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and taken by the Romans in B.C. 213. It afterwards became a muni-
cipium, and its port was improved by the Emperor Tiberius.

History. — The Vestini are first meutioned in u.c. 324, when they
joined the Samnites against Rome ; they were defeated by the consul
D. Junius Brutus. In 301 they concluded a treaty with the Romans.
They joined in the Social War, and were again conquered by Pompeius
Strabo in 89. They were generally in league with the Marrucini and
Peligni, and the histories of all these tribes are almost identical.

§ 14. The Kaxmolni occupied a narrow strip of territory on the
S. bank of the Atemus, between the Adriatic and the Apennines.
On the W. they adjoined the Peligni, from whom they were sepa-
rated by the lofty rangea now named Majella and Morrone ; on the
S. the Foro, 7 miles from the Atemus, appears to have been their
boundary on the side of the Frentani. Their district was fertile, and
produced corn, wine, oil, and especially excellent fruit and vege-
tables. It appears to have been subject to earthquakes.' The people
were a Sabellian race, and their name is only another form of Marsi.
The only town of consequence was the capital, Teate.

Te&te, Chieti, was situated on a hill about 3 miles from the Atemus,
and 8 from the Adriatic. Though the capital of the district, and de-
scribed by Silius Italicus^ as the "great" and "illustrious," it is not
mentioned in history. It was the native place of Asinlus Pollio the

§ 15. The Peligni occupied a small inland district in the very
heart of the Apennines, between the Marrucini on the E., the Marsi

< Procul i»ta tab slnt fata Teate

Nee Marrudnos agat hceo insania monies. Stat. SUv, It. 4, 85.

' Mamioiiia rimvl FrentaniB eemula pubes

Corflni popolos, maynamque Teate trahebat Sil. Ital. viii. 531.
Cui nobile nomen

Marrudna domus, clammque Teate ferebat. Id. xtU. 453.


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on the W., and the Vestini on the N. Their district consisted of
the valley of the QiziOy which nins northwards into the Atemns ;
in this direction alone did it lie open ; elsewhere it was surrounded
on all sides by lofty mountains. The climate was proverbially
severe ' from the elevation of the land ; still the valley of the Gizio
was sufficiently fertile in com and wine, and even produced the olive
in some places. The people were a Sabellian race, and resembled the
other branches of that race in character. They possessed three prin-
cipal towns : Corfinium, Sulmo, and Superaqueum.

Corflsium waa situated in the valley of the Atemns, near the point
where that liver makes its great bend to the E. It is not noticed
earlier than in the Social War, b.c. 90, when its position led to its
being selected by the allied nations aa the site of their capital. It was
occupied by L. Domitius in the Civil War between Csesar and Pompey,
and held out for a time against the former. The ruins of the city are
found at 8. Pdino, Sulmo, Sulmona^ stood seven miles S. of Corfi-
nium, in the valley of the Gizio, and is chiefly celebrated for its having
been the birthplace of Ovid." It is noticed in B.C. 211, as suffering
from the ravages of Hannibara army ; and, like Corfinium, it was occu-
pied by L. Domitiua in the Civil War. Saperaqueum stood on the
right bank of the Atemus, about four miles from the Via Valeria : it
was a municipal town, but without any historical interest : the name
Suhequo still attaches to its site.

Boads, — The territory of the Peligni was centrally situated in refer-
ence to the lines of communication of Central Italy. The Via Valeria
traversed it between the Marsi and Mamicini, entering the district by
the pass of Imeus, and leaving it by the gorge of the Atemus. In
another direction the valley of the Atemus opened a natural route to
Beate and the valley of the Tiber ; and in the opposite direction a
practicable pass crossed the Apennines into the valley of the Sagrus.

