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resulted in the victories of Valerius Corvus at Mt. Qaurua and Sues-
sula, and the expulsion of the Samnites. The Campanians, t. s. the
Capuans, thus became the nominal subjects of Rome: nevertheless,
they joined in the Latin War, in 340, and were defeated at the foot of
Mt. Vesuvius by the consuls T. Manlius and P. Decius. The submis-
sion of the other towns of Campania shortly afterwards followed, viz.,
of Neapolis.. in 326, of Nola, in 313, and of Nuoeria, in 308, and at the
end of the Second Samnite War, in 304, Rome was master of all the
province. In the Second Punic War, when Campania was one of the chief
seats of war, Capua and some of the smaller towns espoused the cause
of Hannibal, while Casilinum, Nola, and Neapolis, remained £aiUiAiL
The capture of Capua by the Romans, in 212, re-established their
supremacy.

XI. Apulia.

§ 4. Apulia was situated on the E. ooast of Italy, and was bounded
on the N. by the Tifemus, dividing it from Picenum ; on the W. by
Samnium ; on the 8. by Lucania and Calabria, from the former of
which it was separated by the river Bradanus, and from the latter
by a line drawn across the Messapian peninsula from the head of
the Tarentine bay to a point between Egnatia and Brundusiimi ; and
on the E. by the Adriatic Sea. The N. portion, from the Tifemus



* The lume Inarime appears to be derived from the Homerie *AfHfUH, the fable
of TypboDas having been transferred ftrom Asia to Italy. Ovid Inoonrectly distin-
guishes Inarime and Pitbecnsa : —

Orbataque prsraide plnus
Inarimen, Proohytenqne legit, sterilique locatas
Colle Pithecosas, habitantom nomine dictas. MeL xiv. 88.

* The original occupants of this island are said to have been named Teleboe, a
people whom we only know as occupying the Echinades, off the W. ooast of
Greece: —

OBbale, quem generasse Telon Sebetbide nympha
Fcrtur, Teleboum Capreas quum regna tcneret.— ..£^. viL 754.
' Juvenal speaks of him as —

Prindpis, angusta Caprearum in rupe scdentis. — Sat. x. 93.
SUtlus applies to it the epithet " dites," apparently in reference to the palaces
erected by Tiberius : —

dite* Caprese viridesque resultant
Taurubnto, et terrls ingens redit o^qnoris echo.— 5*/r. iii. 1, 128.



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Chap. XXVlI. PLAIN OF CANN^. 673



Plain of Ganns.

to the Aufidus, consists almost wholly of a great plain sloping down
from the Pyrenees to the sea, the only exception being the isolated
mass of Garganus, the " spur" of Italy, on the sea-coast. The S.
portion is for the most part covered with barren hills, which emanate
from the Apennines near Venusia, and extend in a broad chain to-
wards Brundusium : between these and the sea is a narrow' strip of
land of great fertility. The northern plains afford pasture for vast
numbers of horses and sheep during the winter months; in the
summer they become parched in consequence of the calcareous
nature of the soil, and at this period the flocks are removed to the
highlands of Samnium, which are then rich, but are covered with
snow in the winter. A constant interchange thus takes place be-
tween these two districts, and has done so from the earliest ages :
the Romans imposed a tax on all flocks and herds thus migrating.
The only mountains that received special designations were Gar-
g&nns* which projects above 30 miles into the sea, forming a
vast promontory,' of which Mons MaOxmi' was the most southerly



" The forests, for which it wu formerly io fiimoos, have now disappeared : —
Aqnilonibas
Qnerceta Gargani laborant. Hob. Carm. ii. 9, 7.

Oarganum mugire putes nemua, aut mare Tuscum. — In. JEp. ii. 1, 202.
> This and all the other heights of Garganus are covered with aromatic herbs,
and prodaee excellent honey i~—

Ego apis Matinie
More modoque
Grata carpentis thyma per laborem



Carmina flngo. Hor. Cbnri. iv. 2, 27.

