scarcely mentioned in history. It was celebrated for its
pottery of a bright red hue,' many specimens of which are still extant.
Numerous works in bronze have also been discovered there. Maecenas
was probably a native of this place. CortOna, CorUma, stood on a lofty
hill, S. of Arretium, and about 9 miles N. of the Lacus Trasimenus.
It was reputed a very ancient city, having been founded by the Um-
briau9, then occupied by Pelasgians under the name of Corythus,** and
finally by Etmscans. It received a Roman colony, probably in Sulla's
time. Its walls may still be traced, and present some of the finest
specimens of Cyclopean architecture to be seen in all Italy. Sena
Julia, Sienna^ was situated nearly in the centre of Etruria, and appears
to have been founded by Julius Cjcsar: it is seldom noticed. Volatarra,
VoUerra^ stood about 5 miles N. of the river Csecina, and 15 from the
sea. Its position was fine, the height of the hill on which it stood
being about 1 700 feet. It was a city of the highest antiquity, and one of
the twelve chief towns of Etmria. In the civil wars between Sulla and
Marius, it became the last stronghold of the party of the latter, and
was b^ieged for two years by Sulla himself, ana, after its capture,
suffered various losses. It received a fresh colony under the Trium-
virate, but is not subsequently mentioned. The ancient walls may be
traced throughout their whole circuit, and in some places are in a high



Its inhabitants were noted for their skill in divination : —
Adf^t et eacris interpres fulminis alia

FmsuUu SiL. Ital. viii. 478.

- An, Corrine, sedet, dausiun ae consul incrti
Ut tencat vallo ; Pocnna nunc occupet altoa
Arreti moros. Id. t. 121.

' Aretina nimis ne spemas rasa, monemns :

Lautua erat Toacis Porsena fictilibua. Mart. xIt. 98.

The Latin poets have borrowed this name fh>m them : —
Surge age, et hec lietiis longcevo dicta parent!
Hand dubitanda refer. Corythom, terrasqne require
Ataonlas. jEn. iU. 169.



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Chap. XXV. TOWNS. 509

state of preservation: two of the ancient gateways, probably of the
Roman period, also remain. The eepulohres are numerous, and have
yielded a large collection of urns, many of which are adorned with
sculptures and bas-reliefs. Clndnmi Chiusi, was situated on a gentle
hill rising above the valley of the Clanis, and near the lake named
after it. Its antiquity was believed to be very great, and Virgil repre-
sents it as aiding iEneas against Tumus.* It was one of the cities that
joined in the war against Tarquinius Priscus. The invasion of the
Qauls in d.c. 391 resulted (it was said) from an internal dissension at
Clusium ; in 295 the Senones cut to pieces a Roman legion stationed
there; and again in 225 the Gkuils once more appeared under its walls.
In the civil wars of Sulla and Marius, two battles were fought in its
neighbourhood, in both of which Sulla's party were suooessnil. Por-
tions of the walls are visible, and the sepulchres are very numerous and
rich in urns, pottery, bronzes, and other, objects. The district of
Clusium was famous for its wheat and spelt, and also possessed sulphu-
reous springs. Fernsia, Ferula, stood on a lofty hill on the right
bank of the Tiber, overlooking the Trasimene Lake, and thus near
the borders of Umbria. No notice occurs of the time when it vielded
to Rome; but in the Second Punic War it comes prominently K>rward
as an ally of that power. In the civil war between Octavian and L. An-
tonius in 41, the latter threw himself into Perusia: Octavian besieged it,
and, on its capture, gave it up to plunder, and put its chief citizens to
death.^ The town was accidentally burnt at that time, but it was
restored by Augustus. Portions of the walls and two gateways survive,
the latter belonging to the Roman period. The sepulclu^s are numerous
and interesting : a specimen of the Etruscan language was found in due
of them. Volsiiiiif BdUenay was situated on the shore of the lake
named after it. The old Etruscan town stood on a hill; the later
Roman one in the plain by the lake. After numerous wars with Rome,
it was finally subdued in 280. The old town was then destroyed, and
the new one built: some remains of the latter exist, the most remarkable
being those of a temple. It was the birth-place of Sejanus, the favourite
of Tiberius. Cofa, Anaedoniaf stood on a height near the sea-coast, some-
what S. of Mens Ajrgentarius. Its name first appears in cc. 273, when
a Roman colony was planted there: Virgil, however, assigns to it a
higher antiquity .7 In the Second Punic War it is noticed among the
allies of Rome, and in 196 a new colony was sent thither, apparently
from losses sustained in that war. Its port was a convenient point of
embarkation for Corsica and Sardinia, and to this it owed its chief
importance. The walls of Cosa still exist, but are probably of the
Bomau period. Tarqninii, near Cometo, was situated about four miles
from the coast, near the left bank of the river Marta. It was reputed
the most ancient of the Etruscan cities, its origin being attributed to
Tarchon, son of the Lydian Tyrrheniis.* Its proximity to Rome brought



^ Masflicus sratA princeps secat eequora Tigrl ;
Sub quo miUe manos Juvenom ; qui moenia Clust,
Quiqne urbem liquere Coflos. ^n, x. 166.

