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angles to the general direction of the range, and protrudes into the sea
at Prom. Minervae, forming the southern termination of the Sinus
Cumanus, On the other side of this range follows the hilly coimtry
of the Picentini. The soil of this plain is of volcanic origin, and has
been celebrated in all ages for its extraordinary fertility.^ It pro-
duced three and even four crops in the year, and was particularly
famous for its sheep, its wine,* and its oil.' The genial mildness of
the climate, combined with the beauty of the scenery, and the nu-
merous thermal springs it possessed, rendered it highly attractive to
the luxurious and wealthy Romans.

§ 2. The most conspicuous feature in the Campanian plain is the
volcanic moimtain Yeniyiiis, which rises in an isolated conical mass
to the height of 4,020 feet, to the E. of Neapolis. No eruption is re-
corded before the terrible one in a.d. 79, which overwhelmed Her-
culaneum and Pompeii, and in which the elder Pliny perished ; * two
subsequent eruptions are recorded in ancient times, in a.d. 203 and
472. The summit of the mountain is described by Strabo as nearly
level, and probably the present central cone first came into existence
in A.D. 79. The volcanic group to the W. of Naples culminated in
XoBS Oatirof , Monte Barbaro, about 3 miles N. £. of Cumse, famed
for its excellent wines. * The plains to the N. of this were denomi-
nated by the Greeks of Cumae the Campi Fhlegrai, from the evident

I Illft tibi laBtls intexet vitibus nlmos ;
Ilia ferax oleo est : illam experiere colendo
£t fiaeilem pecori, et patientem vomeris anoi.
Talem dives arat Capua ct vicina Vesevo

Ora Jiigo, et Tacois Clanins non CDqaos Acerrl*. — Oeorg. ii. 221.
s The Massic, Falernian, Gaurlan, and Surrentine, were the most celebrated

» The oil of Venafmm was particalarly prized : —
Insuper addes
Pressa Yenafrann quod bacca remisit oliTie. Hoa. S€U. ii. 4, G8.
Hoc tibi Campani sudavit bacca VenafH. Mart. xiii. 101.

* Previous to this, the fertility of the soil about Vesuvius was tAmcd (see Oeorg.
ii. 221, above quoted). Martial contrasts with this the desolation that reigned
there In his time : —

Hie est pampineis viridis modo Yesbius umbris ;
Presserat hie madidoe nobilis uva lacu«.

Cuncta jaoent flammis et tristi mensa favilla :

Neo super! vellent hoc licuisse sibi. iv. 44.

frondentia Issto
Palmite devastat Nysroa cacumina Gauri. Sil. Ital. xii. 160.


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564 CAMPANIA, Book IV.

signs of volcanic action apparent on them : * they were also called
Oampi Laborlni, a designation preserved in the modem Terra di Lon
vorOf now applied to tie whole district. On the borders of Sammnm,
the ranges which overlook the plain, and which stand forth as the ad-
vanced guard of the central Apennines, were named Tii&ta, Monte di
Maddalonif near Capua, and TabumiiB, Tdlmmo, S. of the Via Appia.
The range which we have already noticed as bounding the plain on
the S. was named Laotarins, Monte S. Angela, from the excellent milk
produced from its pastures. Between the projecting pohits of Prom.
MinervBB and Misennm lies the deep and beautiful Bay of Naples, to
which the ancients gave the name of Crater from its cup-like form,
though it was also otherwise named after 'the towns of Cumse and
Puteoli. The rivers of Campania are unimportant, with the exception
of the yaltamu, previously described (p. 489) ; we may notice the
Savot Savone, a small sluggish' stream N. of the Yultumus; the
Claniu, to the S. of it, now converted into the canal of Lagno\ the
SebSthUj which flows under the walls of Neapolis ; the Samnif Samo^
which waters the plain to the S. of Vesuvius ; and the SilSms, 8de^
on the S. border. Campania possessed a few small lakes, one of
which, Avemu, has been previously noticed (p. 490), while another
hardly less fiunous was known by the name of Lnerlniii Laeu ; this
lay at the head of the Sinus Baianus, and was separated from the sea
only by a narrow barrier of sand : it was shallow, and hence pecu-
liarly adapted for oyster-beds." Agrippa constructed a port, named
Julius Portus, by opening conmiunications between the Lucrine Lake
and the sea on one side and Lake Avemus on the other ; at the same
time he constructed a mole of great strength outside the barrier of sand.*
lliis project turned out a failure. A large portion of the Lucrine Lake is
now occupied by the Monte Nuovo, a hiU some 400 feet high, which
was thrown up by volcanic action in 1538.
§ 3. The original inhabitants of Campania were an Oscan or Opican

