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tribes varied considerably from those of a later period; the CHIicians
crossed the ranges of Taurus and Autitaurus, and occupied the upper
valley of the Halys ,i. 72), extending eastward to the Euphrates and
the border of Armenia (v. 52). Pamphylia probably included the
southern part of Pisidia, which is nowhere named by Herodotus, the
northern portion falling to Pbrygia. Lycia extended westward to the
river Calbis ; it was divided into three districts, Lycia Proper along the
coast, occupied by the Termilce and the Trees; Milyas, the eastern
half of the inland plain, on the borders of Pisidia ; and Cabalia, Satala,
the western half, to the Calbis, which was occupied by the Cabalians
and Lasonians, remnants of the old Maeonian people. The Caunians
occupied the coast from the Calbis to the Ceraniian bay, which was after-
wards known as Perasa. Caria included the western coast from the
Ceramian bay to the mouth of the Mfeander; Lydia thence to the bay
of Elsea, while to Mysia its luual limits were assigned ; the Greeks
were dispersed over the western coast — the Dorians in the peninsula
of Cnidus and along the northern shore of the Ceramian bav ; the
lonians from the bay of lassus to the river Hermus, with the Phocsoan
peninsula to the north of it ; and the .£o]ians from Smyrna to the
bay of Adramyttium, though he occasionally implies that they extended
above this point over the whole of Troas (i. 151, v. 122). On the
northern coast, Thrace corresponds with the later Bithynia, as far as
the river Sangarius; this district was occupied by two tribes which
immigrated from Europe, the Thynians and the Bithynians, the former
occupying the coast, the latter the interior. The Mariandynians held
the coast between the river Sangarius and Prom. Posidium (C^Baha),
and the Paphlagonians thence to the Halys, while the Cappadocians
occupied the remainder of the coast to Armenia, and the northern
portion of the table-land, including a part of Galatia. In the interior
the Matieni occupied the tableland about the upper course of the
Halys (the later Cappadocia), while the Phrygians held the whole of the
remainder, including Lycaonia, Phrygia, and parts of Galatia, Pisidia,
and even Lydia, the CatacecaumCnd being considered as part of it.
The Chalybes dwelt in the motintain ridpes that run parallel to the
Euxine in the neighbourhood of Sinope. The Hygennians (iii. 9(>) are
not noticed by any other writer ; perhaps the reading should be Hy-
tenniaus, the people of Etenna in Pisidia. Proceeding eastward we
come to Ai*menia, separated from Cilicia by the Euphrates (v. 52), and
extending over a considerable portion of Mesopotamia, which is nowhere
noticed by Herodotus as a separate district. Contiguous to Armenia on
the E. was a district named Pactyica (iii. 93\ distinct from the one
noticed in iv. +4. Northward of Armenia lay Colchis, whose inhabit-
ants, dark-complexioned and woolly -haired, were believed bv Herodotus
to be of Egyptian extraction (ii. 104 j; the mythical ^a'was placed
in this country (i. 2, vii. 19:^. South-west of Armenia, and ctmter-
minous with Cilicia, was Syria, which commenced at Posidii^m, Bosut,
about 12 miles S. of the Orontes (iii. 91), and extended along the
coast of the Mediterranean sea to the borders of Egypt, with the excep-