VIII. Samnium, with the Frentani.

§ 16. Samniom was an extensive district in the centre of Italy,
bounded on the N. by the Marsi, Peligni, and Marrucini ; on the
W. by Latium and Campania ; on the S. by Lucania ; and on the
E. by the Frentani and Apulia. The whole of this district is of a
mountainous character, and is broken up by lofty ranges emanating
from the Apennines, which in this part of their course cease to be a
regular chain, and resolve themselves into distinct and broken
masses. The most important of these masses, now named Monte
Matese^ lies S.W. of Bovianimi, and separates the basins of the
Tifemus and Vultumus : a portion of it, containing the sources of
the former river, was named Mohb Tifemus. The next most impor-

* Quo prsebente donraQu et quota,

Pelignis eaream frigoribaa, taces. Hoh. Carm. ill. 19, 7.

* Sulmo mihi patria est, gelidis -nbcrrimus undis. — TVut. iv. 10, 3.
Part me Sulmo tenet, Peligni tertia ruris ;

Parra, sed irrigttis era salubria aqnia. Am. iL 16, 1.


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Chap. XXV. 8AMNIUM. 526

tant group was that named Mons Tabomos*^ separated from Matese
by the valley of the Calor, and forming the boundary of the Cam-
panian plain : the W. extremity of this ridge is the Mons Tif &taf so
celebrated in the campaigns of Hannibal. Several chains strike out
un the E. side of the Apennines, forming distinct and parallel
▼alleys, through which the rivers seek the AdMatic. On the W.
side there are two extensive valleys — the northern one, in which
the Vultumus flows in a direction from N.W. to S.E. ; the southern,
in which its tributary, the Calor, flows in an opposite direction,
having its upper course in an extensive basin lying at the back of
the groups of Matese and Tabumus. As Samnium thus includes
the whole breadth of the Apennines, the rivers which belong to it
seek both the Adriatic and the Mediterranean Seas. In the former
direction run the Sagnui Sangro, which rises S. of the Fucine lake,
and flows through a broad upland valley by the walls of Aufidena ;
the Trinius, Trigno ; the TiliBniasi Bi/emo, which rises near Bo-
vianum in Monte Matese; the Frento* Fortore; and, lastly, the
Aalldnif 0/antOy in the extreme S. In the latter direction nms
the Vulturnust VdtumOy which rise? about five miles S. of Aufidena,
and pursues a S.E. course until its junction with the Calori Calorey
which rises on the borders of Lucailia and flows by Beneventum,
receiving in its course the tributary waters of the Sabatus and

§ 17. The country we are now describing was originally held by
the Opicans, or Oscans. The Samnites were a Sabine race, who
entered as an invading host and conquered the Opicans, coalescing
with them afterwards, and adopting their language. They were
divided into four tribes, the most important of which were the
CaodXnl and Pentrii who lived respectively S. and N. of the Matese,
while the less important were the CaraoSni, in the valley of the
Sagrus, and the wii-pTm^ in the upper valleys of the Calor and its
tributaries. The Sanmites were a brave and frugal race, leading a
rude, pastoral life, and superstitious. They lived for the most part
in villages, but they possessed some towns — as -ffisemia and Boviar
num, — ^which were strongly fortified. These, and all the Samnite
towns, were utterly destroyed by Sulla after the Marian War ; nor
did any of them, although supplied with colonists from Rome, rise

1 This mountain forms a very conspicuous object Arom the Campanian plain :
its upper regions are described by Virgil as. being clothed ^ith forests, while on
its lower slopes the olire flourished : —

Ac velut ingenti Sila, summore Tabumo

Cum duo conTersis inimica in proelia tauri

Frontibus incurrunt. ^n. xii. 715.

Neu segues Jaceant teme. Juvat Ismara Baccho

Conserere, atque olea magnum vestire laburnum. — Oeorg, ii. 87.


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Book IV.

Coin of ^dernia.

again to importance, with the exception of Beneventum, which was
centrally situated on the Via Appia.

JEsemia, Jsemto, was situated on a tributary of the Vultumus, in
the upper valley of that river. It was captured by the Romans in b.c.