• Turn sulphnre ct ig:ni
Semper anhelantes coctoque bitomine campos
Ostentant. Tellus, atro cxundante vapore
Suspirans, astinque diu calefacta medulUs

-Estuat, et Stygioe exhalat In aera flatus. Stl. Ital. xiL. 138.

' Statius {SUv. ir. 8,-66) describes it an "piger SaTo."

■ Non me Lucrina juTcrint conehylia. Hor. Epod. U. 49.

Marioe Baiano melior Lucrina peloris. Id. Sat. IL 4, 88.

* An memorem portus, Lucrinoque addita claustra,
Atque indi^atum magnis stridoribus ceqnor,
Julia qua ponto longe sonat unda refuse,

Tyrrbenuoque fretis immittitur sestus Avemis T — Georg, ii. 161.

Debemur morti nos nostraque : sive reoeptns

Terra Keptunus classes aquilonibus arcet,

Kegis opus. Hoa. Art, /"tort, 68.


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Chap. XXVII. TOWNS. 665

race. They were subdued by the Etruscans, and the date of this oc-
currence is variously fixed at b.c. 471 and 771. Finally the Sam-
nites entered as a conquering race, and established themselves in the
neighbourhood of Capua about b.c. 440. Throughout all these
changes, however, the Oscan element remained the basis of the popu-
lation, and imposed its language upon the conquerors. We have
yet to notice the Greek settlers on the coast, who exercised a material
influence in works of art. The Campanians were reputed generally
a soft and luxurious race ; at the same time they are noticed in his-
tory as serving as mercenaries in the Carthaginian armies. The
towns of Campania rose at different periods of its history : the eariiest
settlement of which we hear was the Greek colony of Cumae, founded
(according to tradition) in b.c. 1050 ; this in turn foimded the other
Greek cities on the coast, Dicsearchia, Palaepolis, and Neapolis, and,
according to some writers, Nola and Abella in the interior. The
Etruscans are said to have had a confederacy of twelve cities in Cam-
pania, as they had in Etruria and Gallia Cisalpina, at the head of
which stood Capua. This remained the chief town imder the Sam-
nites also, and was the place with which the Romans came into con-
tact in the 4th century b.c. Under the Roman empire the towns on
the Campanian coast rose to wealth and celebrity as the fashionable
watering places of Italy; new towns sprang up at Baiaa and Bauli
on the N. coast of the Bay of Naples \ the whole circuit of the bay
was studded with villas and palaces, and Neapolis, Pompeii and Sur-
rentum were much frequented. The terrible disaster in a.d. 79 gave
a temporary check to this prosperity ; but the country soon recovered
the blow, and remained one of the most flourishing and populous pro-
vinces of Italy down to the ve^ close of the Western Empire. We
shall describe the towns in their order from N. to S., taking first
those on the sea-coast, and then those in the interior.

\. On the Coast. — Cunui, one of the most ancient and celebrated
Greek colonies in Italy, stood on the summit of a clifi^, 6 miles N. of
Prom. Misenum. It was founded jointly by Chalddians of Euboea,^
under Megasthenes, and CymsBans of ^olis, under Hippocles; and,
according to agreement, it received the name of the one town and
ranked as the colony of the other. The assigned date of its foundation
(b.c. 1050) is too early to be accepted. It soon rose to commercial
wealth and power, and founded several colonies in the neighbourhood.
Its fall may be attributed to its internal dissensions, which led to the
establishment of a despotism under Aristodemus, in 505, during' whose
rule Tarquinius Superbus took refuge and died there in 496. It
suffered from the growing power of the Etruscans, who attacked it in

1 Hence the epithet of Euboic, commonly applied to it :

Et tandem Enhoiois Cnmarum allahitor oris. J?n. ▼!. 3.

