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and of an aqueduct. XintiinuD was situated on the right bank of the
Liris, about 3 miles from the sea, and on the Appian Way. It was
originally an Ausonian town, but was colonised oy the Romans in
B.C. 296. Its position on the Appian Way secured its prosperity, in
spite of the unhealthiness of the l<x!ality. The onl^ interesting event
connected with it is the capture of C. Marius in 88 m the neighbouring
marshes/ and his subsequent release. Extensive ruins of an amphi-
theatre, of an aqueduct, and of other buildings, mark its site. Near it
were the celebrated grove and temple of the goddess Marica.* flinnwia,
the most southerly town of Latitun, stood on the shore of the Sinus
CaietanuB, about 6 miles N. of the river Vultumus, and on the Appian
Way.^ It was colonised at the same time as Mintum», the object of
this step being the protection of the Roman border against the Sam-
nites. In its neighbourhood was produced the famous Massic wine ;7
and near it there were some much-frequented baths named Aaiue
SinuessansB, and now I Bcigni, The ruins of Sinuessa lie just below
the hill of Mondragone^ and consist of the remains of a triumphal arch,
an aqueduct, and other buildings.

2. In the Interior. — ^lilnir, Tivdll, was situated on the banks of the
Anio, just above the spot where that river makes its descent into the '
Campagna, It thus appeared from one side to stand on the summit of
a lofty clifif.^ The town was very ancient, and was believed to have
been been founded by the Siculi. It is first noticed in B.o. 446 as the
place whither M. Claudius retired in exile. In 357 it was engaged in
disputes with Rome; and for the next twenty years frequent wars took
place between them, ending in the capture of Tibur by L. Furius
Camillus in 335. It enjoyed the privileges of an asylum,* and was the
place of exile of M. Claudius in 446, of Cmna after the mmrder of Caesar,
of Syphax king of Niunidia, and of the beautiful Zenobia. It possessed
a very famous temple of Hercules ^ Victor Tiburs, with a Ubrarv, a
treasury, and an oracle attached. H becane, from the beauty of its
scenery, a favourite resort of the wealthy Romans. MaBcenas, Catullus,



* Exsilimn, et career, Mintumarumqne paludes

Hinc esusas habnere. Jrr. x. 276.

* Et rnnbroe® Liris per regna Marictr. — Luc. ii. 424.
CflDroleos nos Liria amat, quern silva Maricec

Protegit. Mart. xU. 88.

* Postera lux oritur multo gratissima : namque
Flotius et Varius Sinuessie, Yirgiliusque

Occummt. Hor. Sat. i. 5, 39.

' Quocunque lectilm nomine Mansicnm
Servaa, moreri digna bono die. Id. Carm. ili. 21.5.

UvifcrU late florebat Mamicus arris. 8ii.. Ital. vii. 207.

• Hence Horace's epithet : -

Pnraeste, seu Tibur mtpinum. Oarm, iii. 4, 23.

» Quid referam veteres Rotnancp gentis, apud quos

Exsilium tellus ultima Tibur erat. Ov. ex Ptmt. i. 3, Bl .

Hence the epithet " Herculeus *» was applied to it :—

Itur ad Herculei gelidaa qua Tiburis aree«. Makt. i. IS.

Venit in Herculeos ooUes : quid Tiburis alti

AuraTalet? I©, rii 13.



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Chap. XXVI. TOWNS. 555



TlvolU the aiident Tibur.



Horace,^ Salliist, Vopiscus, and Quinctilius Varus had villas thei-e;
and about 2 miles S. of the town the emperor Hadrian erected a mag-
nificent palace with an immense number of buildings, such as a lyceum,
an academy, &c., and extensive pleasure-grounds. Considerable re-
mains of the buildings are still visible. The chief remains of Tibur
are a circular, peripteral temple, reputed to be dedicated to the sibyl
Albunea, with ten out of the original eighteen columns still existing ;
an oblong temple, supposed to be of Vesta ; part of a temple which
stood in the ancient forum ; together with remains of two bridges, and the
villas of Maecenas, Varus, &c. The surrounding country was celebrated
for its fruit, and for its extensive quarries, which supplied Rome with
the travertino used in the Colosseum and the basilica of St. Peter.
PrsBneste, PcUestrina, stood on a projecting spur' of the Apennines,
directly opposite the Alban Hills, and 28 miles £. of Rome. Various
accounts were given of its origin, not one of which is trustworthy. It



^ Mihi jam non regia Roma

Bed yacaum Tibur placet. Hor. Ep, i. 7, 44.