* His Caesar, Perutina famea Mutiiueque labores
Accedant fotis. Lrc. i. 41.

' See note ^ above, where it appears as one of the allies of ^neas.

* Ipse oratores ad me regrdque ooronam

Cum sceptro misit, mandatque insignia Tarcbo :

Soccedam castris, Tyrrlieaaque regna oapessam. — jEi^ viii. 503.



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510 ETRURIA. Book IV.

it into early conoexioti with that town, and it was reputed the native
town of the two Tarquins, whose father, Detnaratua, had emigrated
fix)m Corinth to Tai-quinii. Prom B.C. 398 to 309 Tarquinii was engaged
in wars with Rome at intervals; but subsequently to the great battle at
Lake Yadimo it fell into a state of dependency, and is seldom noticed
afterwards. The circuit of the ancient walls may be traced at Turchina,
about Ij mile from Cometo: there is also a very extensive necropolis,
containing some tombs adorned with paintings : the paintings them-
selves are of Greek character, but the subjects are purely Etruscan.
Falflrii, Sta. 'Maria di Falleri, stood N. of Mt. Soracte, a few miles W.
of the Tiber. It was of Pelasgio origin, and retained much of its Pe-
lasgic character after its conquest by the Etruscans. It is first noticed
in B.C. 437, as joining the Yeientes against Rome. After the £all of'
Veii it came to terms with Rome, but contests were from time to time
renewed until B.C. 241, when their city was destroyed, and rebuilt on a
new site of less natural strength. The position of the old Etruscan
town was at Chita CadeUanaj and of the later Roman town at Sta.
Maria di Falleriy a deserted spot where the ancient walls are still
visible. The surrounding territory was very fertile, and Falerii was
much famed for its sausages.* Its mhabitauts were named Falisci, and
sometimes jtJqui Falisci, i.e. "FaliHcans of the Plain.*' Veii stood
about 12 miles N. of Rome, at laola Famese. It was a powerful city
at the time of the foundation of Rome, and possessed a territory ex-
tending along the right bank of the Tiber, from Soracte down to the
mouth of the river. The Veientes first engaged in war with the
Romaus for the recovery of Fidense : they were defeated by Romulus,
and lost a portion of their territory near Rome, known as Septem Pagi.
War was renewed in the roigns of Tullns Hoetilius, Ancus Marcius, L.
Tarquinius, and Servius TuUius, and on every occasion with an un>
favoin*able result for Veii. After the expulsion of the second Tarquin,
the Veientines, with the aid of Porsena of Clusium, recovered their
territory for a brief space ; and thenceforward the war was of a more
serious character, as the Veientes obtained the assistance of the
Etruscans. The slaughter of the Fabii in B.C. 476, who had gone out
to check the incursions of the Veientes, and the capture of Veil itself
by Camillus, after a ten years' siege, in 396, aro the most striking inci-
dents in these wars. After its capture it fell gradually into decay ,^
but continued to exist till a late period. There are remains of the
ancient walls, and numerous sepulchres on its site. Onre, Cervetrif
was situated a few miles from the coast, on a small stream formerly
named Cieretanus Amnis,' and now Vaeeina. Its ancient name was
Agylla,' and its founders were Pelasgi. It was conquered by the



» It was the birthplace of Ovld*8 wife : —

Cam mihi pomifbris oonjax foret orta FaUsds,

Moonia contigimos victa, CamiUe, tibi. Ov. Am. ill. IS, 1.

> Lacan speaks of it as utterly desolate : —

Tunc omne T.^ti*^ u T*^
Fabula nommi erit : Gabioe, Veiosque, Coramque
Pulrere vix tect® poterunt monstrore ruin®. vii. 391. .
♦ It is the Ceeritit amnii of Virgil : —

Est ingens gelidum luous prope Ceritis amntm. — JSTn. viii. 597.
* Haud procul bine saxo inoolitur fandata vetusto
Urbis Agyllins sedes : ubi Lydia quondam
Gens, belle prcclara, Jugia inaedit Ltnucis. Id. viii. 478.



