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and Siris. It was founded
in B.C 432 by a joint colony
of Thurians and Tarentines.
It soon rose to importance
and became the place of |
congress for the ItaUot |
Greeks. It was taken by
Alexander of Epirus, and
was the scene of a battle

between the Romans and com or Heraclea.

Pyrrhus in 280. It was

partly destroyed in the Social War. Large heaps of ruins near a
farm, named FolieorOf mark its site ; in these have been found coins,
bronzes, &c., and particularly two tables, known as the Tabulro Hera-
clienses, containing much information relating to municipal law. Zeuxis,
the painter, was probably bom at this Heraclea. Sini stood at the
mouth of the river of the same name. It was a place of great antiquity
and was reputed a Trojan colony, but was more probably a city of the
Chones. lonians from Colophon settled there between 690 and 660 d.c,
and made it a flourishing Greek town. Of its history we know nothing :
it probably perished between 550 and 510. Syb&riB was situated be-
tween the rivers Crathis and Sybaris, its exact position being imknown.
It was founded by Achseans and Trcezenians in B.C. 720, and soon rose
to a state of the highest prosperity from the extensive trade it prose-



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582 LUCANIA. Book IV.

cute<l with Asia Minor and other countries. The town itself was about
G miles in circumference ; its power was extended over 25 cities, and
it could muster an army of 300,000 men. The wealth and luxurious-
ness of its inhabitants became proverbial. Internal dissensions proved
its ruin ; the Troezenians, having been ejected by the Achseans, sought
the aid of Croton, and in the war that ensued the Sybarites were de-
feated in 5 1 on the banks of the Crathis, and their town was destroyed
by a diversion of the stream against it. A desolate swamp now covers
its site. The inhabitants took refuge in Laus and Scidnis; they re-
turned 58 years after, and attempted to rebuild the town, but the op-
position of the Crotoniats defeated this plan, and they ultimately joined
a mixed body of Greeks, more especially of Athenians, in the 'founda-
tion of Thnxii, at a little distance from the site of the old town, and

probably to the N. of the
river Sybaris, though ita
site has not yet been
identified. The founda-
tion of Thurii is various-
I ly assigned to the years
446 and 443 n.c; Hero-
dotus and the orator
Lysias were in the
number of the original
colonists. The Sybarites
Coin or Tiiurii. ^^re expelled, and fresh

colonists introduced from Greece. The town rose to a state of the
greatest prosperity, and carried on independent wars against the Luca-
nians and Tarentines, from the former of whom the Thurians received
a severe defeat in 390. The Romans subsequently aided them against
these enemies about 286, and thenceforth the town became subject
to Home. In the Second Punic War it revolted to Hannibal, who never-
theless plundered it and removed its inhabitants to Crotona on his
withdrawal in 204. It was revived by a Roman colony in 194, under
the name of Copiie. and remained the most important town in these
parts until a late period.

Bnxentam, Policastro, the Pyziu of the Greeks, was situated on the
W. coast, some distance N. of the Laub. Its foundation is attributed
to the Uhegians under Micythus in b.c. 470, but there was certainly an
earlier town, probably a colonv from Siris, on the spot. - The Romaoa
sent colonies there in 194 and again in 186. Elea or Yelia, CkuteU a
Mare dclla Brucca, stood midway between Buxentum and Psestum.
It was founded by the fugitive Phocseans about 540 b.C. Though it
became undoubtedly a prosperous place, we know nothing of its history.
Its chief celebrity is due to the philosopliical school planted there by'
Xenophanes of Colophon, and carried on by Parmenides and Zeno.
Cicero frequently visited Velia, and it appears to have been noted for
its healthiness.* It possessed a famous temple of Ceres. PttftUBif
Pesto, the Poiidonia of the Geeeks, was: situated about 5 miles S. of the
Silarus. It was a colony from Sybaris, founded probably by the ex-
pelled Troozenians of that place. We know nothing of its early his-
tory ; it was captured by the Lucanians some time before B.C. 390, and



• Horace refers to this when he writes —

Quo) sit hiems Veli», quod cadum, Vala, 8alemi. — Jip, i. 15, 1.