295, and was colonized by
them in 264. After its de-
struction by Sulla, colonies
were sent to it by CaBsar, Au-
gustus, and Nero; and it be-
came a municipal town of
importance in the time of
Trajan and the Antonines:
there are remains of an aque-
duct and of a fine bridge of
this period. BoviAniim, Bqjafw, was situated close to the sources of the
Tifemus, amidst lofty mountains. It wss the capital of the Pentri, and
hence figures iu the Second Samnite War. It was besieged without
success in b.c. 314, but was taken in 31 1, again in 305, and a third time
in 298. In the Social War, it became the head-quarters of the allies
after the fall of Corfinium : it never recovered its destruction by Sulla.
Some portions of its ancient walls, of a very massive order, are still
visible. Beneventom, Benevenlo, was situated on th^ banks of the

Calor, and on the Via Appia.*
It was a very ancient town,
and its foundation was attri-
buted to Diomedes. Its ori-
ginal name was Maleventum,
-^vv^Lh-vy v* ^\ ^ali / ^hich the Romans deemed of

c^^ c^lX// v».®vv» a J ill omen, and therefore

changed it to Beneventum, in
Coin of Beneventnin. B.C. 268, when they planted

a colony there. Its strength
and the centrality of its position lead to frequent notices of it.
Several colonies were sent there by the Roman emperors, and it was
visited by Nero, Trajan, and Septimius Severus. A triumphal arch in
honour of Trajan stul remains. Oandinm, the capital of the Caudim*,
stood on the Via Appia between Beneventum and Capua. It is noticed
in the history of the Samnite Wars, and is particularly memorable for
the disastrous defeat of the Romans in B.C. 321, which took place at a
pass called Furculse Caudinro, ''the Caudine Forks," the position of
w^ich is near Arpajay between Sta. Agaia and Moirano,

Of the less important towns we may notice — Anfldina, AJfldena, the
capital of the Carnceni, in the upp**r valley of the Sngrus, a fortress of
great etren^h ; Alllte, AUfe, in the valley of the Vultumus, on the
borders of Campania, the scene of several military events, and a place
of importance under the empire ; Calatia, Caiazzo^ about a mile N. of
the Vultumus, and ten miles N.E. of Capua, the town at which the
Romans were encamped before their disaster at the Caudine Forks ;
SatioiUa,' S. of the Vultumus, and probably in the valley at the back

' Hence the well-known notice in Horace in his journey to BrondnMum : —
Tendimus hinc rccUi Beneventum, &c. 8cU, i. 5, 71.

* Virgil adopts the ethnic form Satimltu for Saticnlanus : —

Accola Voltumi, pariterqne SaticaluH asper. ^Cn. vii. 729.


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of Mount HfRta, besieged and taken by the Romans in B.C. 315; Eqnus
Tntionf, S. Eleuterio, in the district of the Hirpini, on the Via Trajana;
Trivlcum, Trevico, on the Via Appia,* but not on the line of road fol-
lowed in later times; Bomvlea,^ on the same road at Bisaceia^ noticed as
a large town at the time of its capture by the Romans in B.C. 297, but
not mentioned subsequently; Oompta, Coma, on the borders of Lucania,
the place where Hannibal deposited his baggage in B.C. 216, and subse-
quently taken by the Romans in 214; and, lastly, AbeUInnm, AveUino,
near the Campanian frontier, a place of wealth and importance under
the Empire.

Roads. — Samnium was traversed by several high roads. The Via
Appia entered it from Capua, and parsed through the 8. part of the
province, by Beneventum and the valley of the Calor, to Venusia in
Apulia. A branch-road struck off from this at Beneventum, which
joined the Via Egnatia at Mem in Apulia : this was named Via ^lgftxu^
having been constructed by the Emperor Trajan. Another road, also
starting from Beneventum, followed the valley of the Vultumus to
Venafrum and u£semia, whence it crossed the ridge to Aufidena, in
the valley of the Sagrus. Another crossed from .£semia to Bovianum,
and thence followed the valley of the Tifemus in one direction ; and
in another crossed to Equus Tuticus, where it fell into the Via