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iion of a small intenral between Cadjtis, 0€ua, and a place named
lenysufl, which belonged to the Arabiana (iiL 5) ; the southern portion
was termed Syria PalsBstina and the northern Phoenicia (iii. 91). The
towns Asc&lon (i. 105), Ac6tus (ii. 157), Cadytis (ii. 159), and Agbat&ua
(iii. 6^), are noticed in the former ; Agbatana may perhaps have refer-
ence to BaUmma (Bashan), the first svllable representing the Arabic
article d; Cadytis has been taken either for Jerusalem, the ''holy"
city {Kedetik), or for Gkiea; the notices favour the latter opinion; in
Phoonioia, Tyre (ii. 44) and Sidon (ii. 1 16) are noticed. South of Syria
was Arabia, which according to Herodotus touched the Mediterranean
Sea between Cadytis and Jenysus, the exact position of which is un*
known; it was on the coast near Egypt (iii. W)\ the productions of the
country are described at length (iii. 107-113); the term "Arabian" is
used somewhat indefinitely by Herodotus ; Sennacherib is termed king
of the "Arabians," and his army the "Arabian" host (ii. 141). Con-
tiguous to Arabia on the E. was Asnyria, of which Babylonia formed
a portion (iii. 92), with the towns Babylon (i. 178), Is, the modem
Hit (i. 179), Ardericca, probably Akkerkuf{\, 185), Opis, probably
Khafaii, near the confluence of the Diala and Tigris (i. 189), and
Ampe, near the former mouth of the Tigris (vi. 20); the advance of
the coast prevents any identification of its site. Eastward of Assyria
came Cissia (iii. 91), the Sasiana of later geographers, with the town
Susa (v. 52), and a second Ardericca (vi. 119), perhaps at Kir-ab, 35
miles N.E. of Susa. In Persia no places are noticed; but the habits of
the people are described at length (i. 131-140), and the tribes, which
were of three classes — (1) three dominant races, the Pasargadse, Mara-
phians, and Maspians; (2) three agricultural, Panthialsans, Deru-
siaoans, and Germanians (probably from Carmania) ; and (3) foiur
nomad, Daans {i.e. rural; the Dehavitee of Ezra iv. 9), the Murdians
(1.6. heroes), the Dropicaus, and the Segartians (i. 125). North of Persia
were the Medes, divided into six tribes (i. 101), with the town Agba-
tana, Takht i-Soleiman, in Atropatene (i. 98) ; weslward, in the ranges
of Zagrus, the Matienians; and north of these, in the upper valleys of
the Cyrus, the Saspirians (i. 104, 110, iv. 37), perhaps the same as the
later Iberians, with the Alarodians, about Lake Lychnitis ; and the
Caspians on the western shore of the Caspian Sea. The positions of
many of the nations enumerated in the account of the satrapies can
only be conjecti»red ; their probable localities are as follows: the
I)ai-it»» and Paudcse to the S. of the Caspian Sea; the Pantimathi,*
Paricanii, and Hyrcanii, at its south-eastern angle; the Sagartii in the
desert of later Pai*thia; the Parthi more to the N., about Nissea; the
Chorasmii, Arii, Bactri, and Sogdi in their later districts ; the ^gli
among the Sogdi, near Alexandria Ultima ; the Sac«e between the head
waters of the Oxus and laxartes; the Dadicso and Aparytce,* in tho
southern part of Bactria ; the Gandarii on the banks of the Cabtd ; the
Sattagydse* (the Thatagush of the Assyrian inscriptions), about the
upper course of the Etymander; the Sarangto about Aria lacus, and
the Thamanaji* to the N. of the same, the Paricanii* in the northern
part of Beelochistan, and the Ethiopians on the sea-coast; the Myci*
(the Maka of the inscriptions) about the neck of the Persian Gulf; and
the Orthocorybantes* perhaps in Media. The India of Herodotus is
confined to the upper valley of the Indus, the Punjab; he notices a

♦ The names thus marked do not appear In any other writer.


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■econd district named Pacty'ica with the town Caapatyrus (iii. 102),
which has been identified with Oabul and with Cashmeref neither of
which however agree mth the notice of its being on the Indus
(iy. 44) ; the Padsei (iii. 99), who were regarded even in the age of
Tibullus* as living in the extreme east; and the Callatians (iii. 38), or
Galantians (iii. 97) ; the abodes of these tribes are imcertain. Eastward
of India (t.0. to the north of the Himalayan range), stretched the vast
■andy desert (iii. 98), which reaches to the conHues of China.

