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from its position gradually rose to the highest eminence, being styled
metropolis by Ptolemy : as a Roman colony it bore the titles of Julia
Romula and Col'onia Romulensis. ItaJXoa, Old Seville, on the opposite
side of the river, was founded by Scipio Africanus, in b.c. 207, as a
settlement for his disabled veterans : it was a munidpium, and the
native place of the Emperors Trajan, Hadrian, and Theodosius, and,
as some say, of the poet Silius Italicus : its inhabitants migrated to
Seville in the Middle Ages : the ruins of an amphitheatre and of some
reservoirs alone remain. Sis&pon, Almaden, was the chief town in
Bseturia, and derived its importance from its silver mines and veins of
cinnabar. Cordliba, Cordova, on the right bank of the Bsetis,^ is said
to have been founded by Marcellus, who made it his head-quai*ters in
the Celtiberian War. Its population was a mixture of Romans and
natives, and it was the first Roman colony in those parts : it suffered
severely in the great Civil War, and was taken by Csesar in b.c. 45,
when 22,000 of its inhabitants were slaughtered. It became the
capital of the province,^ and had the surname of Patricia ^om the



the bottom of all these words, and appears in the>PhoDnician name of Hercules,
Mel-CoWA.

> Poeni saturentor sanguine manes ;

Ultima funesta concurrant prselia Munda. Luc. 1. 89.

Non Utica; Lihje clades, Hispenia Munda
FlesAct. Id. vi. 806.

• The tide reached up to Hispalls : —

Et cclebre Oceano atque altemis nstibus Hispal. — Sil. Ital. iii. 392.

1 In Tortessiads domus est notissima terris

Qua dives placidum Cordnba Ba>tln amat. MutT. ix. 62.

2 The bright colour of the wool in this neighbourhood i^ often noticed : —
Uncto Corduba leetior Venafro,

Uistra nee minus abeoluta testa.



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616 HISPANIA.— LUSITANIA. Book IV.

number of patricians among its colonists. It was also tho birthplace
of Lucan and the two Senecas.'

We may further briefly notice — ^IllibSrif, the original of Chrathadu,
noticed by Hecatceus under the form of Elibyrge; TTrso, Om^, in the
mountains S.E. of Hispalis, the last resort of the Pompeians, and a
Roman colony with the name Genua Urbanorum; Oaimo, Carmona, a
strongly-fortified town N.E. of Hispalis, one of the head-quarters of the
rebellion in Bteturia, B.C. 197, and in the Julian Civil War described as
the strongest city in Hispania Ulterior: A«t&pa, in an open plain on the
S. margin of the valley of the Ba^tis, celebrated for its devoted attach-
ment to the Carthaginians, and for the consequent self-destruction of
its inhabitants when besieged by the Romans in the Second Punic
War; Adnlpo, about 6 miles N. of Rondo, worthy of notice for the
ruins of an aqueduct and theatre on its site ; Avrinx, or Orijigii, near
Munda, the head-quarters of Hasdrubal in B.C. 207, and also wealthy
from its silver-minds and the fertility of its territory; Oalentimi,
CazaUa, famous for the manufacture of a very light kind of tile;
SXpa, on the right bank of the'Baetis, with great silver-mines in its
neighbourhood, and just at the point where the river ceased to be
navigable for vessels: its ruins are near Peiiaftor; and IntibUi, near Illi-
turgis, the scene of a victoiy gained by the Romans over the Cartha-
ginians in the Second Punic War.

II. LUSITANIA.

§ 10. LuBitania was bounded on the W. and S. by the Atlantic
Ocean, on the N. by the river Durius, and on the E. by the Anas
as far as above Metellinum, and by a line drawn thence to the
Durius, at a point below the junction of the river Pisoraca. It
corresponds generally to the kingdom of Portugal^ but while on the
one hand it was less extensive than that kingdom in the N. (for
Portugal extends to the MinJw\ it was more extensive towards the
E., and included the N. part of Si)ani8h Estremadura, and the S.
part of Lean, The country is generally lofty and rugged on the
E. side, but more level as it approaches the sea. It is divided into
two portions by the range of Herminiiu, which separates the basins
of the Tagus and Durius. The chief rivers are the Tagos,^ which



Albi quae raperas ores Galesi,

Nullo murice, nee cr«ore mendax,

Sed tinctis gregibus colore vivo. Mart. xiL 64.