Sedibos Enboicam Stjgiia emergit in urbem

Troios .£neas. Or. M^t, xiT. 155.


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Book IV.

Coin of Cunue.

474, and were only resisted by the aid of Hieron of Syracuse; and
it was finally crushed by the Sunnites, who ensured it in 420. Under

the Romans it became a muni-
eipium and a colony, but never
regained its importance.' It
was noted for its red earth^^*
ware and its flax. The chief
celebrity of Cunue is, however,
derived from its being the re-
puted residence of the Sibyl,
whose cave ' existed in histori-
cal times, probably on the £.
side of the cliff. The remains
of Cumsd are inconsiderable, but valuable works of art (statues, vases,
&c.) have been discovered on its site. XisSniiiii, on the promontory of
the same name, first rose to importance under Augustus as the station
of a fleet for the defence of the Tyrrhenian Sea, and is memorable as
the scene of an interview between Octavian, Antony, and Sextuft Pompeios.
Lucullus had a magnificent villa there, which tiie Emperor Tiberius^
subsequently acquired, and in which he died. Several interesting
inscriptions have been found on the site of Misenum. Baio, Bajaj was
situated W. of Misenum and on the S. W. side of a bay, named after
it, which penetrates inland between Misenum and Puteoli. Its port
was frequented in early times; but the town rose, under the patronage
of the Romans, towards the end of the Republic, and became one of
the most popular watering-places on this coast.' Amoug the illus-
trious men who had villas there, we may notice Cicero, Lucullus,
C. Marius, Pompey, Cassar, Nero, Caligula, Hadrian (who died there),
and Alexander Severus. Many of the villas were built on piles
actually in the sea.® The chief relic of antiquity is the so-called
Temple of Venus, near the sea-coast. Putedli, PozzuoZt, was situated
on the promontory which forms the E. boundary of the Sinus Baianus.
It was founded by Greeks of Cumie^ in b.c. 521, and was originally
named DieflMurehia. This was exchanged for Puteoli when the Romans
go^ possession of it in the Second Punic War, the new name being

* Javenal itpeaks of it as quite deserted : —

Laado tamen paeuU quod sedem figere Comis
Destinet, atqne anam cirem donare SibyUse. SaU iii. 8.
> Excisoin EnboicflB latns ingens mpis hi antrum ;
Qno lati dncant aditos centnm, ostia centum,
TJnde ruunt totidem voces, responaa Sibyllic. Aim. ri. 42.

* CfBsar Tiberius quum petens Ncapolim
In Miaenensem villam venisflet suam,

' Quad monte summo poalta Luculll manu,
Prospectat Sieulum et proepicit Tuaeum mare.-^PB.xi>a. ii. &, 7.

* Nullus in orbe sinus Bails prsBlucet amcenis. Hor. Ep. i. 1, 83.
littus beat® Veneris aureum Baias,

Baias snperbce blanda dona natura,

Ut mille laudem, Flacce, versibus Baias,

Laudabo digue non satis tamen Baias. Mart. xi. 80.

* To this Horace alludes : —

Marisque Bails obstrepentis urges

Summovere Httora

Parum loenples continente ripa. Carm. U. 18, 30.


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Chap. XXVII. TOWNS. 567

derived either from the stench of the sulphureous springs/ or Arom the
wells (putei) of a volcanio origin about it. Ifc was colonized by the
Romans in 194. It possessed an excellent harbour, which was further
improved by a mole, and which became the most frequented port for
Egyptian, Tynan, and Spanish traffic. It was also frequented by the
wealthy Romans, and Cicero possessed a villa there, at which Hadrian
was afterwards buried. Caligula established a temporary bridge, two
miles long, between Baite and Puteoli. The remains are extensive, the
most important being those of the amphitheatre, of the mole, and of the
so-called temple of Serapis, probably used as a bath-house, and inter-
esting from the proof which it affords of extensive changes in the level
of the soil on which it stands. HeapSlis, Naples, was situated on the
W. slope of Mt. Vesuvius and on the banks of the small stream
Sebethus. It was founded by
Greeks of Cunue,' and was
named Neapolis, ** New City,"
in contradistinction to PalaDpo-
lis, "Old City,'* which had
been previously established, pro-
bably on the hill of Pausilypus.
The name of ParthenSpe appears
to have originally belonged to Coin of Neapolis.