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Chap. XXV. TOWNS. 511

EtruscaDS, but, like Falerii, it probably retained much of its Pelasgic
character. It is first noticed by Herodotus as joining in an expedition
against the Corsican Phocseans, and it appears to have been an im-
portant maritime town at that time. It engaged in war with Rome
under the elder Tarquin, and was the place whither the second king of
that name first retired into exile. In b.c. 353 the Cterites again took
up arms against Rome to no effect ; and it was probably on this occa-
sion that they received the Roman citizenship without the right of
sufirage— a political condition which was tantt^ount to disfranchise-
ment, and which gave rise to the expression, "in tabulas CsBritum
referre."

Of the less important towns we may notice — 1. On the Coast. —
yetnioninni, Magliano, one of the twelve confederate cities, reputed to
be ihe place where the Etruscan insignia of magistracy (lictors. toga
praetexta, sella curulis, &c.) were first used.^ Popoloniiim,^ Popuian'ut,
on the promontory of the same name, opposite
the island of Ilva, the chief maritime town of
Etruria, and the only city which possessed a
silver coinage of its own. BweUflB, Mosdle,
about 14 miles from the sea, and 4 from
right bank of the river Umbro, the scene
battle between the Romans, under Valerius
Maximus, and the Etruscans in b.c. 301, and
afterwards captured by Megellus in 294, TttlX-
mon, Tdamme, on a promontory between Mons ^° '^^ Populonlum.
Argentarius and the Umbro, noticed in b.c. 225 obrrrw: norvon** bmd or
as the scene of a great battle between the Romans ""J^*,?* 'JJ^eif '**'"'
and Gauls, and in 87 as the spot where Marius *' ^^ ^ **'™'
landed on his i-etum from exile. Voldi near Ponie deRa Badia, on the
river Armina, about 8 miles from its mouth, a place seldom noticed in
history, but known to be a large town from the extent of its necropolis,
which was discovered in 1828, and in which no less than 6UOO tombs
have been opened, yielding a vast number of painted vases, bronzes, &c.
Saturnia, Satumia, a little N. of Volci, so named by the Romans when
they sent a colony thither in b.c. 183, the former Etruscan name
having been Aurinia. Graviiea, on the sea-coast, probably at 8. Clt-
mentinOj about a mile S. of the Marta, colonized in b.c. 181, but owing
to the unhealthiness ^ of its situation a poor place. CentamoeUeB, CitiUt
Veccltia, on the sea-coast, 47 miles from Rome, a town which owed itA
existence to the magnificent port which Trajan constructed there.
Caatnim Novum, Torre di Chiaruccia, about 5 miles S. of Centumcellro,
colonized by the Romans in B.C. 191. Pyrgi, Santa Severn, on the



»d a J

i the I

of a \

lerius ^



^ Mroonieeqae dccos qtiondam Yetulonia gentis.
Bissenos heee prima dedit pr»cedere fauces,
£t junxit totidem tacito terrore secures :
Heec altas ebori^ deccrarit honore cnrules,
Et princeps Tyrio vestem pnetexnit ostro :

Hso eadem pngnas aocendere protulit »re. Sil. Ital. viii. 485.

It was one of the cities that assisted JEneas : —

Unii torvus Abas : hoic totum irndgnibuM armls
Afnncn> et aurato ful^bat Apolline pappis.
Sexcentos illi dederat Pyopulonia mater

Expertos belli Javenes. Mn, x. 169.

" Et Pyrgi veteres, intempesttt^ue GraviscfB. Id, x. 184.



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512 ETRURIA. Book IV.

coast, 34 miles from Rome, probably a Pelasgian " town, and the seat
of a celebrated temple of EUleithjia, which was plundered in B.C. 354
by Dionysius of Syracuse. Aldimi, PalOf on the sea-coast, colonized in
B.C. 245, and a favourite residence of the wealthy Romans under the
empire. FregbUB, Torre di MaccareBe, between Aisinm and the mouth
of uie Tiber, colonized probably in B.C. 245, and situated in an unhealthy
position.* 2. In the Interior. — PiitoriA, Fi$toja, under the Apennines,
between Luca and Ficsulo, the scene of Catiline's final defeat in b.c. 62.
Ferenflnnm, Ferenlo^ K. of the Ciminian range, and about 5 miles from
the Tiber, the birthplace of the Emperor Otho, and a place of con-
sideration under the empire ; the theatre is still in a high state of pre-
servation. Sntriimif Sutriy on an isolated hill 32 miles N. of Rome,
a place frequently noticed in the wars of the Romans and Etruscans ;
its amphitheatre remains, excavated in the tufo rock. Fesoennimii,
S.E. of Falerii, of which it was a dependency, a place of small im-
portance, and chiefly notorious as having given name to a rude kind of
dramatic entertainment styled *' Fesoennini Versus," which afterwards
degenerated into mere licentious songs. Oapeoa, about 8 miles S. of
Soracte, an ally of Veii in her Roman wars, and consequently reduced
by the Romans after the fidl of that town ; its territory was remark-
ably fertile, and was further noted for the grove and temple of Feronia •
situated at the foot of Soracte. Lastly, HepSte, Nepi, between Falerii
and Veii, and probably a dependency of the latter ; it is first men-
tioned in B.C. 38G as an ally of Rome, and it received a colony in 383.