Qua dives placidom Cordaba Ba>tiii amat ;
TcUera nativo pallent abi flava raetello,

£t Unit Hesperium bractea viva pecus. Id. ix. 62.

* Duosque Senecas unicomque Lucanum

Facunda loqoiUir Corduba. ^ Ii>. i. 62.

* It was famed for its fish and oysters : —
Sed qufficunque tamcn feretur lllio *
IHseosi calamo Tagi notata

Macrom pagina nostra noininabit. Id. x. 78.

Ukewiw for its gold sand, of which at the present time the quantity is very
small : —



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Chap. XXIX. POPULATION— TOWNS. 617

falls into the ocean near Olisipo; the Ihiriiis» Douro^ on the N.
border ; and the smaller streams of the Callipns, Sadao, S.E. of the
Tagus, and Vaonai Vouga, between the Tagus and Dnrius.

§ 11. Lusitania was occupied by£vc chief tribes — the Lntitftni
on the W. coast, between the Tagns and EUirius ; the Vettdnett E. of
them, between the Durius and Anas; the Tardnli Veteret* on the
banks of the Anas ; the Tnrdetftni, between the lower course of the
Anas and the S. and W. coasts ; and the Celtitoi in various positions,
chiefly S.E. of the Lower Tagus, and on the S. coast in the district
named Ciineii8» where they bore the distinctive name of Ckmii. Of
the towns we have not much information ; Olisipo, Lisbcn^ was
the old capital of the Lusitani, and Emerfta Augusta, in the S.E. of
the province, the later capital of the Romans, while Pax Julia, near
the Callipus, and Scal&bis on the Tagus, were, withEmerita, the
seats of the three conventus into which the province was divided.
The total number of towns was 46, of which 5 were colonice, 1 a
municipium, 3 with the Latin franchise, and 37 stijpendiaria.

Towns from 8. to ^.— Balsa, Tavira, stood on the coast W. of the
Anas, and was a municipium, with the title of Felix. Hyrtilis, Mertola,
on the river Anas, had the jus Latii, with the surname of Julia. Pax
Julia, Beja, lay on a hill to the N., and was a Roman colony, and the
seat of a conventus : it was probably the same as Pax Augusta. Salaoia,
Alaqer do Sal, to the N.W., was celebrated for its manufacture of fine
woollen cloths. Eb$ra was an important town and a municipium^ with
the surname of Liberalitas Julia : there are fine ruins at Evora, especially
of an aqueduct and a temple of Diana. Augusta Emerita, Meridat on
the Anas,* was built, in B.C. 23, by PubHus Carisius, the legatee of
Augustus, and was colonized with the veterans of the 5th and 10th
legions. It was a colonia from the first, and had also the jus Italicum,
was the residence of the praetor, and the seat of a conventus. The
ruins of the town are magnificent ; the circus is nearly perfect ; the
great aqueduct is one of the grandest remains of antiquity in the
world, and the old Roman bridge remained uninjured until a.d.
1812, when some of the arches were blown up: in respect to its ruius it
has been termed** the Rome of Spain." MetellTnuTn, Meddling was
higher up the Anas : the modem town stands on the S. side of the
river, and would thus have fallen within the limits of Bsetica ; it was a
colonia. Olifllpo, Lisbon, stood on the right bank of the Tagus, near its



Cedat et aoriferi ripa beata Tagi. Ov. Am. i. 15, 84.

Tanti tibi non sit opaci
Omnis arena Tagi, qaodque in mare yolvitur aoram. — Jut. ill. 54.
.£stuif serenos aureo franges Tago,

Obscorus umbris arbomm. Mast. i. 50.