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Chap. XXVII.



TOWNS.



583




Plan of Pantum.



A. Temple of Nepdne.

B. Tnnpl«v oonunonlj called

Dneilicn.

C. Smaller Temple ofOeree or

Veeta.



D. Amphitheatre.

E. Other ruins of



PP Gates of the aty.
G. mrwSalmt.



passed along with the rest of Lucania into the hands of £he Romans,
who sent a colony there in 273, and changed its name to Paestum. It
remained a considerable ,
place, though of no his-
torical importance. Its
chief celebrity in ancient
times arose from its
roses, ^ which flowered
twice a year, a quality
which they still retain.
The ruins of Psestum
consist of the circuit of .
the walls and three
temples, the finest of
which (commonly known
as the Temple of Nep-
tune) is of the Doric
order, 195 feet long by
79 wide, and in a re-
markably perfect state ;
the second is 180 feet
long bv 80 wide, and ap-
pears from its construc-
tion to have been two
temples in one ; the
third (known as the Temple of Ceres or Vesta) is much smaller ;
there are also remains of an ampitheatre and of an aqueduct. About
5 miles from Psestum, at the mouth of the Silanis, was a famous
temple of Jimo. Gnunentom, Saponaray was situated in the interior
on the Aciris, and was a native Lucanian town. It is first mentioned
in B.C. 215, when Hanno was defeated there by the Romans. In the
Social War the Roman prsetor Licinius Crassus took refuge there after
his defeat by the Lucanians. It afterwards became a municipium.

Of the less important towns we may notice — Blanda, 12 miles S.E.
of Buxentum, noticed among the towns which revolted to Hannibal,
and were recovered by Fabius in 214 ; Lafls, on the borders of the
Bruttian territory near Scalea, a colony of Sybaris, and the place
whither the expatriated Sybarites retired in B.C. 510 ; the scene also of
a great defeat sustained by the Greeks from the Lucanians ; Nemliim,
to the S^. of Blanda, captured by ^milius Barbula in 317 ; NTunistro,
on the borders of Apulia, the scene of a battle between Hannibal and
Marcellus in 210 ; Potenlia, near Potema, on the Casuentus, a consi-
derable town, though historically unnoticed ; and YolceiimiL ur Yolcen-
tum, Biuxino, W. of Potentia, the chief town of the Volcentes, who are
noticed as revolting to Hannibal, but returning to their allegiance
in 209.

Roads, — The principal road in Lucania was the Via Popilia, which
traversed the province in its whole length on its way between Capua



' Forsitan et, pingnes bortos qufe cura colendi
Ornaret, canerem, bi/etHqtie rosaria Picsti. Oeorg, ir. 118.

Vidi ego odorati victura rosaria FecstL

Sab roatutlno cocta Jacere noto. Propkrt. It. 5, 59.

Leucosiamqae petit, tepidiqne rosaria P«8tL Ov. Met, xv. 708.



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584 THE BRUTTII. Book IV.

and Rhegium ; it followed the valley of the Tanager. Roads follow<ed
the coasts between Psestum, Velia, and Buxentum on the W., and be-
tween Thurii and Metapontum on the £.

History. — The history of Lucania, as distinct from that of the Qreek
cities on its coasts, commences with the entrance of the Lucanians to-
wards the end of the 5th century B.C. In 393 a league was formed
against them by the Gk^eks, but this was crushed by the defeat sus-
tained by the latter near Laiis in 390. The Lucanians then became
masters of the whole country, and were at the height of their power
about 350. The wars which they subsequently waged against the Tar-
entines and their allies, Archidamus and Alexander, appear to have
shaken their power by the end of the 4th century. In 326 the
Lucanians entered into an alliance with Rome, which they shortly after
gave up, and were severely handled in 317 in consequence. In 286
their attack on Thurii again drew on them the vengeance of Rome.
In 281 they joined Pyrrhus, and in 272 were again reduced to sub-
mission. In 216 they declared in favour of Hannibal, and in 209 they
returned to their allegiance. In the Social War they again revolted,
and in the Civil War between Sulla and Marius they joined the latter,
and suffered severely at the hands of Sulla.