Bed qiue Tibnr aquse fertile proefluunt
£t spisscp nemorum comip,

Fingent .fiolio carmine nobilem. Id. Carm. iv. 3. 10.-

■ Quiqne altum Prteneste Tin, quique arva Gnbintr. — vfe'n. vii. 682.

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566 LATIUM. Book IV.

was a member of the Latin League; in B.C. 499 it seceded and joined
the Romans; in 383 it commenced hostilities against them; in 380 it
was captured by T. Quinctius Cincinnatus after the defeat of its army
in the open field; in 340 it took a prominent part in the great Latin
War; and in 338 it shared in the defeat at Pedum. In the Civil War
between Sulla and Mariiis it was occupied by the latter, who put an
end to his life there. The city was subsequently destroyed by Sulla,
and its site removed from the lull to the subjaoent plain. Its elevated
position and bracing air** made it a favourite retreat of the Romans
during the summer months; and it was the occasional abode of Au-
gustus, Horace,^ Hadrian, and M. Aurelius. It also possessed a cele-
brated shrine of Fortune, ' of which the terraces still remain, and the
temple itself existed until the 13th century. There are also extensive
remains of Hadrian's villa. TasoUam, Fraacatif stood on a spur of the
Alban Hills, about 15 miles S.E. of Rome, with its citadel posted on a
very lofty peak on the E. of the town. Its foundation was attributed
to Telegonu8,7 the son of Ulysses and Circe. It first appears in history
as the abode of Octavius Mamilius, the son-in-law of Tarquinius
Superbus, who took refuge there on his expulsion from Rome, and
thence headed the Latins against the Romans at the battle of liake
Regillus. Thenceforward the Tusculans appear as the steady allies of
Rome. They nevertheless joined in the great Latin War against Rome,
but were favourably treated in the settlement that took place in 335.
Many of the Tusculan families were distinguished at Rome, particularly
the gens Mamilia, the Porcia, the Fulvia, &c. Among the eminent
Romans who had villas there, we may notice Lucullus, Cato, ICaroua
Brutus, L. Crassus, Mfficenas,^ and paSrticularly Cicero, who there com-
posed most of his philosophical works, one of which, the * Tusculan
Disputations,' derives its name from the place : his abode is probably
identical with the ruins of ViUa BufineUa, The chief relics of the town
are portions of the walls, of a piscina, and *of two theatres. Aiida,
La Riociai was situated on the Appian Way, at the foot of the Alban
Mount and on the Appian Road," 16 miles from Rome. It was a
member of the Latin League, and appears to have been one of the
most powerful in the time of Tarquinius Superbus. It took part in
the great Latin War, and subsequently received the full rights of



Sen mihi p-igiduni
Piwneste, iea Tibur suplnum.

Sea liquidfe placaere Baise. Hor. Carm, iiL 4, 23.

Quia timet ant timoit gelida Prteneste ruinam.— Juv. iii. 190.
Dum tu declamas Ronue, Pro^neste relegL Hoiu Ep, i. 2.

Sacrisqae dicatum
portuns PrsDneste JugiB. Sil. Ital. rlii. 366.

Inter Aricinos, Albanaqne tempora constant

Factaque Telegoni mtpnia celsa mano. Ov. Ftut. iii. 91.

Qaid petis .£iei moDnia Telegoni ? PROPEaT. iL 32, 3.

Nee at supemi vUla candens Toscnli ^

Circcea tangat mcDnla. Hob. Epod. i. 29.

Ne semper udum Tibur, et .Ssalfo
Decliye contempleris arrum, et
Telegoni juga parrieidcp. In. Carm, iii. 29, 6.

> Egre&sum magna me accepit Aricia Roma. Id. Sat. i. 5, 1.



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Chap. XXVI. TOWNS. 657

Roman citizenship. Anagnia,* Anagni, was situated on a hill to the
left of the Via Latina, 41 miles S.E. of Rome. It appears to have
been the capital of the Hemican cities, but its history is devoid of
interest. Its position on the Via Latina exposed it to the ravages of
invading armies, and it suffered both from Pyrrhus and from Hannibal.
Its territory was remarkably fertile, and the city abounded in temples
and sanctuaries.