Paloepolis, but was subsequently

transferred to Neapolis.^ Neapolis was conquered by the Samnites
in B.C. 327, and passed into the hands of the Romans in 290: it
retained its Greek character under them, and hence became a favourite
resort ^ of the Romans before the end of the Republic. It was sub-
sequently made a municipium, and finallv a colony, though the
date of this latter change is uncertain. Of the Roman villas about
Neapolis that of Vedius Pollio, on the ridge named by him Pausi-
lypus, and now Poailippo, was the most famous. The Emperors
Claudius and Nero had villas there, as also had the poets Virgil
(who was biuied there). Statins, and Silius Italicus. The only re-
mains of the town are two arches, part of an aqueduct, and the
ruins of a temple of Castor and Pollux. The tomb of Virgil* also
survives. Pompeii stood at the mouth of the river Samus and on the S.
side of Vesuvius. The line of the coast has been canied out two miles

' Near Pnteoli was a spot called Forum Vulcanl, now So^fatara, from the
number of holes whence issued sulphiu^ous vapoursw

> Hence the epithets of Enboio and Chalcidian given to it : —

Anne quod Euboieos fessus remeare penates

Auguror. Stat. 8ilv, iii. 5, 12.

Omnia Chaleidicas turres obversa salutant. Id. ii. 2, 94.

* This is the name usually adopted by Statins and Silius Italicus.

1 In otia natam

Parthenopen. Ov. MeU xt. 711.

Et oHo$a credidit Neapolis. Hor. Epod. v. 43.

Many literary men settled there ; hence the epithet docta : —

Et quas docta Neapolis creavit. Mart. v. 78.

* Statins refers to it as being near Neapolis : —

Maroneique sedens in margine templi
Sumo animnm, et magni tumnlia adcanto magistri.— ^«7i7. iv. 4, 54.


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568 CAMPANIA. Book IV.

from the site of the town by the changes produced by the catastrophe
in A.D. 79. The town was a very ancient one, and belonged suooea-
sively to the Oacans and Etruscans; it served as the port of Nohi,
Nuceria^ and other inland towns. It became a favourite abode of the

Temple of Venus at Pompeii.

Romans; and, among others, Cicero had a villa there. It was partly
destroyed by an earthquake in a.d. 63, and utterly by the eruption
of 79, which buried it beneath a vast* shower of ashes and other
volcanic substances. So completely did the town disappear, that even
its site was unknown: it whs discovered accidentally in 1689, and

Street of the Tombs at Pompeii.

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Chap. XXVII. TOWNS. 669

excavations were commenced in 1755, which have been carried on at
intervals to the present day, so that about half the town is now
exposed to view. The most remarkable buildings are found in the
Forum, and consist of the Temples of Jupiter, Venus, and Mercury, a
Basilica, Baths, a Pantheon, &c. Outside the gate leading to Hercu-
laneum lies the Street' of the Tombs. The light which has been thrown
on the private life of the ancients by these discoveries is invaluable.
Smraitiim, Sorrento, stood on the ». coast of the Bay of NapleB^
about 7 miles N.E. of Prom. Minervse. It was reputed a Qreek town,
but this, as well as its remaining history, is a matter of uncertainly.
It was chiefly famed for the wine grown on the neighbouring hills,^
and for its pottery. Pollius Felix, the friend of Statins, had a villa
there, of which extensive ruins still remain. Salenrani, Salerno, was
situated in the territory of the Picentini on the N. shore of the Sinus
Paestanus. We know nothing of it previous to the settlement made
by the Romans there, in B.C. 194, for the purpose of holding the
Picentini in check. It thenceforward became the chief town in this
part of Campania.**