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574 APULIA. Boo» IV.

offshoot; and Yultiir, Monte Voltore, an isolated hill of volcanic
origin on the borders of Lucania and Samnium. The rivers are —
the Tifniiiii» Bi/emo, on the N. boundary; the Frento. Fortarcj
JN. of Garganus ; the CerbUni, Cervaro, S. of that mountain ; the
Aufldni (p. 489) ; and the Brad&nni, Bradano, on tlie borders of
Lucania, falling into the Tarentine Gulf. These rivers are small in
summer, but exceedingly violent in winter, and at this season they
not unfrequently inundate the plains.

§ 5. The inhabitants of Apulia were a mixed race, consisting of
the three following elements :—(!.) The Apttli, probably an Oscan
race ; (2.) the Dannii, a Pelasgian race ; and (3.) the Peneetii or
PcBdiefili, also of Pelasgian origin. The two former races were fused
into one people in historical times, and occupied the plains of
Northern Apulia ; the third lived separately in the hilly country of
the S. ITie Apulians were not united under one government at the
time the Romans came in contact with them, but each town formed
an independent community. Of these, Arpi, Canusium, Luceria,
and Teaniun, appear to have been most prominent. These towns are
frequently mentioned in the Second Samnite, the Second Punic, and
the Social Wars, but subsequently became historically unimportant.
Their chief interest is derived from the large amount of Hellenic
influence which was infused into them by Tarentum and the other
Greek towns in those parts, and which is manifest both in their coins
and in 'the numerous works of art, particularly painted vases, dis-
covered on their sites. We shall describe first those in the interior,
then those on the coast.

(1.) In tJte Jn^ertor. —Laibmrn, Larino Veechio, was sitaated 14 miles
from the coast, a little S. of the Tifemus. It is sometimet regarded as
belonging to the Frentani ; it did not originally belong to either, but
formed a Re))arate and independent state. In Augustus's ^ division, how-
ever, it was included in Apulia. During the Second Punic War its ter-
ritory was the scene of several operations between the Roman and Car-
thaginian armies ; the town itself is seldom noticed. Arpi, ArpOy the
Aigyzipa. of the poets, ' stood in the centre of the great ApuUan plain,
20 miles from the sea. Its foundation was attributed to Diomede, but
without anv solid reason. Its extent and population were very large at
the time of the Second Punic War. In this it was originally friendly to
Rome, but after the battle of Canns it joined Hannibal, and was in con-
sequence severely pimished by the Romans in B.c. 213; from that time it



» Horace teems to refer to its position as partly in and partly out qf Apulia,
when he says : —

Me fabaloan Vulture in Apjmlo

Altricis extra Hmen Apoliic. ^ Gtrm. iii. 4, 9.

* The name first appears in Lyoophron : it was adopted from the Greeks by the
Utins :—

I lie urhem Argyripam, patris cognomine gently

Victor Oargani condebat lapygis arvis. /En. xi. 246.



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Chap. XXVII. TOWNS. 675

Bank. Ganufiiim, Canosa, stood near the right bank of the Aufidiis, about
15 railes from its mouth. Its origin was attributed to Diomede, and it
certainly had a stroiig infusion of the Qreek element in it, ' but there
are no grounds for supposing it to be a Qreek colony. It was conquered
by the Romans in b.c. 318, and is memorable for the hospitality afforded
to the Roman army after the defeat at Camue. It received a colony
under M. Aurelius. It possessed a splendid aqueduct, made by Herodes
Atticus, to supply its natural deficiency of water. ■♦ Its remains, con-
sisting of portions of the aqueduct, of an amphitheatre, and a gateway,
belong to the Romin era. Lneeria, Lueera, was situated about 12
miles W. of Arpi ; it was probably of Oscan origin. It first appears in
history as friendly to Rome in the Second Samnite War, then as cap-
tured by the Samnites, and recovered by the Romans in b.c. 320, re-
captured by the Samnites, and again recovered in 314, and finally be-
sieged by the Samnites in 294. In the Second Punic War it was the
head-quarters of the Romans in Apulia. It subsequently became a
colony, and remained a considerable town. * Yennsia, Venom, lay on
the frontiers of Lucania,®
and on the Appia Via.
It was captured by the
Romans in b.c. 262, and
shortly afterwards was |
colonized by them. It j
became the Roman head- i
quarters after the battle '
of Cannce. In the Social
War it was the strong-
hold of the allies in

these parts. Its position Coin of Venusia.

on the Appian road se-
cured its subsequent prosperity, and it is well known to us as the
birth-place of Horace. (2.) On the Coast. — Sipontnm, ^ Sta. Maria di
Siponto, stood immediately S. of Garganus, and was reputed to have
been founded by Diomede. It was captured by Alexander of Epirus,



' That the Greek tongue prevailed here to a great extent, appears from
Horace's allusion : —

Canusini more hilinguU. Sat. i. 10, SO.