(3.) Africa. — The description of Egypt as an '' acquired country, the
gift of the Nile" (ii. 5), is, geologically speaking, incorrect. The level
of Egypt has undoubtedly been raised by the alluvial deposit of the
Nile, but the land has not gained upon the sea within historical times;
the line of the coast remains ver^ nearly what it was in the age of Hero-
dotus. Still more incorrect is his notion of the influence of the Nile on
the depth of the Mediterranean (ii. 5); the depth described (1 1 fathoms)
is not found until within about 12 miles of the coast. His measure-
ments are, as usual, exaggerated; the length of the coast is 300 miles, and
not 400 (ii. 6), and that of the Delta from the coast to the apex about
100 inst€^ of 173 miles (ii. 7). His description of the Nile valley is not
altogether reconcilable with the facts ; its bi*eadth above the Delta is
about 13 miles, instead of 23 (ii. 8) ; nor does the valley widen in the
pkce described mid-way between Heliopolis and Thebes. The distance
between these two places is 421 instead of 552 miles, and between
Thebes and Elephantine, 124 instead of 206 (ii. 9). Herodotus divides
Egypt into two portions, the Delta (ii. 15), and Upper Egypt, which,
however, he refers to but once (iii. 10) ; he notices 1 8 nomes only out of
the 36 usually enumerated (ii. 165 ff.) ; and he describes most of the great
works of art, particularly the Pyramids (ii. 124-134) ,the Labyrinth, and
Lake Mixris (ii. 148), and the canal which connected the Nile with the
Red Sea (iL 158, iv. 39). The notices of the towns are very numerous,
and belong to the general geography of Egypt. To the S. of Egypt
lived the Ethiopians, divided into two tribes— the Nomads (probably the
** Nobatee" are intended), and the other Bthiopians (ii. 20); the capital
of the latter was Meroe ; the northern capital, Nap&ta, is not noticed.
Beyond the Ethiopians were the AutomOli in Abyssinia ; on the coast
of the Red Sea, the Ichthyophagi (*' tish-eaters"), whom Herodotus de-
scribes as being met with at Elephantine (iii. 19), and the Macrobii
near Cape Guardafui, in the extreme S. (iii. 17). West of the valley
of the tiile, seven days* journey from Thebes, was the city Oasis, the
Wkpital of the Great Oasis, el Kkargeh, " the island of the blessed"
(iii. 26), and more to the north the Oasis which contained the temple
of Ammon, the modem Siwah (ii. 32). The remainder of northern
AiHca is divided by Herodotus into three zones, the sea-coast, the
wild-beast tract, and the sandy ridge (ii. 32, iv. 181); the first of these
represents Barbary or the states of Morocco, Algeria, Tunis, and
Tripoli; the second, the hilly district, parts of which are still infested
with wild beasts; and the third the SaJuira, which he elsewhere more
distinctly describes as an uninhabitable desert beyond the sandy ridgo
(iv. 185),- The tribes occupying the sea-coast district wei-e divided into
two classes, the nomads as fkr as the Lesser Syrtis, and the agriculturists
to the west of that point (186) : their residences were as follows : — the
Adyrmachidse from the borders of Egypt to Port Piynus, probably Port

* Impia neo sflDvis celebrans conTiria mensis
Ultima vicinus Ph<cbo tenet arva PadaBUs."— iv. 1, 144.