Bo€id$. — Three great high-roads traversed Etruria in its whole ex-
tent :— The Yvbl Amelia, which led from Rome to Alsium, and thence
along the sea-coast to Piste and Luna ; the Via Casda, from Rome,
through the heart of the province by Sutrium and Clusium, to Arre-
tium, and thence by Florentia across the Apennines; and the Via
Clodia, which took an intermediate line by Satumia, Rusellae, and Sena
to Florentia, where it joined the Via Cassia. The dates of the con-
struction of these roads are quite uncertain. The Yi^ FUunisia skirted
the S.E. border of Etnuia, entering it by the Milvian bridge, about 3
miles from Rome, and striking to the N. under Soracte to Ooriculum
in XJmbria.

Idcmds. — Off the coast of Etruria there are several islands, the most
important of which, named Ilva by the Latins, fthalia by the Greeks,
and Elba by ourselves, was only about 6 miles distant from the main-
land, and was particularly famous for its iron-mines.* The ore was
originally smelted on the island itself, whence its Qreek name (from
auBdXifi, ** soot ") ; but in later times, when fuel had run short, it was
brought over to Populonium for that purpose.

History. — The Etruscans were once widely spread over Central and



Virgil reflers to it« antiquity ; see previoas note.

" Alsium et obsessse campo squalente Fi-egene. Sxl. Ital. viii. 477.
• Itur In agree

Dives nbi ante omnes coUtnr Feronia Inco,

Et saoer humectat fluvialia rura Capenas. Id. xiil. 83.

> Ilva trecentos.

Insula inexhaustis Chalybum generosa metallis. — .En. x. 173.

Non totidem Ilva viros, sed Itetos cingere femun,

Armarat patris, quo nutrit bella, metallo. 8ti.. Ital. viii. 616.



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Chap. XXV. UMBllIA. 513

Northern Italy, occupying not only Etruria, but a portion of Gallia
Cisalpina in the N. and Campania in the S. They poeseaaed from an
early period great naval power, and engaged in maritime war with
the Phocfeana of Alalia in d.c. 538, with Hiero of Syracuse in 474, and
with other cities. They alao foupded colonies in Corsicai Their mari-
time supremacy waned, however, about the time of the capture of Veil.
Their territorial influence was ^t its highest about 620-500 B.C., and way
coincident with the rule of the T^rquins at Borne. At a subsequent
period constant wars occurred between Rome and Veii, which termi-
nated only with the destruction of the litter in 396. Thenceforward
the Romans advanced northwards, reaching Sutrium in 390, crossing
the Ciminian forest in 310, defeating the Etruscans at Lake Vadimo
in 309, at Sentinum in Umbria in 295, and again at Lake Vadimo in
293, and reducing the Volsinienses in 265. The Roman conquest does
not appear to have interfered with the Etruscan nationality : colonies
were founded in the S., and at Pisss and Luca in the N., but elsewhere
the population remained unchanged. The Etruscans received the
Roman franchise in 89. In the civil wars of Marius and Sulla they
sided with the former, and were severely handled by Sulla at the com-
pletion of the war: they again suffered from the Catiline War. Finally,
CflBsar established a number of military coloi^es throughout the land.



V. Umbbia,

§ 4. Umbria, in its most extensive sense, was bounded on the W.
by the Tiber, from its source to a point below Ocriculum ; on the E.
by the river Nar, sexjarating it from the land of the Sabines, and by
the ^sis, separating it from Picenimi ; on the N.E. by the Adriatic
Sea; and on the N. by the Rubico, separating it from Gallia Cis-
alpina. Within the limits specified are contained (1) Umbria Proper,
which lay on the W. of the Apennines, and (2) the district of the
Senones, or, as the Romans termed it, the Gallicus Ager, on the E.
of the range. Umbria is generally mountainous, being inter-
sected by the Apennines, which, though neither se lofty nor yet so
rugged as they become more to the S., are very extensive, occu-
pying, with their lateral ridges, a space varying from 30 to 50 miles
in width. On the W. the lateral ridges extend to the valley of
the Tiber, but between them and the central range is a fertile and
delightful district*, watered by the Tinia and Clitumnus, and re-
nowned for its rich pastures. On the E. of the central range the
country is broken up by a vast number of parallel ridges, which
strike out at right angles to the main range, and subside gradually
as they approach the sea.