* To this Horace alludes :—

Nam Canusi lapidosus ; aqu® non ditior uma :
Qui locus a forti Diomede est conditiis olim. Sat. i. 5, 91.

The gritty quality of the bread, to which " lapidosus " refers, is still noticed
by travellers, and arises probably firom defective millstones.
* Its wool was famous : —
Te lame prope nobilem
Tonsie Luceriam, non dthane, decent. Hoa. Carm. iii. 15, 13.

* Hence Horace speaks of himself as—

Lncanus an Appulus, anceps,
Nam Venusinus arat ftnem sub utrumqoe colonns. — Sat. ii. 1, 34.
7 The poets adopted the Greek form of the name, Sipus : —
Quflesivit Calaber, subdncta luoe repente

Immensis tenebris, et terram et littora Sipus. Sil. Ital. viii. 634.
Qnas recipit Salapina palus, et subdita Sipus
Montibus. Luc. v. 377.



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67d CALABBU. Book IV.

in B.C. 330, waa colonioed by the Romans in 194 and again at a later
period, and became a place of conalderable trade in com. flalapia,
Salpi, lay more to the S. on a lagoon named Sali^ina Palus,^ which
formerly had a natural, but now hais only an artificial outlet to the aea.
It waa the head-quarters of Hannibal in B.C. 214, was captured by the
Romans in 210, and again attacked by the Carthaginians in 208. It waa
destroyed by the Romans in the Social War, and never recovered its
prosperity.

Of the lees important towns we may notice Teianm, sumamed ^n-
Inm, Civitats, on the Frento, about 12 miles from its mouth, noticed
as being conquered by the Romans in B.C. 318, and the head -quarters of
M. Junius Pera in the Second Punic War ; Herdonia, Ordona, on the
Via Egnatina, the scene of the Roman defeats by Hannibal in b.c. 212
and 210 ; Aaottlvm, Ascdli^ 10 miles S. of Herdonia, the scene of the
great battle between Pyrrhus and the Romans in b.c. 279; Caiuitt,*
Canne, on the Aufidus, 6 miles from its mouth, celebrated for the me«
morable defeat of the Romans by Hannibal in b.c. 216, which took place
on the N. ^ide of the river (see note at end of chapter. Battle of
Cann^) ; Barium, Bari, on the coast, about 36 miles S. of the Aufi-
dus, on the Via Trajana, noticed by Horace as a fishing town ; ^ and
Egnatia,' or Gnatia, at the point where the Appia Via came upon the
coast.

Boddt, — Apulia was traversed by the two great branches of the Ap-
pian Way — ^the Via Tnjftiia, which passed through Herdonia, Canusium,
and Barium to Brundusium, and the Via Appia, properly so called, which
passed through Venusia to Tarentum.

History. — Apulia first comes into notice in the Second Samnite War,
as in alliance with Rome, vdth the exception of a few towns which

{'oined the Samnites. Pvrrhus reduced several of its cities in B.C. 279,
>ut did not shake the fiaelity of the province generally. In the second
Punic War it was for several successive years the winter quarters of
Hannibal, and, after the battle of Cannae, many of the eities joined his
cause. . The punishment inflicted subsequenUy by the Romans was
very severe. In the Social War the Apulians embraced the side of the
allies, and the renewed punishment then inflicted on them by the
Romans proved fatal to the prosperity of the province.

XII. Calabbia.

§ 6. Calabria was the name given to the peninsula which runs out
to the S.E. of Tarentum, and which is commonly known as the



• See Luc. v. 377, In preriooi note.