XIV. The BBurrn.

§ 9. The land of the Brattii^ occupied the S. extremity of the
Italian peninsula from the borders of Lucania. This region is cor-
rectly described by Strabo
as a ** iieninsula including a
I peninsula within it." The
f first or larger peninsula is
formed by the approach of
the Tarentine and Terinaean
gulfs on the borders of
CoinoftheBruttlL Lucania; the second or in-

eluded peninsula by the approach of the Scyllacian and Hipponian
gulfs, more to the S. The general configuration of the coimtry
thus resembles a boot, of which the heel is formed by the Lacinian
promontory, and the toe by Leucopetra. It is traversed through
its whole length by the Apennines, which in the N. district ap-
proach very close to the Tyrrhenian Sea, leaving room on the E.
for the extensive outlying mass now named Sila ; the range sinks at
the point where the Hipponian and Scyllacian bays approach, and
rises again more to the S. in the rugged masses anciently named
Sila,' and now Avpromonte, These mountains have been always
covered with dense forests, which supplied the Romans with timber



* The name " Bmttitini," given to the oonntry hy modem writers on ancient
geography, is not found in any classical author.
* Ac relut ingenti Sila, summore Tabumo
Cum duo oonreTBis inimica in proclia taurl
Frontibus incurrunt, pavidi oessere magistri. — ^Bn, xii. 715.



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Chap. XXVII. INHABITANTS — TOWNS. 585

and pitch. Along the. coasts there are alluvial plains of great
fertility hut small in extent, skirting the bays. The rivers are
numerous, but unimportant : we may notice, on the E. coast, the
Grathii, on the borders of Lucania ; the NeeBthni. Neto, the largest
of them all, joining the sea about 10 miles N. of Crotona ; and, on
the W. coast, the Medma« Mesima,

§ 10. The province we are describing was originally occupied by
the (Enotrians, who were divided into two tribes named Chonet and
]Iorg§te8. The Greeks subsequently became the virtual owners of
the land, occupying the whole of the valuable sea-coast, and leaving
the interior to the CEnotrians. The period of their supremacy lasted
from about 700 B.C. to 390, when the Lucanians overran the country,
and established their dominion over the interior. These were suc-
ceeded, in 366, by the people called Brattiii who are represented
as having been an heterogeneous collection of revolted slaves and
bandits, but who nevertheless were strong enough to dispossess the
Lucanians of their supremacy, and to enter upon war with the Greek
cities. The towns may be divided into two classes : —(1.) The Greek
colonies on the coast, of which the most important were CrotSna,
Caulonia, Locri, Rhegium, Medraa, Hipponium, and Terlna; and
(2.) the proper Bnittian cities, of which the most considerable were
Clampetia and Tempsa on the coast, and Consentia in the interior.
We shall commence with those on the E. coast, from N. to S.

Oroton or CrotSna, Cotrone, was situated abojit 6 miles N. of Prom.
Lacinium, at the mouth of the little river iEsarua. It was founded
by Achseans under Myscellus
in D.C. 7 10, and at an early
period of its existence at-
tained a high pitch of power.
Its walls were 12 miles in
circumfei'enue, its authority
extended to the other side
of the peninsula, and it
could bring mto the field Coin of CrotoD.

100,000 men. IVthagoras

established himself there about 540, and introduced great changes of a
political and social character. War occurred between Croton and
Sybaris in 510, and terminated in the destruction of the latter city.
The battle of the Sagras, in which the Crotoniats were defeated with
heavy loss by the Locrians and Rhegians, took place probably after 510.
It suflfered severely in the wars waged bv the Syracusan tyrants, being
captured by Dionysius in 889, and by Agathocles in 299. It became
subject to Rome in 277, while it was under the power of Pyrrhus. Its ruin
was completed in the Second Pimic War, when it was held for three years
by Hannibal, and, in spite of a Roman colony sent there in 194, it sank
into insignificance. The healthiness of Crotona and the fertility of the
pastures about the ^sarus are much praised. Soylaeium or ScylletlTun,
8'iuiUace, stood neai* the inmost recesa of the bay named after it. There
are traditions as to its being a Greek city, but they are not trustwoi*thy.