History. — The Samnites are first noticed in B.C. 354, as concluding a
treaty with Rome. Subsequently war broke out between the two
peoples, in consequence of the Samnite invasion of Campania. These
wars continued, with a few intoiTuptions, for fifty-three years (from 343
to 290), when the Samnites were completely subdued. They joined the
allies in the Social War in 90, and continued the struggle after the others
had given way. In the Civil War between Sulla and Marius they again
broke out ; but they were defeated by Sulla, in 82, before the gates of
Rome, and suffered severely from his revenge, the whole country
being reduced to a state of utter desolation, from which it never reco-

§ 18. The FrentSnl occupied a maritime district between Sam-
nium and the Adriatic Sea, from the border of the Marrucini in the
N.W. to Apulia in the S.E., from which it was separated by the
Tifemus. It is for the most part hilly, but fertile, and well watered

* Incipit ex iUo monies Appalia notos

Ostentare mihi, qaos torret Atabcdus ; et quoe

Nanquam erepsemus, nisi noe vicina Trlvici

Villa receplaset. Hob. Sat. i. 5, 77.

^ Between this and Beneventum lie the valley and lake of Ampsanctos, which
Virgil describes. The spot is now named Le Afo/ete, and the sulphureous -vapours
are remarkably strong. The woods which formerly surrounded it have been cut

Ent locos ItalicD medio sab montibas altis

NobiliH, et fama multis memoratos in oris,

Amsancti valles : densis hnno frondibus atrom

Urget atrimqne latos nemoris, medioqne ftragosos

Dat sonitum saxis et torto vertice torrens :

Hie speciis horrendum, saevi spiracnla Ditis

Monstrontur, ruptoque ingens Aeheronte vorago

Pestifcras aperlt fances ; quis condita Erlnnys,

Invisum numen, terras ccelamque levabat. ^En. vii. 563.


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628 FRENTANI. Book IV.

by the lower courses of the rivers Titeniis» TriniiUf and other streams
which take their rise in the mountains of Samnium. The Frentani
were a Samnite race. The towns of importance on the sea-ooast
were Ort5na« Oriona^ Histoninm, and Bnea* probably at Termoli^
none of which have any historical associations: Histonium ap-
pears to have ranked as the capital under the Roman empire ; there
arc extensive remains of it at II Vasto, A«y&wfiniy Lanciano, in
the interior, may also be noticed as a municipal town of some size.

Historu.— The Frentani are first noticed in B.C. 319, when they were
at war with Rome, and were speedily reduced. In 304 they concluded
peace with the Romans, and they remained faithful to them, even after
the battle of Cannse. They joined in the Social War without taking
any prominent part in it.

Beneveii Uuu.


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Alban Hills and Remains of Roman Aqueduct.

ITALY — continued, latium.

IX. Latium. § 1 . Boundaries, and General Description. § 2. Moun-
tains. § 3. Rivers. § 4. Inhabitants. § 5. Rome. § 6. Remain-
ing Towns of Latium. Roads. Islands. History.

IX. Latium.

§ 1. In fixing the boundaries of Latium,* care must be taken to
distinguish between Latium in the original and historical sense, and
Latium in its later geographical sense. The former was a small
country, bounded on the N. by the Tiber and the Anio (wdth the
exception of a small district N. of the Anio, at the confluence of
these rivers, which was included in Latium) ; on the E. by the
lower ranges of the Apennines, a little E. of Tibur and Praeneste ;
on the S. by a line drawn from the latter town to the promontory of
Circeii ; and on the W. by the Tyrrhenian Sea. The latter compre-
hended, in addition to the territorj^ just described, the districts of
the JEqm and Hemici in the E., and the Volsci and Aunmci in the

1 The origin of the name <* Latium" is unknown: the Rdhions themselves
connected it with lateo because Saturn had there lain hid from Jupiter : —
Cknnposuit legesque dedit, Latiumque vocari
Maluit, his quoniam latuUset tutus in oris. ^n. Tiii. 822.

The name is undoubtedly connected with Lavinium and Lavinus, and pro-
bably the oldest form was Latrinus. It should be observed that the name Tiatinro
was derived from Latini, and not vice vertH.