Of the less important towns we may notice — (1.) On the Coast. —
Lanrentiim, Torre di Patemoy about 1 6 miles from Rome, the ancient
capital of Latinus, with marshes about it,' and a very extensive forest,
in which the laiurel was common, and was supposed to have given
name to the place;' LaTininm, Pratiea^ S. of Laurentum (said to have
been founded by ^neas, and named after his wife Lavinia), the sacred
metropolis of the Latin League, but an insignificant place in the later
days of the republic, and finally (probably in the reign of Tn^jan) re-
colonise<l and imited with Laurentum under the name of Lauro-
Lavinium; Ardaa, Ardea^ 24 miles S. of Rome, and about 4 miles from
the sea-coasty a city of great antiquity, said to have been founded by
Danae^ the mother of Perseus, the capital of the Rutuli and royal abode
of Tumus, but in later times a poor decayed place,^ probably from
the unhealthiness of the neighbourhood; LantttlA, a spot between Tar-
racina and Fundi, where a narrow pass (the Paeso di PorteUa) occurs,
through which the Appian Way passed, the scene of the insiurection of
the Roman army under C. Marcius Rutilus in B.C. 342, and of a battle
between the Romans and Samnites in Mb; Fundi,* Fondij on the Appian
Way, between Tarracina and Formite, and near a considerable lake
named Lacus Fundanus, Logo di Fondij which intervened between it
and the sea, a town of no pretensions, but noted for the excellence of
the wine, particularly the Cccuban,^ produced in its territory; and,
lastly, An^olflB, on the shores of the bay named afker it, Sinus Amy-



* Surgit suBpenaa tamenti

Dorso ftrugiferifl Cerealis Anagnia glebis. Sil. Itjll. xii. iZ2.

* Nam Laurens malus est, ulviit et arundine pinguis. — Hor. Sat, ii. 4, 43.
These marshes ii«re the haonts of wild boars : —

Inter queo rari Laurentem ponderis aprum
Misimns, iEtola de Calydone putes. Mart. ix. 49.

» Ipse ferebotor Ph<cbo saorasse Latinus ;
Laurentisque ah ea (te. lauro) nomen poeuime eolonis.— >fu». vii. 63.

* Quam dicitur urbem
Acrisioneis Danae (tindasse oolonis,
Pnedpiti delata Noto, loous Ardea quondam

Pictus avis ; et nunc magnum manct Ardea nomen.-^^fin. vii. 409.
' Magnanimis regnata viris, nunc Ardea notnen, Sil. Ital. i. 291.

• The pomponsness of the " mayor " of this town was the object of Horace*^
ridicule : —

Fundoe Aufldio Lusco prs^tore Ubenter
Linquimus, insani ridentes prspmia scribsp,
PriDtextam, et latum clarum, prunaMiue batillum. — Sat. I. 5, S4.
' Cfceuba Fundanis generosa coquuntur Amyclis. Mabt. xiii. 115.

Absumet hsres CnHsuba dignior
Serrata centum clavibus. Hoa. Carm, ii. 14, 25.



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568 L.VnUM. Book IV.

clanus, a place which had altogether disappeared in the tii&e of
Pliny."

(2.) In the Interior.— ikonS^ supposed to have been ntuated on the
iiioHt westerly of the Alban Hills, chiefly celebrated for its connexion
With the legend of C. Mai*cius Coriolanus. Albft Lcnga, situated on a
long narrow ridge between the Alban Mount and Lake, the ancient
capital of the Latin cities, said to have been founded by Ascanius' the

son of ^neas, and de-
stroyed by Tullus Hoe-
tilius. LaaiiTiiuii,* Civita
Lavima, on a southern
spur of the Alban Hills,
i about 20 miles from
> Itome, a member of the
Latin League, but still
more famed for its tem-
ple of Juno Sospita,* and
as the birth-place of An-
; toninus Pius, who made
it his occasional resi-
dence. Yelitni, Velleiri,
on a southern spur of the
Alban Hills, overlooking
I the Pontine Marshes, pro-
bably a member of the
I Latin League, though
otherwise regarded as a
_^ - _ _^ Yolscian town, and an

active opponent of Kome
Gateway of Siguia. in the Latin Wars, sub-

sequently an ordinary
municipal town, and the native place of the Octavian family, from
which the Emperor Augustus was descended. Signia, Segnt\ on a
lofty hill at the N.W. angle of the Volscian Hills, founded by Tar-
quiuius Superbus, aud, with few exceptions, a faithful dependent of
Homo, chiefly noted in later times for its astringent wine ' used for
medicinal purposes, its pears and vegetables, and a kind of cement
known as ' ' opus Signinum :*' its Cyclopean walls may still be traced,