2 c 3



(



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586 THE BBUmi. Book IV.

We first hear of it as a dependency of Crotona. In B.C. 124 the Bomans
sent a colony there, and from this time it became a considerable town,
and remained such under the empire. GMloa or CmlrniJa was a colony

of Achsan origin, its
founders being partly
natives of Crotona, and
partly from the mother
, country. Its early history
I is lost to us. It was de-
stroyed by Dionysius of
Syracuse in 389, and
again, during the war with
Pyrrhus, by some Cam-
Coin of c«iloniu. ^^ mercenaries. On
each occasion it was re-
built, and it is again noticed in the Second Punic War as reTolt-
ing to Hannibal, after which it probably fell into decay. Its site is
still unknown. * Loeri, sumamed Epii^byrii, to distinguish it from
the cities of the same name in Qreece, was situated 15 miles N. of
Prom. Zephyrium, from which its surname was derived. It was
founded by Locrians ' in B.C. 683, or even earlier, and was originally
built on the promontory itself. Its early history is unknown, and ita
chief celebrity is due to the excellence of its laws, which were drawn
up by Zaleucus • probably about b.c. 060. It took part in the battle
against Crotoua at the Sagras. It maintained a close alliance with Syra-
cuse, and an enmity against Rhegium. In the Second Punic War it re-
volted to Hannibal in 216, and was not recovered by the Romans until
2<>5, after which we hear little of it. The ruins oi Locri are about 5
miles from Oeracet and consist of the circuit of the walls and the base-
ment of a Doric temple. A celebrated temple of Persephone belonged
to it. Bhagiiim,^ Beggio, was situated on the K side of the SiciUan



1 It appears to hare stood on an elevation : —
AttoUit se diva Lacinia contra
Caulonisquc arces, et naviftagum Scylaceom. Xh. iii. 552.

* They were supposed to be of the Opontian branch; whence the epithet
** Naryeian " is applied to them : —

nine et Narycii posoeront nuenla LocrL yfiln. iiL 399.

Narycleeque plcis luoos. Georg. ii. 488.

> Pindar eulofrizes the character of the Locrians :>—

NcVci yap 'Arp^cta w6kiv Aoxpwr

Zt^vpiMv iUXmi r4 <r^uri KoAAtbra

Koi xaAx«K *A/n|f . Otymp. x. 17.

* The name Khegium waa commonly derived firom ^lyvvwt "to break,'* in
allusion to the idea that the shores of Italy and Sicily were broken asunder by an
earthquake : —

Htec Iocs, vi quondam, et vasta convulsa ruina

(Tantum aevi longinqua valet mutare vetustas)

DlMiluisse ferunt : cum protinus utraque teUus

Una foret ; venit medio Ti pontus, et undis

Hesperium Siculo latus abecidit, arvaque et urbes

Littore diductas angusto interluit lestu. JBa. iiL 414.

Zancle quoque Juncta Aiisse
Dicitur Itali» : donee oonflnia pontus
Abstulit ; et media tellnrem reppulit unda. Ov. Met, xv. S90.



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Chap. XXVII. TOWNS. 587

StraitB, almost directly opposite to Messana in Sicily. It was founded
probably about 740 by a joint colony of Chalcidians and Messenians,
the latter having left their country after the First Messenian War. A
freah band of Messenians was added in 668 at the close of the Second
Messenian War. Its government was originally oligarchical, but in
494 Anaxilaus made himself tyrant, and was succored in 476 by his
sons, who, however, were expelled in 466. Dionysius the elder carried
on a series of wars with Rhegium. It received a colony in the time of
Augustus, and was named
Julium. Its position, at
the termination of the
great line of communica-
tion with Sicily, secured
its prosperity under the '
empire ; the point where
the transit was effected
was, however, not at Rhe-
gium itself, but 9 miles