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530 LATIUM. Book IV.

S., so tliat it bordered in the former direction on. S&mnium, and in the
latter on Campania, the point of separation being just S. of Sinnessa.
The greater portion of Latium consists of a broad undulating plain,
now Qalied the Campagna, extending from the sea to the advanced
ridges of the Apennines, and interrupted gdIj by the isolated group
of the Alban hills : this plain, though apparently level, is intersected
by ravines which the streams have worn for themselves, and which
generally have rugged, precipitous sides, particularly in the E. por-
tion of it. The eastern part of Latium, occupied by the jEqui and
Hemici, is hilly ; and the southern district again, occupied by the
Volsci, is intersected by an extensive range, similar in character
to the Apennines, but separated from them by the valleys of the
Trerus and Liris. The districts vary in legard to the fertility of
the soil : the Campagna and the Alban hills are of volcanic origin ;
the former, though at present utterly desolate, was well cultivated
in ancient times, and produced considerable quantities of com. The
slopes of the hills have been in all ages well adapted to the growth
of the vine, the olive, and other fruit-trees ; and among the special
products of the country, we may specify the wine of the Alban hills,'
the figs of Tusculum, tiie hazel-nuts of Praeneste, and the pears of
Crustumerium and Tibur.

§ 2. Of all the hills of Latium the most important and conspicuous
is the group of the Alban hills, the central height of which is the
Albanus Xoni^ of the ancients and the Monte Cavo of modem times.
The name does not appear to have been extended to the general group,
though modem usage has effected this. The Alban hills are a nearly
circular mass, about 40 miles in circumference, of volcanic origin, and
forming apparently at one time a single great crater, the edge of which
lias been broken up into numerous summits, while from the lower
»loi)es numerous spurs project into the plain, affording admirable sites
for towns. The summit of Albanus Mons was crowned with the
temple of Jupiter Latiaris, in which the Latins held their congress.
In the N.E. quarter Algldus^ was a name applied either to a

^ Horace classes it with the Falemian : —

nic herus, Alhenom, Mfeoenas, slve Falemnm,
Te magis appositis delectat ; hahemos utnunqae.— <Sei<. iL 8, 16.
' This sammit commands a magnificent view of the Campagna ; hence Virgil
represents Juno as observing from this point the combat between the Trojans and

At Juno ex summo, qui nunc Albanus habetur,
Prospiciens tumulo, campnm spectabat. J^n. zii. 134.

* The sides of this hill were covered, in the time of Horace, with dense
forests : —

Nam, queo nivali pascitur Algido
Devota, quercns inter et ilices,
Aut creacit Albanis in herbis

Viotima. Carm. iii. 29, 9.


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single summit or to that portion of ike group ; the plain which in-
tervenes between it and Tusculum was the scene of frequent engage-
ments between the Romans and the -<Equians. The Volscian hills,
now known as the Monti Lepini, received no special name in ancient
times. They rise immediately S. oi the Pontine Marshes, and fill up
the whole intervening space (from 12 to 16 miles in breadth) be-
tween them and the valley of the Trerus ; they descend to the coast
between Tarracina and the Liris, and form a succession of headlands.
We must also notice the small Kons Bacer ^ which overlooks the Anio
at a distance of about 3 miles from Rome, and is memorable as the
spot whither the Plebeians seceded in b.c. 494 and 449 •.

§ 3. The chief river in Latium is the Tiber ^, the lower course of
which falls within the limits of this province ; about 2 miles above
Rome it receives an important tributary in the Anio ®, Teverone, which
rises in the Apennines near Treba, and descends rapidly through the
iEquian hills to Tibur, where it forms a remarkable waterfall •, and

Duris ut ilex tonsa bipennibus

Nigrae feraci frondis in Algido. Oartn. iv. 4, 57.

At a later period the wealthy 'Romans had villas there, and its character was
changed : —

Nee Tuscnlanos Algidoeve seoessas

Prceneste nee sio Antiomve miratur. Mart. x. 30.

nee amoma retentant
Algida. SiL. Ital. xii. 536.