' Clara mihi post has memoraberc, nomen Ibenun,
Emerita squoreas quam prceterlabitnr omnia,
Submittit cui tota suoa Hispania fasces.
Corduba non, non aroe potens tibi Tarraco certat
Quceque sinu pclagi Jactat se Bracara dives.

Avsoxivs, Ord. Nob. Urb, ix.



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618 raSPANIA.— TARRAC0NENSI8. Book IV.

mouth : its territory waa celebrated for a remarkably swift breed of
horses : the name is also given as Ulyssipo, from a mistaken idea that
the legend of a town founded by Ulysses applied to it. Horba OeBnria,
Alcantara, lay on the left bank of the Tagus, N.W. of Emerita : a
magnificent bridge over the river, built by Trajan, still remains.
SealiUyii, SafUarem, lay between Olisipo and Emerita: it was a colony,
with the surname Prsasidiimi Julium, and one of the three GOfwenhu,
Bftlmaiityna, Salamancaf also called Helmantica and Hermandica. stood
S. of the Durius : the piers of a bridge of 27 arches over the Torme$f
built by Tn^an, are still in existence.

ni. TABBACONEySTS.

§ 12. Tarraooneniif was bounded on the E. by the Mare Internum ;
on the N. by the Pyrenees, which separated it from Grallia, and
further W. by the Mare Cantabriciun ; on the W. by the Atlantic
Ocean, as far S. as the Durius, and below that point by the province
of Lusitania; and on the S. by the provinces of Lusitania and
Bastica, from the former of which it was separated by the Dunns,
from the latter by Ms. Marianus. It thus embraced the modem
provinces of Murcia, Valencia, Catalonia, Arragon, Kavarre,
Biscay, Asturias, GaUicia, the N. parts of Portugal and of Leon,
nearly all the CastHles, and part of Andalusia. This extensive
district contains within its limits the \ipper courses of all the large
rivers already noticed, the BsBtis, Anas, Tagoit and Bnrins, together
with the whole course of the Ibems, which was historically the
most important river of Spain, and which received as tributaries^
on its left bank, the Oallloas, QdClego, and the Siofiris," Segre, and on
its right, the Salo, Xalon, In addition to these we may notice the
following important rivers which flow into the Mediterranean : the
Bubrie&tnst lAobregat, joining the sea a little W. of Barcino ; the
Tiiria, Ouadalaviar, near Valentia, famed for a battle fought on it«
banks between Pompey and Sertorius ; the Suoro, Xucar, more to
the S. ; and the Tader, Segura, N. of Carthago Nova. On the W.
coast, the ]Oninf« Minho, which rises in the mountains of Grallaada^
is an unportant river : it is said to have been so named from the
minium, or vermilion, carried down by its waters. We may also
notice the following tributaries of the Durius : on its right bank the
Pisor&oaf Pisuerga, and the Astttra, JSzla, and on its left the Cvda,
Coa, In describing Tarraconensis we shall adopt a fourfold division
of the tribes, as follows : (1) those along the coast of the Mediter-
ranean ; (2) those at the foot of the Pyrenees ; (3) those along the
N. coast ; (4) those in the interior. It only remains for us here to
observe that Tarraconensis was divided into seven convenius Juridici,



' Inter

Stagnantem Sioorim et rapidam deprenson Ibemm. — LrcAK, It. SS4.



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Chap. XXIX. INHABITANTS — TOWNS. 619

containing 472 towns and villages, of which 12 were colonioe, 13
oppida civium Romanorum, 18 Latinorum veterum, Ifoederatorum,
and 135 stipendiaria,

