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which attains an elevation of nearly 11,000 feet, and covers with its
base a space not less than 90 miles in circumference. The volcanic
character* of this mountain was known to the Greeks at an early



* Malta wlo Tirtos : Jam reddere foBnas aratria
Jam monies ombrare olea, dare nomina Baocho
Oomipedcrnqoe oitom litnis generasae ferendis,

Neotare Cecropias Hybliro acoedere oeraa. Sil. Ital. xir. 28.

* Ardaus inde Acragaa oatentat maxima longe

MoDnia, magnanimftm quondam generator eqnonim. — jEn. iiL 708.

* Nebrodes gemini nntrit divortia fontis

Qao mons Sicania non lurgit ditior ombrsB. 8il. Itai~ xiv. 288.

* The eraptions were ascribed by the poets to the strpggles of the giant
TyphoBus, or (according to Virgil) of Enceladus, who was buried under the
mountain by Zeus after the defeat of the giants :—
Kal vvv \)^ta¥ xal V'ap^opoi' hifiMi
KeiToi <rre»<«*irov wkuxrLov 0a\airoCov
* *lwovfJu€i^of pi^ourir Airvauuf viro*

Kopv^oif 6* cf &icpcui rffttvoi fivSpOKjvirti
'H^fluoTOf, Sv9tv iKpay^vorrai note
IIorafUH wphi idnrovrti iypiai^ yvaJOovt
1% KoAAucipirov XuctXia^ Ktvpoin yvof •

OepfMif iiwXi^aroiv fi4\M<n wvpwviw ^oAiff ,

Kalwtp tctpavr^ Zip^ ^i^paxMficrof. MbCB. Pram. 363.

Fama est, Enceladi semiustum Aihnine corpus

Urgeri mole hac, ingentemque insuper ^Etnam

Impositam, ruptls flammam exspirare camlnis ;

Rt, fessum quotics mutet latus, intremere omnem

Murmure Trinacriam, et caelum subtexere f^uno. — ^n. iii. 578.

The



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Chap. XX Vm. MOUNTAINS. 691

period : the date of the first eruption which they witnessed is not
known ; the second occurred in B.C. 475, and is noticed by Pindar
and ^schylus ; the third in 425 : many eruptions are suhsequently
recorded. At the other extremity of the island lies a mountain of
considerable fame in antiquity, named Eryx» Monte 8. Oiuliano, an
isolated peak, rising out of a low tract, and hence apparently higher
than it really is.' Its summit was crowned with a famous temple of
Venus,' said to have been founded by ^neas. The three promon-
tories,^ which form the salient points of the island, are PelOms, Capo



The snow-clad summit of the mountain is frequently referred to, as well as the
contrast exhibited between the perpetual fire and the perpetual snow : —
Nt^^o-tr^ AiTvo, wdvms
Xiovoi opticus Ttih^ra*
Tas iftviyomm, fiJtv awkd'

Tov wphi ayy&rara^
'Ejc hvx*»v wayai. PlVD. Pytk. U 38.

Ast J£tna eructat tremefactis cautibus ignis
Inclusi gemitus, pelagique imitata fiirorem
Murmure per cflDcos tonat irrequieta frafrores
Nocte dieque simul : fonte e Phlegethontis ut atro
Flammanun exundat torrens, piceaque procella
Semiambusta rotat liquefactis saxa cavemiA.
Sed quanquam largo flammanun exsatuet intns
Turbine, ct assidue subnnscens profluat ignis,
Summo cana Jugo cohibet (mirabile dictu)
'Hcinam flammis glaciem, cetemoque rigore
Ardentes horrent scopoli : stat vertioe oelsi

CoUis hiems, calidaqne nivem tegit atra favilla. — Sil. Ital. xIt. 58.
Virgil's well-known description of an eruption supplied Silius Italicus with
many of his ideas : —

Portus ab accessu ventorum immotus, et ingens
Ipse ; sed horriflcis juxta tonat £tna minis,
Interdumque atram prorumpit ad »thera nubem,
Turbine fumantem pioeo et candente ftivilla ;
Attollitque globes flammarum, et sidera lambit :
Interdum soopuloe arulsaque Tiscera mentis
Erigit eructans, liquefactaque saxa sub auras
Cum gemitu glomerat, fiindoque exoestuat imo. — ^i?n. iii. 570.
* Hence the poets class it with the loftiest mountains in the world : —
Quantus Athoe, aut quantus Eryx aut ipse coruscis
Cum fremit ilicibus, quantus, gaudetque nivali
Yertice se attollens pater Apenninus ad auras. — J?n. xii. 701.
Magnus Eryx, deferre relint quern yallibus imbres.