K. of it, at Columna Coin of Rhegium.

Rbegina. Rhegium gave

birth to the poet Ibycus, the historian Lycus, and the sculptor
Pythagoras. Xedma or Mesma stood on the W. coast between Hip-
poniimi and the mouth of the Metaurus, its exact position being un-
known. It was a colony of the Epizephyrian Locnans, and is always
noticed among the Greek cities of Italy, but its history is wholly lost
to us. ffipponiiini or Hippo, otherwise' known by its Latin names of
Vibo ^ and Vibo Valentia, Bivona, was situated on the shore of the bay
named after it, now the Gulf of St. Eufemia. It was also a colony of
Locri, and is historically unknown until the time of its capture and
destruction by Dionysius of Syracuse in B.C. 389. In 192 it received
a Roman colony with the name of Valentia, and became important as
the place where timber was exported and ships wei-e built. The plains
about it were celebrated for beautiful flowers, and a temple of Proser-
pine was appropriately erected there. Temfita or Tempsa was situated
a little N. of the Qulf of Hipponium. It is said to have been an Au-
sonian town, and it subsequently became hellenised, though no Greek
colony is known to have been planted there. Between 480 and 460 it was
under the power of the Locrians, from whom it passed to the Bruttians,
and ultimately to the Romans, who sent a colony there in 194. It<)
copper mines are frequently noticed.' In the Servile War it was seized
and held by a body of the slaves. It afterwards disappeared, and
even its site is unknown, dampetia or Lampetia stood more to the N.,
probably at Amantea. The only notice of it is its recovery by the Ro-
mans during the Second Punic War.

Of the less important towns we may notice — Teilna on the Terinaeus
Sinus, a colony of Crotona, and, as we may conjecture from the cha-
I'acter of its coinage, a place of wealth and importance ; Petelia or
Petilia, StrotigoU, about 12 miles N. of Crotona, and 3 miles from
the coast, the metropolis of the Lucanians, and otherwise famous for

^ Vibo is the Bi-uttian or Oscan form of Hippo, and was probably the original
name of ihe town.

• £t cui se toties Temese dedit hausta metallis.— Stat. Sih. i. 1, 42.
Evincitque factum, Siculique angusta Pelori
Hippotadaque domes regis Temesesque metalla.— Ov. Afet, xv. 706.



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588



BATTLE OP CANN^.



Book IV.



the long siege it sustained from the Carthaginians and Bruttians in
B.C. 216 ; Paadoda, an old (Enotrian town, somewhere between Thurii
and Consentia, afterwards a colony of Crotona, famous as being the
place near which Alexander of Epirus waa slain in 326 ; and, lastly,
Consentia, Coaema, in the mountains near the sources of the Crathis,
the metropolis of the Bruttians, noticed in the Second Punic War as
being taken by Himilco in 216, and by the Romans in 204, and in the
Servile War as being besieged by Sextus Pompeius without success. *

Bodda, — This province was traversed by the Via Popilia, which passed
up the valley of the Grathis to Consentia, thence descended to the
shores of the Gulf of Hipponium, and followed the line of coast to
Rhegium. A second road, constructed by Tngan, followed the E.
coa^t, and a third followed the W. coast m>m Blanda to Hipponium
where it fell into the Via Popilia.

History.— The rise of the Bruttii has been already traced. They i^-
pear to have attained their highest prosperity about 300 B.C., after thmr
wars with Alexander of Epirus and Agathocles were concluded, and
before the contest with Rome began. In 282 they joined the Luoanians
against Rome ; they are again numbered among the allies of Pyrrhua>
al^r whose defeat they were attacked and subdued by C. Fabricius and
L. Papirius. In the Second Punic War the cities in some cases revolted
to Hannibal, in other cases were subdued by him, and for four succes-
sive years he maintained himself in this province. After his retreat
the Romans effectually subdued the Bruttians, and they disappear, as a
people, from history.