* Ut Tentom ad Cannas, nrbis vestigia prisce,
Defigant diro signa infelioia rallo. Sil. Ital. tUL 624

1 Pofftera tempestas melior, via pejor, adusqne
Bari mcenia piteoti, Hor. Sat. i. 5, 96.

« Horace seema to dew^be its water as bad (" lympWs Iratls "), but it is now
celebrated for the abundance and excellence of its water. The pretended miraele
which he witnessed is-also noticed by Pliny (ii. 111).
Dehine Onatia, L^fmphit
IratU exstructa, dedit risnsque jocoeque,
Dttm flamma sine thura liquesoere limine sacro
Persnadere cnpit. Sat. L 5, 97,



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Chap. XXVII. NAME — INHABITANTS — TOWNS. 677



Brundiuium.

** heel ** of Italy. The Greeks ntuned it Metsapia and lapygia—
tenns which are used with varying significance by different writers.
The whole of this peninsula is occupied by broad and gently undu-
lating hills of small elevation. The soil is dry, being of a calcareous
nature : it was nevertheless famed for its fertility, and particularly
for its growth of olives. The province was also famous for its horses,
wines, fruit, honey, and wool, and, in another sense, for its venomous
serpents. It possesses no stream of any size. The inhabitants of
Calabria were divided into two tribes — the Metsapii or Calabri proper,
who occupied the E., and the SalleiitXiii> who occupied the W. and
S. coasts. ITiesc tribes belonged to the Pelasgian stock, and were
not originally distinct. They appear to have attained a certain de-
gree of culture before the appearance of the Greek settlers, and they
possessed the towns of Hydruntum and Hyria. ITie foundation of
Tarentum, about 708 B.C., formed an era in the history of this
province. It was the metropolis of this part of Italy imtil the
period when the Romans established their ascendency. Under them
Bnmdusium rose to imix)rtance as the terminus of the Appian Way,
and the chief port for communication with Greece.

Bnmdmiiim or Bmndifiiim, Brinditi, was situated on a small enclosed
bay, which communicated with the sea by a narrow channel, and ter-



» The Sallentini were traditionally believed to be of Cretan origin :—
£t Sallentinoe obeedit milite campoa
Lyctius Idomeneus. ^Bn, ill. 400.

ANC. GEOO. 2 C



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578 CALABRIA. Book IV.

minated inland in two arms, giving it a general resemblance to a stages
head, fA)m which it is said to have derived its name. This bay formed
an admirable port, about which the Sallentini * built a town, and which
the Romans acquired in B.c. 267 and colonized in 244. It was the scene
of many interesting events ; of Sulla's landing fi-om the Mithridatic
war in 83, of Cicero s return from his exile, of the blockade of the fleet
of Pompey by Caesar, of the death of Virgil, and of Agrippina's landing
with the (tshes of Qermanicus. Its name is familiar to us from the
visit of Horace, who went thither with Maecenas and Cocceius, when

the place was threatened
by Antony in 41. Hy-
drnntion, OtrarUo^ the
Hydrua of the Greeks,
was situated S. E. of
Brundusium, and was the
nearest point to Greece.
It was a customary port
of embarkation for the
East as early as 191 b.cx,
and ultimately, in the
4th century a.d., sup-
planted Brundusium as
the principal port in that
district. Tferention, Ta-
ranto, was situated on a
peninsula at the entmnce
of an extensive but shal-
low bay, which runs in-

~ "t.7^~~7.7 \ . ' ^^^^ for some 6 miles

PlanofUrunduglum. f^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^f ^j^^

A A. Innrr Hurbour. B. Outrr Hnrhour. C. Spot where TareutinC Gulf. This

'iTMr tried to block up tiM rotiMDop of the lonrr Hiubour. bav Rprvpd aa Ha norf

««»««« B«n». bemg connected with the

. sea by a channel so nar-

row that a bndge is now thrown across it. The surrounding country
was remarkably fertile, and its climate luxuriously soft. It was founded
by a colony from Spai-ta,» led by Phalanthus« in B.C. 708. For the
first two centuries of its existence we hear little of it, but it was grow-
ing in wealth and commercial greatness. A terrible defeat sustained
by the Tarentines from the Messapians in 473 is the first event of
importance in their history. In 432 they were engaged in war vdth
the Thurians, which ended in the joint foundation of Heraclea. In 346



« Hence its foundation is assigned by Lucan (ii. 610) to the CreUns.