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Bardeah (iy. 168) ; the GiUigamznso theuoe to the isle Aphrodisias, N.
of Gyrene (iv. 169); they are not elsewhere noticed; the Asbystse, S.
of Gyrene (iv. 170); Cyrenaica itself, ocoupied by a Greek colony,
with the towns Gyrene and Barca (iv. 160, 199), and Irasa, probably
El Kubbeh, near Dema, with its beautiful spring (iv. 158) ; westward
of the Gilligamnue, the Auschisee, touching the sea coast at Eues-
perldes, Benghazi, and the Cabalians (compare modem CaJbyUs), near
Tauchlra, Taukra (iv. 171) ; the Naaamonians to the S. of Uie above-
mentioned tribes, touching the sea at the eastern bend of the Syrtis
Major (iv. 172); then the Psylli and the Macse on the shores of the
Syrtis (iv. ll'S, 175); the Gindanes, nowhere else noticed, on the coast
(iv. 176) ; the Lotophagi in Tripdi (iv. 177); the Machlyans about the
southern coast of the Leaser Syrtis (iv. 178;; the Auseans, nowhere else
noticed, on the western coast of the Syrtis (iv. 180); and westward of
the Sjnrtis, the Maxyans (191); the Zavecions (193), not mentioned else-
whero; and the Gyzantians (194), or Zygantians, off whose coast was the
isle CyraimiB, Karkenna ; the names of the two latter tribes may be
traced in those of the Roman provinces Bysaoiimi and 2^ugitania ; Car-
thage fell within the territory of the Gyzantians ; the place and its inha-
bitants are frequently referred to (i. 166, iii. 17, 19, iv. 195); but its
position is not defined. Of the more easterly regions of Africa Hero-
dotus knew but little; he rightly describes it as extending beyond the
Pillars of Hercules (185), and alludes to the "dumb commerce carried
on between the natives and the Carthaginians (196). 2. In the wild-
beast district he notices only the Garamantians, S. of the Naaamonians
(174) ; if the reading is correct, of which there are doubts,* they must
be regarded as distinct from the people, afterwards noticed (183). 3.
In the sandy zone he places the Oases ; Uiat of the Ammonians, 8i%oah,
whidi, however, lies 20 days' journey (400 geog. miles; from Thebes,
and not 10 days as described (181) ; Augila, which is correctly de-
scribed (172, 182); the Garamantes in Fetzan (183), whence was a
caravan route to the Lotophagi, coinciding with the present route from
Murzouh to Tripoli; the Atarantiaus, perhaps the Tuarika of the
Wettem Sahara (184); and the Atlantes about the range of Atlas
(184) in Western Algeria. Below the sandy region in the interior
were the Ethiopian Troglodytes (183), the Tibbooa to the S. of

§ 8. ITie fexyiedition of Cyrus, so graphically described by Xenophon
in his * Anabasis,' abounds with geographical notices of the highest
interest, relating to countries with which the Greeks of his day had
little more than a general acquaintance. The expedition was under-
taken by Cyrus in the year 401 B.C. with the object of dethroning
his brother Artaxerxes, then in possession of the throne of Persia.
His route may be briefly described as follows : starting from Sardis,
he stnick across Phrygia and Pisldia imtil he reached Cilicia ;
entering that province by the pass over Tawrus, named the " Cilician
Gates," and leaving it by the " Syrian and Cilician Gates" on the
shore of the Bay of Issus, he followed the line of coast to Myriandnis,
whence he struck inland, and, crossing the range of Amfinus by

' Pliny and Mela give the name as Oamphasantians.


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the pass of Beilan, entered on the plain of Syria, and reached the
Euphrates in about 36° lat. He crossed the river at I'hapsftcus,
and descended the left bank of the stream through Mesopotamia to
Gunaxa, a place some distance N.W. of Babylon. Cyrus lost his
life in the battle that took place there, and the command of the
Greeks devolved on Clearchus, and after his death on Xenophon.
Returning very nearly on their former course as far as the Median
wall, they struck across the plain of Babylonia to the Tigris, and
crossing that river followed up its left bank to the borders of Ar-
menia ; their course through the high lands of Armenia cannot be
traced with certainty ; they ultimately reached the boundaries of
Pontus, and from the range of Thecbes looked down on the Euxine
Sea. They gained the coast at Trapezus, and following it by land
as far as Cotyora, they took ship, and were conveyed to Heraclea in
Bithynia, whence they reached home by well-known routes.'

§ 9. Ctesias, of Cnidus in Caria, was a contemporary of Xenophon,
and was to a certain extent associated with him, if we may receive
the statement of Diodorus that he was taken prisoner at the battle of
Cunaxa. He passed many years in Persia as physician at the court
of Artaxerxes Mnemon, and on his return to his native land he re-
corded what he had seen in several works, of which his treatises on
Persia and India were the. most important. All that has survived
of his writings is contained in an abridgment by Photius and a few
fragments preserved in other writers. His credulity and love of the
marvellous deservedly brought him into gi-eat discredit.