BATTLE OF CANN-E.

The scene of the battle of CanniD hat been controverted, some writem assomlng
that it took place on the S. aide of the Aofldos. The following observationfl»

bearing upoji the point, lead
to the opposite oonclnaion.
Two days before the battle
the Romans had established
themselves at a camp about
60 stadia distant from the
enemy (Plan, a). The next
day they advanced, and
formed two camps; the
larger one on the S. aide of
the river (b), and the
smaller one on the N. side
(c) ; Hannibal was alio
encamped on the S. side
(d). On the day of the
battle Varro crossed the
river (x k) from the larger
camp and drew up his
forces in a line facing the
S. Hannibal also crossed,
and drew dp opposite him.
The battle was fooght at a
spot (b) where the Anfldos
takes a sudden bend ; and hence we can understand how the Roman army had its
left wing on the bank of the river, and sUU faced the 8. The town of Canme
was on the 8. side, at p ; Cannsinm, at o ; and the bridge of Canosiom, at h.




Plan of Camue.



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Nura^ in Sardinia.
CHAPTER XXVIII.

SICILY, SABDIKIA, C0B8I0A, AMD THE ADJACENT ISLANDS.

I. SidLT. § 1. General description. § 2. Mountains and rivers.
§ 3. Inhabitants; towns; lesser islands; history. § 4. Melita. II.
Sardinia. § 5. General description; mountains and rivers. § 6.
Inhabitants; towns; history. III. Ck>R8iCA. §7. General descrip-
tion; towns; history.

I. SiCILIA.

§ 1. The important island of Sioilia lies off the southern extremity
of the peninsula of Italy, from which it is divided by a narrow strait
formerly called Fretum Siculum, and now the Straits of Messina.
At its W. extremity it approaches within 80 geographical miles of
'the continent of Africa near Carthage, and it forms the great barrier
between the eastern and western basins of the Mediterranean. Its
form is triangular,^ the E. side representing the base, and the W. angle
the apex. It is for the most part mountainous, being traversed through
its whole length by a range which may be rega^^ed as a continuation
of the Apennines, and which sends out an important offshoot to the



» The names "Trinacria" and "Triquetra" have direct reference to its
fihape : —

Terra tribus scopolis vastum procurrit in leqaor

Trinacris, a positu nomen adepta loci. Ov. Fast. ir. 419.

Insula qnem Triquetris terrarum gessit in oris :

Qoam floitans drcum magnis anftactibus SBquor

Ionium glaucis aspergit virus ab undis :

Angustoque fretu rapidum mare diridit undis

Itali» temt oras a finibus ejus. LrcBKT. i. 718.

Bfilitibus promissa Triquetra
Prtedia Cnsar ; an est Itala tellure daturas T Hon. Sat. ii. 6, 55.



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590 SICILIA. Book IV.

S.E. angle of the island, oommonicating to it its peculiar confi-
guration. The space between these limbs is filled up on the E. coast
by the volcanic mountain of -^tna, and on the S. W. coast by a range
of inferior height. The fertility of the soil of Sicily has been in all
ages the theme of admiration ;' tliough it possesses few plains, its
well-watered valleys and the slopes of the mountains admit of the
most perfect cultivation. It was believed to be the native country
of wheat ; and it was celebrated for its honey and safiron, it« sheep
and cattle, and particularly for its horses, those of Agrigentum' being
the most famous. The climate appears to have been more healthy
in ancient than in modem times : the temperature varies considerably
in different parts of the island, on the N. coast resembling that of
Italy, on the S. that of Africa.

§ 2. The general name for the range, which runs parallel to the
N. shore, appears to have been HelnrOdM Moni,^ though this may
have been also more particularly applied to the central and highest
portion of the chain, now named Monte Madonia, Distinct names
were given to portions of the chain, among which we may notice
Heptonins Ks., in the immediate vicinity of Messana ; Herai Mta.
near Enna, and Gratai to the S. of Panormus, in the W. portion of
the island, lliis range is, however, far inferior in height to JBtna*



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