» Hence the epithet of " Lacedipmonian,»» and the name (EboUa, an ancient
name of Loconla, are applied to it :

Navigat Ionium, Lacedtpmoniumque Tarentum. — Ov. Met. xr. 50.

Aut lAcedffimonium Tarentum. Hor. Carm. iii. 5, 56.

Namque sub (Ebalis n\emini me turribus altis
Qua nigcr humectat flaventia culta Galirsus,
Corycium yidiwe scnem. Gearg. iv. 125.

• Dulce pelUtis oribus Galesi
Flumen, et regnato petam Laconi

Rum Phalanto. Hon. Oarm. ii. 6, 10.



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Chap. XXVII. TOWNS — HISTORY. 579

they were involyed in a more serious struggle with the Lucanians and
Messapians, and they were obliged to call in the aid first of the Spartans,
whose leader, Archidamus, fell in battle in 338. and afterwards of Alex-
ander of Epirus, who finished the war with the Lucanians, and then
himself became the enemy of the Tarentines. In 302 they came for
the first time into collision with the Romans in consequence of an attack
made on ships that had passed the stipulated boundary, viz., the La-
cinian cape. The Tarentines called in the aid of Pyrrhus in 281, after
whose withdrawal in 274 resistance became futile, and their city was
taken in 272. The only other important events are the revolt of Ta-
rentum to Hannibal in 212, and its recovery by the Romans in 207,
when it was most severely treated. It then fell into a state of decay,
but was subsequently revived by a colony sent there in 123, and it
became a naval station of importance under the empire. The general
form of the city was triangular, having the citadel at the apex,
adjoining the mouth of the harbour. Hardly any remains of it exist.
The chief productions of its territory were honey, olives, wine,^ wool
of the very finest description,' horses, fruit, and shellfish, which were
used both as an article of diet, and for the preparation of the famous
purple dye.* The Tarentines were reputed a luxurious and enervated
race.'

Of the less important places we may notice: Caitra MinervBB, between
Hydruntum and the lapygian promontory, named after a temple of
Bfinerva which occupied a conspicuous position on a cliff;' Mandnriaf
Manduria, 24 miles E. of Tarentum, the scene of the great battle in
which Archidamus perished ; Uria or Hjria, midway between Brun-
dusium and Tarentum, the ancient metropolis of the Messapians ; and
Oallipolis, Oallipolit on the W. coast, a Lacedtemonian colony with an
excellent port, which is, however, unnoticed in ancient times.

Bonds. — There were three roads in Calabria— one a continuation of
the Via Trajana, which led from Brundusium to the lapygian promon-
tory ; another from Tarentum to the same point ; and a third from
Tarentum to Brundusium.

History. — The history of Calabria may be disposed of in a few words.
In spite of the great defeat which the Tarentines received in b.c. 47;J,
as already related, they succeeded in establishing a supremacy over the
tribes of the peninsula. The fall of Tarentum into the power of the
Romans involved almost as a matter of course the submission of the
whole peninsula, which was obtained in a single campaign.



^ The best kind was grown on a hill named Aulon, as we learn tram tha
passage in which Horace expatiates on the fertility of the Tarentine territory :—
. Amicus Aulon
Fertili Baccho minimum Falemis

Invidet uvis. Hor. Carm. ii. 6, 18.

* The pastures about the small stream Galsestis produced the best (see notes *
and 'above).

* Lana Tarentino violas imitata veneno. Id. Ep. ii. 1, 207»

1 'Pectinibus patulis Jactat se molU Tarentum. In. Sat, ii 4, 34.

Sed vacuum Tibur placet, aut imbelle Tarentum. - Id. Sp. i. 7, 45.

« Virgil represents this as the first object which met the eye of JEneas as he

approached the Italian coast : —

Crebrescunt optat® aune : portusqne patescit
Jam propior, templumque apparet in arce Minerne. — ASn. iii. 3»0.

2 C 2



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680 LUCANU. Book IV.

Xin. LUCANIA.