§ 5. The rivers of Umbria were numerous, but not of any great
size. Of the tributaries of the Tiber, which, may be considered as
in part an Umbrian river, the most important is the Har, Nera^
which rises in the country of the Sabines, and in its lower course,
from Interamna to the Tiber, flowed entirely through Umbria. The

z 3



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614 TJMBRIA. Book IV.

GUtomnut)' ClUumnOy or Tlnia (as it was called in its lower course),
was a small stream which flowed through a tract of great fertility
hy the town of Mevania. llie streams which flow into the Adriatic
are — the 2ntf Esino^ which formed the limit on the side of Pioe-
num; the 8ena«° Nevoloj which flowed under the walls of Sena
Grallica; the Metaurtu, Metauro, which joins the sea at Fanum
Fortunae, and is celebrated in history for the great battle,* in B.C. 207,
between Hasdrubal and the Bomans ; the Pitaimis» Foglia, which
gave name to the city of Pisaurum; and the Ariminnst Marecchia^
which flowed by Ariminum.

§ 6. The Umbrians at one period occupied a very extensive region
in the northern part of Central Italy, spreading on each side of the
Apennines from sea to sea. We know nothing of their character
beyond the fact that they were reputed brave and hardy warriors.
They were not united under one government, but lived in separate
tribes, each of which followed its own line of policy. ITie towns
were numerous, but not of any great importance. Several of them
received Roman colonies after the country was conquered, as Namia,
Spoletium, Sena, Ariminum, and Pisaurum. The towns in the E.
district were situated on the sea-coast, at the mouth of the rivers ;
those in the western district were in the fertile valleys of the Tiber,
the Nar, and the Clitumnus. We shall describe these in order from
N. to S., beginning with those on the W. of the Apennines.

Mevaaia, Bevagna, was situated on the Tinia, in the midst of the
luxuriant pastures ^ for which that stream was so celebrated. It was
an important towu under the Umbrians, and was their head-quarters in
B.o. 308. Its chief fiame, however, rests upon its claim to be con-
sidered the birth-place of the poet Propertius.* Tnder, Todi, was



' The waters of this river were sappoeed to impart the white colour for which
the cattle that fed on its banks were famous : —

Hine albi, Clitomne, greges, et maxima taams
Tictima, scepe tuo per^isi flumine saoro,

Romanoe od templa de<im duxere triomphoe. Oeorg. il. 146.

Qua formosa sno Clitumnus flamina Ineo
Integit, et niTeos aUuit onda boTCA. PaopxBT. U. 19, 25.

> Et Glanis, et Rahico, et Senonum de nomine Sena. — BtL, Ital. Tiii. 455.
* Quid debcas, O Roma, Neronibus,
Testis Metaurum flumen, et Hasdrubal

Devlctus. Hoe. Carm. It. 4, 87.

^ His urbes Ama et latis Merania eampis. Sil. Ital. viii. 458.

Tauriferis nbi se Mevania campls
ExpUcat. L^c. i. 478.

* The passage on which this daim is grounded is of an ambiguous character : —
Umbria te notis antiqua penatibus edit.

Mcntior T an patrisD tangitur ara tute t
Qua nebulosa cavo rorat Mevania eampo,
Et lacus flBstivis intepet Umber aquis. Pbopkst. iv. 1, 131.



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Chap. XXV. TOWNS. 515

situated on a lofty hill/ rising above the left bank of the Tiber. It
reoeiyed a colony under Augustus, and, though seldom mentioned iu
history, appears to have been a considerable town imder the Roman
Empire. The walls of the city, partly of an early Etruscan and partly
of a later Roman character, still remain, as also do portions of a
building (probably a basilica) called the "Temple of Mars."® Nu-
merous corns and bronzes have also been found there. Spoletiiim,
Spoleto, was situated near the sources of the Clitui^mus. We have no
notice of its existence before B.C. 24-0, when a Roman colony was
planted there. It was attacked by Hannibal, in 2 1 7, without success.
A battle was fought beneath its walls in 82, between the generals of Sulla,
and Carrinas, the lieutenant of Oarbo, and the town suffered severely iu



Online LibrarySir William Smith William Latham BevanThe student's manual of ancient geography → online text (page 59 of 82)