2. In (he Interior.— Te&Dxan, sumamed flldirtfnTiin, to distinguish it
from the Apulian town of the same name, stood on the Via Latina in
the extreme N.E. of the
province. It was origi-
nally the capital of the
Sidicini, and its position
on the Via Latina made I
it important as a military {
post. It received a colony
under Augustus, and re-
mained a large and popu-
lous town under the Em-
pire. Remains of an am- Coin of Teanum Sidlclnum.
phitheatre and of a theatre

exist on its site. Oapna,^ Sta. Maria di Capua, was situated about two
miles S. of the Vultumus and one from the foot of Mount Tifata.
It was called Vultumum under the Etruscans ; it was either founded
or colonissed by the Etruscans, but the date of this event is quite
uncertain. The Samnites captured it in B.a 423 ; its first intercourse
with Rome was in 343, when it obtained aid against the Sanmites ; in
216 it joined the cause of Hannibal, and in 211 was severely punished
by Rome for this defection. It was placed under a Roman Pr»fectus,
was made a colony by Csesar in 59, and was re-colonized by Nero.
The luxury and refinement of the Capuans became proverbial. The
town, being built on a plain, was of great extent ; it was surrounded
by walls, and had seven gates. In the neighbourhood the famous

' Inde legit Capreas, promontoriuinqae Minervfc,
Et Surrentino generosos palmite coUes. Ov. Met. xv. 709.

Caraqae non molli juga Surrentina Ly»o. Stat. A7r. ill. 5, 102.

* It wan visited by Horace for the improYement of his health : —
Qa» 8it hieros Veliffi, quod ccclum, Vala, Salemi,
Quornm hominum regio, et qualis via ! Sp. i. 15, 1.

> The origin of the name Is uncertain ; Virgil derives it from Capys : -

Et Capys : hlnc nomen Campana* dncitur urbi. — ^n, x. 145.
It is probably connected with Campus on account of its situation on a plain.


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670 CAMPANIA. Book IV.

FalemiMii wine was produced. Some portioDB of the ancient walla, of
an amphitheatre, and of a triumphal arch remain. The town waa

destroyed a.d. 840, and
waB rebuilt off the site of
Caailinum, 3 miles distant,
which has hence inherited
the name of CaptM. Kola,
I Nolo, stood 21 mUee S.E.
of Capua, between Vesu-
vius and the Apennines :
it was a town of great an-
tiquity, founded by the
Ausonians, colonized by
OolnofCipua. the Greeks bf Cum«, •

occupied successively by
the Etruscans and Samnites, and, finally, conquered by the Romans
in n.c. 313. It was signalized for its fidelity to Rome after the battle
of Cannse, in reward for which it was allowed to retain its consti-
tution ; it withstood Hannibal on no less than three occasions in the

Second Punic War,' It
bore a conspicuous part
in the Social War, having
been occupied by the al-
lies, and subsequently cap-
tured and destroyed by
Sulla. It was rebuilt, and
received colonies under
Augustus and Vespasian.
CoinofNoU. Augustus died there. Nu-

merous inscriptions in the
Oscan language and a vast number of Greek painted vases have been
found at Nola. Huoeria, Nocera, sumamed AlftkteniA, to distinguish
it from other towns of the same name, stood on the Samus, about 9 miles
from its mouth, and on the Appia Via. Its early history is unknown.
In B.C. 315 it is noticed as joining the Samnites against Rome, and in
808 it was taken by the consul Fabius. In 216 it was taken by
Hannibal, and its inhabitants were subsequently re-settled at Atella.
Nuceria was, however, rebuilt and received colonies under Augustus
and Nero.

Of the less important towns we may notice: —

(1.) On the Coose.— Vultnrnnm, CasUl VoUumo, at the mouth of
the Vultumus, originally only a fort erected by the Romans in the
Second Punic War, but subsequently colonized in B.C. 1 94 ; litemim,
Tor di Patria, on the verge of a marsh or lagoon called the Litema
Palus,^ a place famous as the retreat of Scipio African us, who died and,
according to one account, was buried there ; Banli, between Baiie and

Hence it is termed Chalcidian : —

Hinc ad Chalcidicam transfert citu5 aginina Nolam. — Sil. Ital. xU. 161.
' Campo Nola iiedet crebris circnmdata in orbem

TurribuB, et celso facilem tntatur adiri

Planitiem vallo. Sil. Ital. xii. 162.

• Hinc oalidi fontes, lentisciferumqne tcncntur

Liternum. Ov. Met. xv. 713.