" It is said to have fiillen through a law imposing silence on its inhabitants in
reference to any report of an enemy approaching : —
Mognanimo Volscentc satum, ditisaimus agri
Qui fuit Ausonidum, et teteitis rcgnavit Amyclis. — ^En. x. ^68.
» I'hc name was connected with the tradition of a white sow appearing to
^neos : —

Ex quo ter denis urbem redenntibus annis
Ascanius clari condct cognominis Albam. Id, Till. 47.

> The names LanuTium and Lavinium are constantly interchanged in early
Roman history ; the modem name affords a further illustration of this.
' I^nurio generate, inquit, quern Sospita Juno

Dat nobis, Milo, Oradivi cape victor honorcm. Sil. Ital. xiii. 364.
* Quos Cora, quos spumans inmiii Signia musto. — Id. viii. 380.
Potabis liquidum Signina morantia ventrem ;
Ne liimium nstant, sit tibi parca sitis. Mart. xiii. 116.



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Chap. XXVI. TOWNS. 559

and there is a remarkable gateway in the same style. Oora,^ Cori on a
bold hill S.E. of Velitrae, at a very early period one of the first cities of
Latium, for a time conquered by the volscians, but regained by the
Latins, now remarkably for the remains of its ancient walls, and a bridge
thrown over a deep raTuie. Snessa Pometia,* on the borders of the
Pontine Marshes, which were supposed to be named after it, a place of
great wealth at the time of its capture by Tarquinius Superbus, but not
mentioned after B.C. 495, and utterly extinct in Pliny's time. Setia,
Sezte, on a lofty hill overlooking the Pontine Marshes, abo^t 5 miles
to the left of the Appian Way, a Latin city, but at one period subject
to the Volscians, the place where the Carthaginian hostages were depo-
sited at the close of 'the Second Punic War, and celebrated under the
empire for its superior wine. Piivemiim, Pipemo Vecehio, on the E.
slope of the Yolscian Hills, overlooking the valley of the Amisenus,
an important town of the Volscians, engaged in hostilities with Rome
in B.C. 358 and 327, and under the empire noted for its wine. Fregelltt,
on the left bank of the Liris, near its junction with the Trerus^ a
Volscian city, destroyed by the Samnites, but rebuilt by the Romans
in D.O. 328, and subsequently signalized for its fidelity to Rome in the
Second Punic War, and for its defection from that power in 125, when
it was utterly destroyed. Aip&mm, Arpino, on a hill in the upper
valley of the Liris, originally belonging to the Volscians, then to the
Samnites, and captured by the Romans in b.c. 305, chiefly famous,
however, as the birth-place of Cicero and C. Marius,' the former of
whom possessed a patrimonial estate there, and now remarkable for the
remains of its Cyclopean walls and an old gateway. Bora, 8ora, about 6
miles higher up the river, a Volscian town, captured by the Romans in
B.C. 345,' and colonised by them : under the empire a cheap, retired
country town. Frnidno, Fro«inone, on the Via Latina, belonging ori-
ginally to the Volscians, but in close connexion with the Hemicans,
and at a later period having the same character as Sora. FereBtinnm,
FerenlinOf on the Via Latina, between Frusino and Anagnia, a Uei-nican
town, but subject to the Volscians about B.C. 413, actively engaged in
the wai* against Rome in 361, a severe sufferer from the ravages of
Hannibal's army in 211, and now famous for the remains of its Cy-
clopean walls. Pedum, Qallicano, between Tibur and Prseneste, a mem-
ber of the Latin League, and an active participator in the wars with
Rome, particularly in the last great war, when it became the centre of
hostilities, and was captured by Camillas. LaMemn^ or Lavloiim, La



* Virgil {jEh. vi. 775) reckona it among the colonies of Alba : —

Pometioe, Castrumque Inui, Bolamque, Coramque.
» See preriona note.

« Nee faoili pretio, sed quo contenta Falerni

Testa sit, aut cellis Setia cara suis. Makt. x. 36.