Val. Flacc. U. 523.
' Turn vicina astris Eryciqp In rertice sedee
Fundatur Teneri Idaliie. .Hn, v. 759.

Hence Venus is termed Erydna : —

Sive tu mavis, Erydna ridens. Hob. Carm. i. 3, 83.

Tu quoque, qufD montes celebras, Erycina, Sicanoe.

Ov. Heroid. xt. 57.

■ The position of these is well described by Orid : —

Tribus h(Do excurrit in nquora Unguis.
E quibus imbriferos obversa Pachynos ad Austroe :



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592 SICILU. Book IV.

di Faro,* in the N.E., immediately opposite the Italian coast, and
hence important as a naval station ; Paehtnas»^ 0. Passaro, in the
S.E., and the most southerly point of the island; and LUybBiiBi,
C, Boeo, in the W., a low, rocky point with reefs about it, which
rendered navigation dangerous. The rivers of Sicily are generally
little more than mountain torrents, swollen in winter, and nearly
dry in summer. The most important are — the Symnthiu,' OiaTttta^
which flows by the roots of iEtna, and falls into the sea S. of Catana,
receiving in its course the OhiyiaSf Dittaxno, and the Oyamotfiru,
Fiume SaUo; the HlmSra, FCume SaUo, which rises on the S. side
of Nebrodes, only about 15 miles from the N. coast, and traverses the
whole breadth of Sicily, falling into the sea W. of Gela ; the
fialj^eii8» Platani, which rises not far from the Himera and enters
the sea at Heraclea Minoa; and the Hypsas, Belie i, also on the S.
coast, a few miles E. of Selinus. The lakes of Sicily are unim-
portant ; we may notice, however, Paliednim Laeus* a deep pool of
volcanic origin, about 15 miles W. of Leontini, the waters of which
were set in commotion by jets of volcanic gas ;• and PergnSf^ near
Enna, which is also still in existence.

§ 3. The most ancient inhabitants of Sicily of whom we hear are
the Sio&iii, who claimed to be autochthons, and who, in historical
times, occupied the W. and N.W. of the island. A second and
more widely-spread race were the 8ioUi or SioSli* after whom the
island was named, and who occupied the greater part of the interior ;



MoUibus expositmn Zephyris lilybnon : at Arcton

iEquoris expertem spectat Boreanque PeloroB. Met, xiii. 724.

Jamque Peloriaden, Lilybeeaqae, Jamqne Pachynon

Lustrarat, terr» oonrna pilma son. Fatt, ir, 479.

* The modern name is derired from a lighthoofle (Pharoe) which once stood on
it, as also did a temple of Neptune. The position of this promontory in the
Sicilian straits is well described by Virgil^s expression, ** atiffUMti eiaustra Pelori *'
(.fit. iii. 411).

* It is correctly described by Virgil as formed by bold projecting rocks : —

Hinc altas eantes prqjedaque $axa Paohyni

Radimos. Mn. iii. 699.

* Rapidiqne colunt rada flava Symeethi. Sil. Ital. xiv. 231.
Quaque Symethteas accipit tequor aquas. Or. Fowl, ir. 472.

» The pool is now called Logo di Nqftia from the naphtha with which it is
impregnated. Formerly there appear to have been two separate pools or cratcru ;
there is now but one. The spot was consecrated to the indigenous ddUes, called
Palici ; hence Virgil speaks of the son of Arccns as —
Eductum matris luco, Symaathia circum
Flumina : pinguis uU et placabilis ora Palici. JSki. ix. 584.
The pool is described by Ovid : —

Perque lacus altos, et olcntia sulfure fertur

Stagiia Palicorum, rupta ferventia terra. Met. t. 405.

* Hand procul Henne?is lacus est a moonibus alt».

Nomine Pergns, aquie, fte. Ov. Met, v. 885.