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Prom. Misenum, a favourite resort of the Romans, and, among others,
of Hortensins and of Nero, who here planned the death of Agrippina ; •
Herenlmneimi, Ercolano, at the foot of Vesuyiua, founded by the Oscans,
occupied by the Etruscans, and subsequently by Greeks, captured by
the Romans in the Social War, and finally buried to a depth of from
70 to 100 feet beneath the ground by the same catastrophe which
destroyed Pompeii; it was discovered in 1738, and partly explored, the
chief buildings foimd being a theatre capable of seating 10,000 persons,
portions of two temples, and other buildings ; StabuB, Ca$tm-a-Mare
di Stabia, 4 miles S. of Pompeii, destroyed by Sulla in the Social War,
subsequently the residence of several Romans, and, among others, of
PomponianuB, the friend of the elder Pliny, who perished here in the
overwhelming catastrophe of a.d. 79; and, lastly, Pioe&tU, Vicenza,
the chief town of the Picentini.

(2.) In the Interior. — Oalet, Calm, on the Via Latina, S.E. of Teanum,
originally the capital of the Ausonian tribe named Oaleni, subsequently
taken and colonized by the Romans in b.o. 335, and especially famed
for its fine wine;* OatJlTTmin, Camta, on the Vultumus, famed for the
noble stand made there by lOOO Roman troops against the whole army
of Hannibal in B.C. 216 ; Atella, midway between Capua and Neapolis,
historically famous only for the severe punishment inflicted on it by
the Romans in b.c. 211 for its defection to Hannibal, and otherwise
better known for the dramatic representations, named *' Fabulse Atel-
lansD," which originated there; and, lastly, Acerra, Acerrot 8 miles
N.E. of NenpoliB, which received the Roman franchise in B.C. 332^ was
destroyed by Hannibal in 216, and rebuilt in 210.2

Road*. — Campania was traversed by the YIa Appia, which entered it
at Sinuessa, struck inland to Casilinum and Capua, and quitted it for
Caudium and Beneventum; this portion of the road could not have
been constructed before the end of the Samnite Wars. The "Via Latina
entered Campania near Teanimi and passed by Cales to Casilinum^
whei*e it fell into the Appian Way. Other roads, the names of which
are unknown, led from Capua by Nola and Nuceria to Salemum, and
so on to Rhegium, and again from Sinuessa along the coast to Cumee
and Neapolis.

Islands. — Off the coast of Campania lie the following islands: —
Proohj^, ProcidfjL, off Prom. Misenum, from which it is distant about
3 miles, a flat and comparatively low ' island, and, though now thicklv
populated, formerly uninhabited : * £iiaria, Ischia — the PithedUa of

* Dum petit a Baulia qiater Cserelia Baias,

Ooddit insani crimine mersa freti. Makt. iv. 63.

1 Cfecubum et piselo domitam Coleno

Tu bibcs avam. Hon. Carm. i. 20, 9.

Premant Galena foloe, quibus dedit

Fortuna ritem. Id. i. 31, 9.

< It appears to hare been a poor, forsaken place : —

Et vaeuit Clanius non eequus Acerria.— Tiro. Georg. ML. 233.

Allifie, et Clanio oontenipt» semper Aoerrsd. Sil. Ital. viii. 537.

> Virgil's epithet " alta " i* incorrect :—

Turn sonitu Prochyta alta trcmit, durumque cnbile

Inarimc Joris imperils imposta TyphoBO. .En, ix. 715.

* Ego vcl Prochytam priDpono Subuirrv. Jut. lii. 5.


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672 APULIA. Book IV.

the Greeks, and the Inazime* of the Latin poets— a little W. of
Prochyta, of volcanic origin, and hence both fertile and provided with
thermal springs; and OapiMB,* Capri, off Prom. MinervsB and at the
S. extremity of the Bay of Naples, a lofty and almost inaccessible
mass of limestone rock, which be«»ime the imperial abode, occasionally
of Augustus and permanently of Tiberius,' during the last ten years of
his life.

History, — We have already stated that the Oscans, the Etruscans,
and the oamnites became the successive masters of the rich plains of
Campania. It remains for us to narrate the circumstances of the
Roman conquest. Capua, having been attacked afresh by the Sam-
nites, in B.a 343, solicited the aid of Rome, which was accorded, and

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