& The name is derived from the Lex Saorata passed there in b.c. 494.
^ Plcbs vetus et nullls etiam nunc tuta Tribunis,
Fuglt ; et in Sacri vertioe montis ablt. Ov. Fast. ili. 663.

^ The yellow hne and turbid character of Its stream are f^quently noticed by
the poets : —

Vidimus ftavum Tiberim, retortis

Littore Etrusco violenter undis. Hos. Carm. i. 2, 13.

In flnvium dedit : ille suo cum gurgite^vo

Accepit venientem ac mollibus extulit undis. ^n. ix. 816.

Hnnc inter fluvio Tiberinus amoono
Torticibus rapidis et multa flnvuo arena
In mare prorumpit. Id. vii. 30.

The river is frequently called Albula by the Roman poetn, from a tradition that
such was its earliest name, its later designation having been derived fk'oin a king
named Tibris, according to Virgil [^En. viii. 880), or flpom an Alban king,
Tiberinus, according to livy (i. 3).

" The oblique cases of this name come from a more ancient form, Anien, which
is itself used by some of the later poets (Stat. Silv. i. 3, 20).

* The present cascade is artificial, having been constructed in 1884 ; but there
was always a considerable fall there, as the subjoined passages imply : —

Et prtpcepa Anio. Hon. Carm. i. 7, 13.

Et cad it in patulos Nympha Aniena lacus. Propbht. iii. 16, 4.

Aut ingens in stagna cadit iritrea»qae natatu

Plaudit aquas. Stat. Silv. i. 3, 78.

It appears from the last two passages that the fall was broken towards its lower
part by projecting ledges, which caused it to form small pools.

2 A 2


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632 i:ATIUM. Book IV.

thenoe pursues a winding course through the Campagna ; its water
was very pure and it was one of the sources whence Rome drew its
supply. The liris, Oarigliano (p. 489), is the chief river in the
southern district ; it receives the Trenu, Saeco, from the neighbour-
nood of Prasneste, a stream which, though itself important and flow-
ing through a wide valley, is unnoticed by the historians and poets of
ancient times. Of the lesser streams which crossed the plain, we
may notice the Htunidus \ Hio Torio, on the hanks of which MnesA
was buried; the Aftttra', or Storas, which rises at the foot of the
Alban hills, and on the banks of which was fought the last great
battle between ihe Romans and Latins in b.g. 338; the AmasSnuf ^
Amcueno, which rises in the Yolscian hUls and descends through the
Pontine Marshes to the sea near Tarracina ; and the Ufsni, Ufente^ a
sluggish stream which now joins the Amisenus in the Pontine
Aforshes \ There were numerous small lakes in Latium, the chief
of which was Albftntii Laetu, Logo di Mbano, beneath the mountain
of the same name, 6 miles in circumference, undoubtedly occupying
the crater of an extinct volcano, and so entirely surrounded by moun-
tains that there was no natural outlet for the surplus waters ; these
were carried off by an artificial emissary pierced through the solid
ixxjk, constructed in b.c. 397 and still existing, which conducts the
Avaters by a stream named the Bivo AJbano to the Tiber. We may
also notice L. Hemorensis, Ldgo di Nemiy near Aricia, also a volcanic
crater, of small size but remarkable for its picturesque appearance, and
famed in antiquity for the sanctuary of Diana (Nemus Dianas), to
which it owed its name ; and L. Begillui, at the foot of the Tus-
ctilan hills, the scene of the great battle between the Romans and

' He was. here worshipped under the title of Jupiter Indlges : —
IlUo sanctus eris, qnom te veneranda Numid

Unda Deiiin coolo miserit Indlgetem. Txbtll. ii. 5, 48.

There was also on its banks a grrore sacred to the njmph Anna Perenna : —
Comigcr hano cupidis rapuisse Numioina undia
Creditur, ct stagnis occuloisse sois

Ipsa loqni visa est, placidl sum njmpha Numiel ;

Amne pcrcnne latens Anna Perenna rocor. — Ov. Fast, iii. 647.

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