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Chap. XXVIII. INHABITANTS — TOWNS. 593

they were a Pelasgic race, and crossed over into Sicily from Italy
wiUiin historical times. The EljM* in the N.W. corner of the
island, were a distinct people of no great importance. In addition to
these, which we may term the indigenous races of Sicily, numerous
foreign settlements were made on the coasts by the Phoenicians and
Greeks, by the former merely for trading purposes, by the latter as
permanent colonies. The most important towns of Sicily were
founded by the Greeks between 750 and 600 B.C. : Naxos was- the
first in point of time, in 735 ; then followed in rapid succession
Syracuse in 734, Messana, of uncertain date, Leontini and Catftna
about 730, Megara Hyblaea about 726, Gela m 690, Selinus in 626,
and Agrigentum in 580, all of which rose to eminence, and some
became the parents of fresh colonies. Naxus, Leontini, and Catana,
were of Ionian origin ; the rest were Dorian. The Phoenicians were
gradually driven to the W. by the Gh-eeks, and were at last confined
to three towns at the N.W. comer of the island, viz., Motya,
Panormus, and Soloeis. These fell imder the dominion of Carthage,
probably about the time when Phoenicia itself became subject to
the Persian empire. The Carthaginians themselves founded several
important towns about the W. extremity of the island, particu-
larly Lilybasum and Drep&num. Several important towns owed
their origin to the elder Dionysius, 405-368, as Tauromenium,
which arose in the place of Naxos, Tyndaris, and Alsesa on the N.
coast. The flourishing period of the Greek towns lasted imtil the
time of the Roman conquest of Sicily in 241. A long series of
wars, and still more the exactions of Roman governors, proved fatal
to them, and in Strabo*s time many were in actual ruins, and others
in a declining state. We shall describe them in order, commencing
with the E. coast.

(1.) Towns on tJte E. eo<iat from N. to /9.— MetsAna, Messina, stood
on the Sicilian straits opposite Rhegium ; ^ it owed its chief importanoe
partly to its position in reference to Italy, and partly to the excellence
of its port, formed by a projecting spit of sand, which curves round in
the sluipe of a sickle ' (whence its older name of Zancle), and which
constitutes a natural mole. Immediately behind the town, which
encircles the harbour, rises the range of Neptunius. Messana was first
colonized by Chalcidians of Eretria, having been previously occupied by
the native Siceli. In 494 it was seized by Samians and Milesians, who
had emigrated from Asia Minor after the fall of Miletus. These were
driven out by Anaxilas, a Messenian, who crossed with a body of bis
countrjrmen from Rhegium, and changed the name from Zancle to



* Liquerat et Zanden, adversaque mocnia Rhegi. — Ov. Met, xiv. 5.
IncumbenB Mesitana fireto minimomque revulsa

Discreta Italia atque Oboo memorabilia orto. Su.. Ital. xiv. 194.

• Qoiqae lociw carvie nomina eedcis habet. Oy. Fa$t, Iv. 474.



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594 SICILIA. Book IV.

Messana. At the commencement of the fourth century b.c., it was one of
the most important cities in Sicily. Having been destroyed in 396 by the

Carthaginians, it was restored
by DioDysius, and regained its
^ pro^erity. It fell from time
u to tune under the dominion
I of tyrants, and was conquered
1/ by Agathocles of Syracuse in
W 312, who introduced into it
^ the Mamertini from Campa-
nia. After the death of Aga-
ColnofMesaaiia. thocles m 282, these Mam-

ertini seized the town and
massacred all the males : thenceforth it was named Mamertina. These
bandits were attacked in 271 by Hiero of Syracuse, against whom they
called in the aid, first of the Carthaginians, and afterwards of the
Romans, who entered Sicily as the allies of Messana in 264, and were
immediately engaged in the First Punic War. Messana was constituted
a /(^derata dvitas, and it became one of the finest and wealthiest of the
Sicilian cities. Near it was the famous, and, in early times, much
dreaded whirlpool named Charybdii.^ Haxot was situated on a low
rocky headland at the mouth of the river Acesines; it ranked as the

oldest of all the Greek cities

in Sicily, having been founded

. by Chalcidians in b.c. 735.