§ 10. The military expeditions of Alexander the Great form an
important epoch in the history of ancient geography. Not only was
the extent of the country over which he himself travelled very con-
siderable, but the conquests which he effected had a permanent in-
fluence on the future progress of discovery. The establishment of the
Grapco-Bactrian kingdom constituted a link between the extreme
east of Asia and the west ; the subjection of the Punjab led his suc-
cessors forward to the plains of Central India and to the mouth of
the Ganges. A new world was, in short, opened to Greek enterprise,
and physical science received a fresh impetus from the discovery of
the rich and varied products of the eastern world.

§ 11. The extent of Alexander's discoveries may be briefly de-
scribed as reaching to the Jaxartes in the N.E., and the Hyphasis,
or most easterly river of the Punjab, in the E. Between these
limits and the borders of Persis lay a wide extent of country which
had hitherto been a terra incognita to the Greeks, comprising Parthia,
Hyrcania, Aria, Margi5na, Drangiana, Arachosia, Bactriana, Sogdiana,

The topofnttphioal questions arising out of this narrative are referred to in
a fotnre chapter.


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the countries lying along the course of the Indus and its tributaries,
Gedrosia, and Car mania.

§ 12. The interest excited by these conquests is shown by the
number of literary works which were issued at the time — mostly
the composition of persons attached to the army of Alexander. To
give some idea of the literary zeal displayed, we append the names
of the authors and the titles of their works." Most of the works
themselves have been lost to us ; but we fortunately possess a very
faithful and graphic narrative, written by Arrian in the second cen-
tury after Christ, the materials of which were gathered from these
contemporary sources, particularly from the works of Ptolemy and

• * The History of the Wars of Alexander/ by Ptolemy, «on of Lagns ; ' The
Joomal* of Nearchns, deflcribing his voyage down the Indus and along the Indian
Ooean to the mouth of the Euphrates ; * The Annals of Alexander,*" and other
works, by Onescrltos, describing the lands in the interior of Asia— Sogdiana,
Baetria, ftc, and India : he is the first to notice Taprobftne, Ceylon ; * History of
Alexander,' by Cleitarchos, who not only describes India, but portions of the west
and north of Europe ; * Alexander's Campaigns,' * History of Greece,' by Anaxi-
menea of Lampsaous ; * Alexander's Campaigns,' by AristobQlus of Caseandria in
Macedonia ; ' History of Greece,' and other works, by Callisthenes of Olympus ;
* Alexander's Life,' by Hieronymus of Cardia, the author also of an historical work
describing the foundation and antiquities of Rome.


Map of the Chcrsonesns Trachea, according to Herodotus.


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( 42 )



§ 1. Review of the progress of discovery: India; Caspian Sea; China
and the East : Western Europe: the Amber Isles : Athuitic Ocean:
Phosnician influence : northern discoveries of Himilco and Pytheas :
Africa, Hanno, Euthymenes, Periplus of Arrian. § 2. Geographical
writers. § 3. Eratosthenes. § 4. Hipparchus. § 5. Polybius.
§ 6. Minor geographical writers. § 7. Strabo : Posidonius ; Oe-
minus; Marinus. § 8. The discoveries of the Romans: Italy, Dlyria,
Spain, Africa, Armenia, Gaul and Britain, Asia, Moesia, &c. § 9.
tComan writers: Csesar, Sallust, Tacitus, Livy. § 10. Mela; Pliny;
Arrian; Pausanias. §11. Ptolemy; Agathemerus, Dionysiiis, Peri-
egetes, Stephanus Byzanttnus. § 1 2. Peripli and Itineraries.

j 1. We are now approaching the time when, under the auspices
of Eratosthenes, geography was raised to the dignity of a science.
Hitherto it had been treated incidentally and superficially: in
future we shall see it studied for its own sake and systematically,
receiving light and support from the sister sciences of mathematics
and astrt)nomy. But, before we enter upon this period, it is desirable
to take a review of the position of geographical knowledge and the
events which led to its gradual advance during the interval that
elapsed between Alexander the Great and the commencement of the
Christian era.