§ 13. ITie tribes on the coast of the Mediterranean from S.W. to
N.E. were — the Baatet&ni, on the borders of Bcetica, sometimes
identified with the Bastuli ; the Contestftai* on the coast from the
borders of Bsetica to the river Sucro; the Edetftni. or Sedet&ni,
between the Sucro and the Iberus ; the Deroafines, in that portion
of the sea-coast of Edetania which lies S.W. of the Iberus; the
GoMt&ni, from the mouth of the Iberus northwards to near the
Rubricatus ; the Leeetftni, or Laletftni, thence to the territory of the
Indi^tes, who lived on the bay of Emporiaa in the extreme N.E.
This disfrict contained the most important towns in Spain — Carthago
Nova, the Punic capital, in the territory of the Contestani ; TarrJlco,
the Roman capital, on the coast N. of the Iberus ; CsBsaraugusta, the
chief town in the upper valley of the Iberus ; BarcXno and Emporise,
flourishing sea-ports between the Iberus and the Pyrenees. The
origin of many of these towns is unknown : Carthago Nova was
founded, within historical times, by the Carthaginians ; the names
of Tarraco and Barcino also bespeak a Punic origin. Si^untum and
Emporiae, on the other hand, were attributed to the Greeks, the
latter having an undoubted Greek name, and the former being
regarded as a modification of Zacynthus. The inland towns belonged
to the Iberians, their names being either Latinized forms of the
original ones, or, as in the case of Caesaraugusta, new names
assigned to them by the Romans.

Oarih&go Hova, Cartaaenay stood a little W. of Prom. Satumi^ at the
bottom of a bay, which, having its entrance nearly closed by the isle of
Scombraria, was thus convdtted into a sheltered harbour. The site of the
town was an elevated tongue of land projecting into the bay, surrounded
on the E. and S. by the sea, and on the W . and partly on the N. by a lake
communicating with the sea, the isthmus between the lake and the sea
being only 250 paces wide. A range of hills encircled the town on the
land side. Carthago Nova was a colony of Carthage, planted by Has-
drubal in B.C. 242, the site being selected partly from the excellence of
its harbour and its central position in reference to the coast of Spain
and the opposite coast of Africa, and partly from its proximity to the
richest silver mines of Spain. It beoame the Carthaginian capital of
the country — at once the treasury, the arsenal, and the base of opera-
tions. It was surprised by P. Scipio in 210, and became thenceforward
the rival of Tarraco. It was made a colony, with the title of Col. Victrix
Julia Nova Carthago, and was the seat of a convenixia. It remained an
important place of commerce even after its size was much diminished.
It sometimes received the surname of Spartana, from the valuable plant
(a kind of broom) which grew in its neighboiurhood. Sntiibis, J^iva,
was a Roman municipium, and the seat of a large flax' and linen manu-



Sfetabis et telas Arabum sprerlsse superba

£t Peluaiaeo filum componere lino. Sxl. Itat.. iii. 374.

Nam



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620 HISPAXIA.— TARRACONENSIS. Book IV.

facture : it lay upon an eminence S. of the Sucro. Vale&tia belonged
to the Edetam, and was situated on the Turia, about 3 miles from its

mouth: it became a co-
lony, and was peopled
• with the soldiers of Vi-
riathus : it was destroyed
by Pompey, but was re-
stored ; it still exists, with
the same name. Sagantnm
was seated on an emi-
nence^ on the banks of
the river PallantiaB, be-
Coin of Valeniia in Spain. ^^een the Sucro and Tar-

raco, and not far from
the sea. It was said to have been founded by Zacynthians,^ with whom,
according to some accounts, Rutuli from Ardea were mixed. It lay in
a fertile district, and attedned to great wealth by its commerce. Its
capture by Hannibal, in b.c. 218, after a long resistance, was the cause
of the Second Punic War. It was recovered by the Romans in 210, and
made a Roman colony. A manufacture of earthenware ^ cups (calices
Saguntini) was carried on there. The modem town is named Mur-
viedro, from the muri veteres of the old town ; the remains of them, how-
ever, are now insignificant : the framework of the theatre exists, and
there are portions of the walls of the Circus Maximus. CaBsaranguta,
Zaragozat Saragassa^ stood on the right bank of the Iberus, and was the
central point whence all the great roads of Spain radiated. Its original
name, as a town of the Edetani, was Saldura, which was changed in honour
of Augustus, who colonized it in B.c. 25 : it was a edUmia immunis, and
the seat of a oonventiu. The first Christian poet, Aurelius Prudentius,
is said to have been born there in a.d. 348. Itartfita, Tortota, stood on
the left bank of the Iberus, not fw* above the delta of the river, in the
territory of the Ilercaones : it became a colony. Tarr&oo,* Tarragona^
was finely seated on a rock,' between 700 and 800 feet high, overhanging
a bay of the Mediterranean sea: it possessed no harbour. It was
fortified by the Scipios, who converted it into a fortress against the
Carthaginians ; subsequently it became the capit4d of the province and
the seat of a conventus. Augustus wintered there afber his Cantabrian