V Its early history is not known

1 1 to us ; it was taken by Hip-

[ I pocrates of Gela, about 495,

i I was depopulated by Hieron

y in 476, and was restored about

461. It fell under the enmity

of Syracuse, in consequence

ColnofNaxos. ^^ ^^ having espoused the

cause of Athens in 415; and

in 403 it was utterly destroyed by Dionysius, and its inhabitants

expatriated. The Siculi, to whom the territory was then given, erected



' The earliest notice of this occars in Homer, who describes it as opposite to
Scylla, though it is really some ten miles distant. Scylla offers no particular
risks to the navigator : Charybdis, on the other hand, might well be dreaded by
the ancients, vrhoee vessels were small and undecked ; even at the present day
larger vessels are sometimes endangered by it. It is formed by the meeting of
opposite currents, which are much affected by certain winds. The following
passages illustrate the above remarks : —

T<p 6* viro Jca Xa/>v/iSi$ afappot/Sdci tkikcuf v&»p*

TpW fiiv yap T* ayCtfa-iv <v' ^M^ri, rplf 6* ovopoi/S^ei

Ativ6v. HoM. OdL xU. 104.

Dextrum Scylla latus, leevum implacata Charybdis

Obeidet : atque imo bEurathri ter gurgite vastos

Sorbet in abruptum fluctus, rursusquc sub auras

Erigit alternos, et sidera verbcrat unda. jEn. iii. 430.

Scylla latus dextrum, l»vum irrequieta Charybdis

Infestont. Ov. Met. xiii. 780. -

Nee ScyllsD secvo conterruit impetus ore

Nee violenta suo consumsit in orbe Charybdis. — Tibull. iv. 1, 71.



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Chap. XXVIII. TOWNS. 595

a new town about three miles from Naxos, on the slope of Taunis,^
which they named Tftnromenium, and which is still called Tiiormina.
To this place the old Naidan exiles were brought back in 358 by An-
dromachus, and it was henceforth regarded as the representative of
the old town. It appears subsequently to have fallen under the power
of Syracuse, and ultimately passed with the rest into the hands of
the Romans, who made it a foederata civitas, and afterwards a colony.
The remains of Tauromenium are numerous, and consist of a theatre
in a very perfect state, and, in point of size, second only to that of
Syracuse, a building styled a ndumachia, {Murts of the ancient walls,
reservoirs, sepulchres, tesselated pavements, &c. The position of this
town was remarkably strong ; it etood on a projecting ridge some
900 feet above the sea, and was backed by an inaccessible rock some
500 feet higher, on which its citadel was posted. Cat&na or Catlna,
Catania, was situated midway between Tauromenium and Syracuse,
and almost immediately at the foot of ^tna. It was founded about
B.C. 730 by Naxos, and it remained independent imtil 476, when it was
taken by Hiero I., its inhabitants removed to Leontini, and fresh settlera
from Syracuse and Peloponnesus introduced in their stead. In 461
the old inhabitants returned, and the place subsequently attained a high
degree of prosperity. In the Athenian invasion, Catana was seized and
occupied by the Athenians. In 403 it was conquered by Dionysius of
Syracuse, and was held by a body of Campanian mercenaries until 396.
It was afterwards governed hj tyrants. In 263 it yielded to Rome, and
was prosperous until the time of Seztus Pompeius, from whom it
suffered much : it was colonized by Augustus. It was the birth-place of
the philosopher Charondas, and the residence of the poet Stesichorus.
From its proximity to -^tna,^ it sufifered from the eruptions, especially
in B.C. 121, when much of its territory was overwhelmed. The remains
of Catana belong to the Roman period, and consist of the ruins of a
theatre, of an odeum, of baths, and of an aqueduct. Leontini, Lentini,
was situated on the small river Lissiis, about eight miles from the sea.
It stood on a hill, which
divides into two summits
with an intervening valley,
and was surrounded by a
district of extraordinary
fertility. It was founded
by Naxians in B.C. 730, and
retained its independence
until 498, when it fell
under the yoke of Hippo-
crates of Gela. In 476 it Coin of Leontiiil.
was subject to Hiero of Sy-
racuse, but in 466 it was again independent, and at its highest prosperity.
Subsequently it became entangled in disputes with its powerful neigh-
bour Syracuse, and from 427 down to the time of the Roman conquest,
it was either subject to or at war with that state. Under the Romans
it sunk into a state of decay. It was the birth-place of the orator
Qorgias. Xeg&ra, sumamed Hyblna, to distinguish it from the town



" Its elevated poritlon is implied in the following line : —

Tauromenitana cemunt de sede Charybdim. Sil. Ital. xiv. 256.