(1.) India. — ^The advance had thus far been durected towards the
East : the conquests of Alexander may be said to have doubled the area
of the world as known to the Greeks of his day. We cannot be sur-
prised that his successors followed in the path which he had so suc-
cessfully opened, and advanced the frontier of the known world from
the Indus to the Ganges. This was achieved by Seleucus Nicator in
his war with Sandrocottus, the records of which have been unfortu-
nately lost : the date may have been about 300 b.c. Megafithenes was
despatched on an embassy to Paltbothra (probably near Patna), the
residence of Sandrocottus, and on his return he described what he had
seen in a work on India in four books. Another anlbassador, named
DaXm&chus, spent several years at the court of Allitroohades, the suc-
cessor of the king just mentioned, and he also gave an account of his
experience. Various expeditions were sent into the Indian Ocean.
Patroclee, the admiral or Seleucus Nicator, wrote an account of the
one placed under his command ; and Euhem^rus, who was sent by
Cassander, did the same. ^ The latter discovered, or pretended to have
discovered, a number of islands, of which he gave a fabulous account.
The establishment of a regular commercial intercourse with the shores


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of India was dtie to the Egyptian PtolemicB. A navigator, named
Hip[Alu8, who had studied the character of the mon$o<m$y ventured in
a straight course from the Red Sea to the western coast of India,
trading to Limyrica, Mangdhrey in the south, and Barygaza, Baroach,
in the north. From these points the inteiior of Hmdostan would
become more or lees known.

(2.) Caspian Sea. — In the north of Asia the progress of discovery was
bat slow. The Caspian Sea presented in that age the same sort of
problem which the " north-west passage " has been in modern days, —
the question to be decided being whe&er any communication existed
between it and the northern ocean. Herodotus, as we have already
seen, entertained a correct view on this point; but among his suc-
cessors the opinion gradually gained credence that such a passage did
exist. Alexander we Great determined to settle the question, and
would doubtless have done so had his life been extended. Patrocles,
the admiral of Seleuous Nicator, was fully convinced of the existence
of a north-west passage from IncUa into the Caspian ; and his ignorance
is the more singular from the circumstance that he was fully aware
of the commercial route down the Oxus and across the Caspian. Both
Eratosthenes and Strabo held to the same fiEdse view, and the error
was not rectified until the latest period of ancient geography.

(3.) OhifM and (he East. — The countries in the extreme east of Asia
were to a certain extent known through the commerce carried on by
way of Bactria. It is evident that the trade in silk was extensively
prosecuted at this period, and that a regular overland route existed
between China and the West. The Chinese themselves conveyed the
goods as far as the "Stone Tower," a station probably on the eastern
side of the Bolor range: from this point thev were transported by
Scythians across the passes to the head-waters of the Oxus and Jaxartes,
and thence partly by those rivers to the Caspian Sea, partly by an
overland route through Parthia to the west of Asia.

(4.) Wettem Europe, — The progress of discovery in the west was not
equally satisfactory ; indeed, it presents a remarkable contrast. While
the Indian ocean was well known to the. Greek writers, the Atlantic
and even the Mediterranean Sea were still regions of uncertainty.
A few instances will illustrate the extent of this ignorance. The
Periplus of Scylax, compiled about 350 B.C., mentions only two towns
on the coasts of Italy, Rome and Ancdna, in addition to the Greek
ooloniea. Heraclides Ponticus call* Rome a Greek city ; Theopompus
(about 300 B.C.) describes its position as not far from the ocean.
Timseus (280 b.c), who is supposed to have surpassed his contempo-
raries in the knowledge of the west, describes Sardinia as being near

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