Tunc ilia time, cum pocula sumes
Gemmata, et lato Setinum ardebit in auro. Juv. x. 26.

' Juvenal contrasts these two great men in the passages commencing —
Hie noTUfl Arpinas ignobilis, et modo Romie
Municipalis eques, &c.
Arpinas alius Yolscorum in monte solcbat

Poscere mercedes, &c. Sat. vlii. 237, 245.

*. It is noticed by Virgil as one of the towns allied to Tumus : —

£t Sacrautc acies, et picti scuta LabicL ^£n. viL 796.



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560 LATIUM. Book IV.

Colorma, at the N.E. foot of the Alban Hills, and about 15 miles from
Kome, a member of the Latin League, frequently mentioned in the
history of the iEk|uian wars, but in after times a poor decayed place.
Oabii, between Kome and Pneneste, a colony of Alba' and a member
of the Latin League, captured by stratagem by Tarquinius Superbua,
and thenceforwf^ a place rarely mentioned in history, having sunk
gradually to a state of decay ^ until a temporary revival of it took place
under the emperors, probably on account of its cold sulphureous
springs. FidSnas, Castd GiubUeo, on a steep hill overlooking tne I^ber,
5 miles from Rome, founded by Alba,' conquered and colonised by
Romulus, and engaged in constant feuds with Rome until B.a 438,
when it was destroyed, and thenceforward remained a poor deserted
place,^ notorious only for a terrible disaster which happened in the time
of Tiberius, when §0,000 pernons were either killed or hurt by the fiiU
of a wooden amphitheatre. Fioalea, CesoHrU, between Rome and Ko-
mentum, about 9 miles from Rome, said to have been founded by the
Aborigines, conquered by Tarquinius Prisons. CnntHBMiriinn, on the
borders of the Sabine territory, and at one time regarded as a Sabine
town, captured by Romulus, and again by Tarquinius Prisons, but
subsequently unnoticed in history. Homentnm, MerUana, on the
Sabine frontier N. of the Anio, and 14} miles from Rome, a colony
of Alba, and frequently noticed as a Latin town, and as taking part in
the wars against Rome, the abode in later times of Seneca, Martial,
Q. Ovidius, and Nepos.

Roads. — As Latium contained the metropolis of Italy, it was naturally
the point to which all the great roads converged : we shall therefore con-
sider ourselves as stationed at Rome, and describe the roads that issued
from it. 1. The Yin Latlna, which we mention first as being probably
the most ancient of all the Italian roads, issued from the Porta Capena,
and led through Ferentinimi, Frusino, Aquinum, and Teanum, to Casi-
linum in Campania, where it fell into the Via Appia. It skirted the
Alban Hills near Tusculum, and followed the valleys of the Trerus and
Liris to the borders of Campania. 2. The YIa Appia, the great southern
road of Italy, also issued from the Porta Capena, and made in a straight
line for Tarraoina on the sea-coast ; thence it went by Fundi to FormiiB,
and then followed the sea-coast to Sinueesa, whence it struck inland to
Capua, Beneventum, and ultimately to Brundisium. It was constructed
as far as Capua in B.C. 312, by the Censor Appius Claudius. Between
Rome and the Alban Hills this road was bordered with tombs and
other buildings, the remains of which render it, even at the present
day, one of the moat remarkable objects in the neighbourhood of Rome.
3. The VIa Ottieniii originally passed through the Porta Trigemina,
but afterwards through the Porta Ostiensis, and followed the left bank
of the Tiber to Ostia. 4. The YIa Portaeniii issued from the Porta
Portuensis in the walls of Aurelian, and followed the right bank of the



' Hi tibi Nomentum, et Oabios, urbemque Fidenam,
Ul Collatlnas imponent mconibus arces. ^n. vi. 773.

1 SdB Lebedus quid sit ; Gabiis desertior atqae
Fidenis ricus. Hoa. ^. i. U, 7.

Oabios, Veiopqne, Coramqne
Pnlvere vix tectis potcnmt monstrare ruineD. Lvc vii. 893.

' See note* above.