* Turn Catane, nimium ardenti vicina Typboco. Id. xiv. 196.



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590 SICILIA. Book IV.

in Greece, was ntuated on a deep bay between Cataoa and Syracuse,
probably at Agotta, It was founded by colonists from Megara in
Greece, on the site of an older town named Hybla, about b.c. 726,
and it became the parent of Selinus. In 481 it was destroyed by
Gelon, and it was not rebuilt until 415, when a new town arose at
the mouth of the river Alabus, Caniaro, sometimes called Megara,
and sometimes Hybla, which was held bv the Syracusans, and was
captured by Marcellus in 214. The neighbouring hills produced ex-
cellent honey.^ SyraotLns, the most powerful of all the Sicilian cities,
was situated on a triangular plateau, which projects into the sea between
two bays, that on the S. being small, and forming the great harbour of
Syracuse, while that on the N. stretches out as tar as Thapsus. The
extremity of the hill is about 2^ miles broad ; inland it narrows

C dually till it terminates in a ridge which connects with the table-
d of the interior. The plateau is divided into two portions by a
depression running N. and 8., about a mile from the sea. Opposite the
S.E. angle of the plateau is the island of Ortygia, between which and
the plateau itself a low level tract intervenes. S. of the great harbour
rises a peninsular promontory named Plemmyrium. The town, which
was founded in B.C. 734 by Corinthians and otiier Dorians under the
guidance of Archias, was originally built on Ortygia : subsequently, by
&e time of the Peloponnesian War, it had been extended to the main-
land, and the extremity of the hill, as fiur back as the depression already
noticed, was built over and described as the " outer city *' in contra-
distinction to the "inner city," or acropolis on Ortygia. At this period
there appears to have been no suburb outside the walls with the excep-
tion of Temenitis on the S. side of the plateau: the whole of the
triangular space at the back of the ''outer city*', was then named
EpipoUe. Subsequently, however, to this period, an extensive suburb,
named Tyche, grew up immediately W. of the " outer city," or as it
was afterwards called Achradina : Temenitis was also enlarged, and its
name changed to Neapolis: the low ground between the ** outer" and
•* inner " cities was built over : and finally the whole of the triangular
space was enclosed within walls by Dionysius I. The city was thus
composed of five towns, viz. Ortygia, Achradina, Tyche, EpipoUe, and
Neapolis. 1. Ortygia' was an island of oblong shape, about a mile
in length, stretching across the mouth of the great harbour. It was

i'oined to the mainland in the first instance by a causeway, but in the
ioman period by a bridge. It contained the famous fountfun of
ArethtlBa,' the citadel, a magnificent temple of Minerva, of which thqre



^ Florida quun mnltas Hybla tuetur apes. Ov. TruL v. 6, 38.

HyblsDis aplbus florem depasta BalioU. Vnu>. Eel, i. 55.

* Ortygia was held eacred to Diana, and 1b hence desribed by Pindar as ** the
coach of Artemis," and the ** sister of Ddos " : —

KAeu'ai' IvpauKotTfrav 9dAoc, 'Oprvyta,

AoAov Ktunyytjra. iV«m. i. 1.

* Arethusa was supposed to be connected by a submarine current with the
Alpheus in Ells : —

Alpheum faroa est hue, Elidis amnem,
Occultas egisse rias subter mare ; qui nunc
Ore, Arethusa, tuo Siculis conAinditur undis. J?i». iii. 694.



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Chap. XXVIII.



TOFNS.



597



are considerable remains built into the church of Banta Maria delle
Colonney a temple of Diana, the palace of Hiero, and other edifices.
2. Aehradina, ''the outer city" of Thucydides, contained the forum,
the temple of Jupiter Olympius, a theatre, and the catacombs. 3.
Tyohe, so named after an ancient temple of Fortune, became one of the
most populous parts of Syracuse, subsequently to the time of the
Athenian expedition. 4. Haapolis, "the new city," contained the
theatre, capable of holding 24,()u0 spectators, an amphitheatre, several
temples, and the Lautumiee, or quarries. 5. SpipdsB, which, in the
time of Thucydides, was applied to the whole of the plateau W. of
Aehradina, was afterwards restricted to the most inland and highest
portion of it. This contained the fort of Euryalus, now called Monai-
heUm, erected probably by Dionysius, and enlarged by Hiero II.