Nam sadaria Setaba ex Iberis

Hiseront tibi muneri. Catull. xU. 14.

' Hand procal Herculei tollant se littore muri,

dementer eresoente Jugo, qnts nobile nomen

Conditos excelflo sacravit oolle Zacjmthos. Sil. Ital. i. 273.

> Mox profiigl daccnte Noto advertere coloni,

Insula qaos genuit Graio circumflua ponto,

Atque auxit quondam Laertia regna, Zacynthoa :

Firmavit tenues ortus mox Daunia pubcs,

Sedis Inops, misit largo quam dives alumno,

Magnanimis rcgnata viiiii, nunc Ardea nomen. Id. i. 288.
1 Same Saguntino pocula Acta luto. Mabt. xiv. 108.

Pagna Sagontina fervet commlssa lagena.' Jcv. r. 29.

2 The name seems to imply a Phoenician foundation : it comes from Tarrhtm^
" citadel."

* HispansB pete Tarraconis areet. Mabt. x. 104.



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Chap. XXIX. TOWNS — POPULATION. 621

campaign. Its fertile plain and Bunny shoree are celebrated by Martial *
and other poets ; and its neighbourhood produced good wine^ and flax.
There are numerous remains of the old town, particularly the so-called
palace of Augustus, now used as a prik>n, some cydopean foundations
near it, with traces of the circus and amphitheatre : near the town is a
magnificent aqueduct, 700 feet long, with two tiers of arches, the loftiest
of which are 96 feet high, and a sepulchre called the ** Tower of the
Scipios." Barelno, Barcelona^ was a city of the Laletani, and stood on
the coast, a little N. of the Rubricatus: it is said to have been founded
by Hercules 400 years before Rome, and to have been rebuilt by
Hamilcar Barcas, who gave it the name of his family. Under the
Romans it became a colony, with the surname of Faventia. It possessed
an excellent harbour and a beautiful situation,* and so attained a state
of high prosperity. Emporifls, or Emporium, Ampun'as, was on the
small gulf which lies below the £. extremity of the Pyrenees and at
the mouth of the river Clodianus, which forms its port. It was the
natural landing-place from Gaul, and is said to have been colonized by
Phocscans^ of Massalia, who originally occupied a small island, and thence
passed over to the main land.

§ 14. The tribes at the foot of the Pyrenees from E. to W. were —
the Aniet&nit W. of the Indigetes and Lseaetani ; the Cattell∋ the
Cerretftai," in the upper valley of the Sicoris ; the Laoetftai, N. of
the Laletani, and not improbably but another form of the same
name ; the Jaooet&ni,' below the central portion of the chain ; the
Ilergctes, to the S., along the N. bank of the Ibenis, from the
Gallicus in the W. to the Sicoris in the E. ; and the Vasodnes,^ be-
tween the upper valley of the Iberus and the Pyrenees. ITie towns
of this district were generally unimportant : Ilerda, on the Sicoris,
the capital of the llergetes, PompSlo, the capital of the Vascones,
and Calagurris, also in their territory, on the Iberus, deserve notice
as important military positions.

Pompelo, Pamplona^ stood at the foot of the Pyrenees, in one of the
lateral valleys of the Ebro, and on one of the roads leading into Qallia.

* Aprica repetes Tarraconls littora. Mabt. i. 50.