' See qnotatioin from Horace in note >. '



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Chap. XXVI. ROADS — ISLANDS - HISTORY. 561

Tiber to Portua Trajani. 5. The VIa LaUeina passed out by the
Porta Esquilina, and, passing by Labicum, fell into the Via Latina at
Bivium, 30 miles from Rome. 6. The Via Praeneitlna, or, as it was
originally called. Via OaMna, issued from the Porta Esquilina and led
to Prseneste ; a branch thence communicated with the Via Latina near
Anagnia. 7. The Via Ulnirtlna issued from the Porta Esquilina,
crossed the Anio by a bridge 4 miles from Rome, and re-crossed it at
the foot of the hill on which Tibur stood ; it was thence continued,
under the name of Via Valeria, to Corfinium and the Adriatic.
8. The Via Homeiitftxia left by the Porta Collina, crossed the Anio just
under the Mens Sacer, and thence reached Nomentum ; a branch road
from this point led to Eretum, where it fell into the Via Salaria. 9. The
. Via Salaria also issued from the Porta Collina, struck into the heart of
the Sabine countiy by Reate, and thence was carried across the Apen-
nines to Picenum and the Adriatic. 10. The Via Flaminia, the great
northern road of Italy, crossed the Campus Martins and issued from
the Porta Flaminia, crossed the Tiber by the Pons Milvius, 3 miles
from Rome, into Etruria, where its course has been already described
(pp. 512, 516). It was constructed by the censor C. Flaminius in B.C.
220. 1 1 . The Via Anrelia, the Great Coast Road, issued from the Porta
Jauiculensis, and struck off towards the W. for the coast, which it
reached at Alsium, whence it followed the line of coast throiighout
Etruria and Liguria (see pp. 512, 503).

Idaoids, — Off the coast of Latium lies a group of islands of volcanic
origin, of which Pontia, Ponzaf was the most considerable; it was colo-
nized by the Romans in b.c. 313, and became imder the emperors a place
of confinement for state prisoners. The others were named Palniariay
Palmaruola, Sinonia, Zannone, and Pan d ata ri a, Vandotena, also used as
a State prison.

HUtory. — The extension of the Roman supremacy over Latium was a
long and gradual process. We find the kings waging successful war with
the I^tin cities ^Alba itself being destroyed by Tullus Hostilius), and
shortly after taking the supremacy of the Latin league, as appears from
the treaty concluded with Carthage in B.C. 509. Upon the expulsion of
the kings, however, the Latins regained their independence, and in 493
they concluded a treaty with Rome, the object oj^ which appears to
have been to counteract the growing power of the Volscians and
.^kjuians. For the next 100 years little occurred to break this arrange-
ment ; some small wars were then waged with the Pi-aanestines and
others, which were but a prelude to the great struggle for independence
in the war of 341-338, when the Latins combinea with the Volscians,
^quians, and Hemicans against Rome. The battles of Vesuvius,
Pedum, and Astura, decided the struggle in favouc of the latt-er power.
The Latins were subdued in 338, the Hemicans in 306, and the
.^Squians in 304. The period of the final subjection of the Volscians
is not so certainly fixed ; they were subjected, however, before 326.



2 B 3

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Ruins of Capua.



CHAPTER XXVII.
ITALY— continued, campania, apulia, calabbia, lucania,

THE BRUTTII.

X. Campania. § 1. Boundaries and general description. § 2. Moun-
tains and rivers. § 3. Inhabitants; towns; roads; islands; his-
tory. XI. Apulia. § 4. Boundaries, mountains, and rivers. § 5.
Inhabitants ; towns ; roads ; history. XII. Calabria. § 6.
Boundaries ; inhabitants ; towns ; histfiry. XIII. LrCANiA. § 7.
Boundaries, mountains, and rivers. § 8. Inhabitants; towns ;
roads ; history. XIV. The BRurm. § 9. Boundaries, mountains,
and rivers. § 10. Inhabitants ; towns ; history.

X. Campania.

§ I. Campania was bounded on the N. by Latium, on the K by
Samnium, on the S. by Lucania, from which it was separated by the
river Silarus, and oh the W. by the Tyrrhenian Sea. These limits
include the district of the Picentini in the S. The chief portion of



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Chap. XXVII. CAMPANIA. , 563

this province consists, as its name (from campus) implies, of an ex-
tensive plain extending from the sea to the Apennines, and broken
only by a group of volcanic hills between Cumse and Neapolis, and
by the isolated moimtain of Vesuvius. This plain was bounded on
the S. by a lateral ridge which strikes off from the Apennines at right



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