Map of Syracuse at the time of the Pelopoimesian War.

Syracuse possesned two ports, the great harboiu*, the entrance to which
was on the S. side of Ortvgia, a land-locked bay, 15 miles in circum-
ference, and the small haroour between OHygia and Aehradina. A fine



Extremnm hnnc, Arcthusa, mihi concede laborem.

I'auca meo Gallo, sed qtue legat ipsa Lycoris,

Carmina sunt dicenda : neget quis cannina Gallo ?

Sic tibi, cum fluctus subterlabere Sicanos,

DoriA amara suam non Intermisceat nndam. Viae. Eel. x.



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598 SICII^IA. Book IV

aqueduct, constructed by Qelon, and improved by Hiero, supplied the
town with water. About 1^ miles from Neapolis, and on the S. side of
the Anapus, stood the Olympieum, or temple of Olympian Jove, about
which a village named Polichne grew up, and which was important a« a
military post, commanding the bridge over the Anapus, which discharges
itself into the gi-eat harbour. Syracuse was originally governed by an
aristocracy : this was superseded by a democracy m about 486, and
this by a tyranny in the person of Gelon in 485. Under the reigns of
Qelon (485-478), and Hiero (478-467), Syracuse became wealthy and
prosperous : Hiero's successor, Thrasybulus, was expelled after a brief
reign on accoimt of his cruelty, and a democracy was established. In
415 the Athenians appeared before Syracuse ; in 414 the siege of the
town was commenced, and ended in the following year in the total
defeat of the Athenians. In 405 the democracy was succeeded by a
tyranny in the person of the elder Dionysius, who had a long and
prosperous reign, and was followed, in 367, by his son, Dionysius the
younger, whose reign was quite of a different character, and who was

expelled by Timoleon in
34.3. For about 26 years
a republic prevailed : but,
in 317, Agathoclee re-ee-
tablished the tyranny. He
reigned until 289, and then
followed an interval of
anarchy and dissension
Coin of Syracuse. until 270, when the Syra-

cusans elected Hiero II.
as their king. During his reign the town was peaceable and prosperous,
mainly through the wise policy which he adopted towards Rome. His
successor, Hieronymus, adopted another line, and joined the Cartha-
ginians ; ihis resulted in the siege of the town by Marcel I us, prolonged
through the skill of Archimedes for two years, but ending in its capture
in 212. The modem Syraaue is a comparatively small town confined
to the island of Ortygia.

(2). On the S. Coatt.^ CamaTTna, Camarana, TS'as situated at the
mouth of the little river Hipparis, about 40 miles W. of Prom. Pachy-
nus. It was founded by Syracuse in B.c. 599, and in 46 years it was
strong enough to attempt a revolt against its parent city, which, how-
ever, proved unsuccessful, and resulted in the destruction of the
town in 552. In 495 it was rebuilt by Hippocrates of Gela, and in
485 was again destroyed by the removal of its inhabitants. In 461
it was for a third time rebuilt, and for the next 50 years reached a
high degree of prosperity, which was terminated in 405 by the invasion
of its territory by the Carthaginians, and the temporary withdrawal of
its inhabitants. In 258 it was betrayed to the Carthaginians, but was
speedily recovered by the Romans. In 255 the Roman fleet was i^Tecked
near it. Adjacent to the town was a mai*8h, which rendered the air un-
healthy : the citizens drained this, in opposition to the warning of an
oracle, and, in so doing, they exposed their walls to their enemies : heuce
arose a proverbial saying .** Oela, Terranora. was situated at the mouth
I

* Ml} xtKTi Kofiapivair oxiyifTOt yifi oficcMwr.
Nunqaam conoessa moveri
Apparet Camarina procol. jUn. ill. 700.

£t cni non licitom fatin, Camarina, moTeri. Sil. Ital. xlv. 198.



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Chap. XXVIII. TOWNS. 699

of a river of the same name/ between Camarina and Agrigentum. It
was founded by a joint colony of Rhodians and Cretans in b.c. 690, and
in 582 it was sufficiently strong to found Agrigentum. Its consti-
tution was originally oligarchical ; but in 505 Cleander established a



Online LibrarySir William Smith William Latham BevanThe student's manual of ancient geography → online text (page 68 of 82)