§ 7. Lnoania was bounded on the N. by an irregular line crossing
from the Silarus on the Tyrrhenian coast to the Bradanus on the
Tarentine Bay ; in this direction it was contiguous to Campania,
Samnium, and Apulia ; on the S. Jt was separated from the land
of the Bruttii by the rivers Latls and Crathis ; on the E. and W. it
Was bordered by the sea. The province is traversed in its whole
length by the Apennines, which approach more nearly to the W. than
the E. coast, and descend on the former side in lofty and rugged chains
almost to the coast itself, while on the latter they slope gradually
off, and leave a broad and remarkably fertile strip of plain between
the mouths of the Bradanus and the Sins, S. of the Siris the
mountains approach the W. coast, but again recede and leave a
considerable plain about the Crathis. The interior of Lucania was
and still is one of the wildest regions of Italy, most of it being
covered with immense forests which gave support to vast herds of
swine, as well as to wild boars and bears. The only mountain with
whose name we are acquainted is Albumns,' Monte AlbumOy S. of
the river Silarus. The rivers, though numerous, are unimportant :
on the E. coast we may notice, from N. to S., the Brad&naff Bra^
dano, on the bordei^ of Apulia ; the Casnentuit Basiento, which runs
])arallel to it and joins the sea at Metapontum ; the Adris, Agri, and
Siris/ Sinnoy which join the sea at no great distance from each
other ; the Sybftris, CoscUe^ a small stream flowing by the town of
the same name ; and the Crathis * on the S. frontier. On the W.
coast the chief stream is the Sil&ms, Sele, with its tributaries the
Tanftger, Tanagro, and the Oalor, Colore.

§ 8. The earliest inhabitants of this country were a Pelasgic race,
named (Enotrians : they seem to have been an unwarlike people, and
were gradually driven into the interior by the Greeks, who settled
on the coast and gave to it and the coast of the adjacent province
of Bruttium the title of Magna Oracia. The Lucanians were a
branch of the Sanmite nation, who pressed down southward pro-
Imbly about b.o. 400, subdued the Greek cities, and spread over the



' It is noticed by Virgil, Oeorg. iU. 147.

4 The beaaty of the district about the Siria, oaUed SiritiB, is notieed by Archi.
lochns : —

Ov yJip Ti KoA^ X**(*^* ovf i^tfiepot

Ov^ eparbf , oI<k a^l S^^os po^' -^JX Athen, x\l p. S3S.

^ The waten of the Crathis were reputed to torn the hair to a gdden hoe : —
'O ^orM** x^u'toi' vvpootKMr

KpiBtt. EcBiF. Troad. 22t.

Crathis et huie Sybaris, noetrls contenninos arris
Electro similes Cuiant auroqoe capilloa. Or. Met. xr. 815.



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Chap. XXVII. TOWNS. 581

whole of the interior. Tte towns of Lucania may be divided into
two classes : those on the coast, which were of Greek origin ; and
those in the interior, which were either native Lucanian towns or
Roman colonies of a later date. The former class comprises some
of the most important towns of Magna Grsecia, such as Heraclea,
Sybaris, Velia, and Psestum. In the latter class we may specially
notice Griimentum on the Aciris. We shall describe these towns in
order, commencing with those on the E. coast, from N. to S.

Metapontnm was situated on the coast between the rivers Bradanus
and Casuentus, about 24 mUea fipom Tarentum. It was founded by
Achffians under Leucippus,
probably about 700-690 B.C.,
on the site (as it was said) of
an earlier town. The phi-
losopher Pythagoras retired
and died there. In 41 5 the
Metapontines joined the
Athenians in their Sicilian
expedition. In 832 they

aided Alexander of Epirus Ooin of Metapontnm.

against the Lucanians, but

in 303 they refused the alliance of Cleonymus, and suffered in con-
sequence. In the Second Punic War Metapontum was occupied by
Hannibal in the years 212-207, and after his withdrawal it was
foi-saken by its inhabitants, and the place ceased to be of any import-
ance. The remains consist of the ruins of a Doric temple, of which 1 5
columns are standing, and some portions of another temple ; they lie
near Torre di Mart, Heraolea was situated between the rivers Aciris



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