* Tarruco, Campano tantum cessura Lyteo,

HcDC genoit Tuscis oemula vina cadis. Id. xiii. 118.

* £t Barcilonum anucna sedes ditium. Avieic. Or. Mhr. 520.
' Fhoeaieae dant Emporiro, dat Tarraco pabem. Sil. Ital. iii. 369.

* They were very famous for their hams : —

Coeretana mihl ftet vel missa licebit

De Menapis : lauti de petasone vorent. Mart. xiii. 54.

They are also noticed by Silius Italicus : —

Nee Cerrctani, quondam Tirynthia castm. iii. 357.

• The territory of the Jacoetani formed a part of the theatre of war in the con-
tests between Sertorius and Pompey, and between Julius Ceeear and Pompcy's
legates.

1 The name of the Vascones is preserved in that of the Basques ; they went to
battle bareheaded : —

Aut Vasco, insuetus galete. Sil. Ital. iiL 858.



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622



HI8PANIA.— TARRACONENSIS.



Book IV.



Calahorrat stood on a rooky hill' near the right bank of
the Ibenis : it is first noticed in the Celtiberian War, B.C. 186, but it
obtained a horrible celebrity afterwards for its resiiettanoe in the Serto-
rian War to Pompey's legate Afranius, when its defendem consomed
the flesh of their own wives and children.' It afterwards became a
muntctptum with the Civitoi Bomana ; it was sumamed Nassica, to
distinguish it from Calagurris Fibuloxia, LoarrCf N. of the Ebro. It
was the birth-place of the rhetorician Quinctilian. Ama, the capital of
the Ausetani, stood on a tributary of the Alba at Vique : and lower
down the river was their other town, Oemnda, Oerona, The only town
belonging to the Cerretani was JnUft Llbjea, near Pw'gcerda. Jasea,
the capital of the Jaccetani, is still named Jaca. Ilevdjt, Lerida, the

capital of the Ilergetai,
stood upon an eminence*
on the right bank of the Si*
cons, and from its position,
commanding the great road
from Tarraoo to the N.W.
of Spain, which here crossed
the Sicoris, it was a place
of great importance. Afra-
Coin of Ilcrda, # ^^ ^^ Petreius * occupied

it in the first year of the
Civil War, B.C. 49, and were besieged by Ceesar, whose succeenful opera-
tions have made Ilerda the Badajoz of antiquity : under the Romans

it became at first a flourishing place,
but afterwards fell into decay. • Otea,
Hue9ca, N.E. of Csesaraugusta, is
' iR'V\^ //yrr'^JI ^^^®^y known as the place where
' ^ Sertorius died: it was a Roman co-

lony, and had a mint, to which per-
haps the expression Argentum Otcente
Coin of Oflca. refers. CeLia, on the Iberus, was a

Roman colony, with the surname
Victrix Julia: the river was here crossed by a bridge, the ruins of
which remain at VeliUa.

§ 15. The tribes on the N. coast from E. to J^T. were the VardUi,





t hfiDrens scopolis Calagurris. Avsok. Ep. xxv. 57.

* Vaaoones, hsec funa est, alimentis talibiu dim
Produxere animas : sed res diversa, sed illic
Fortunflc invidia est, beUorumque ultima, casus

Extremi, longer dira obtddionis egestas. Jut. Sat. xv. 93.

* Its position is thus described by Lucan : —

Colle tumet modico, lenique excrerit in altum

Pingue solum tumulo : super hunc ftmdata vestusta

Surgit Ilerda manu : placidis pnelabitur undis

Hesperios inter Sicoris non ultimus amnes,

Baxeus ingcnti quern pons amplecUtur arctu iv. U.

Its rewtoteneu is the point in Horace's line : —

Aut fugies Uticam, aut vinctus mitteris Ilerdam. — Sp. i. SO, IS.

* Pottquam omnia ftitis
Ceesaris ire vides, celsam Petreius Ilerdam

Dcserit. Lrc. Iv. 148.



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Chap. XXIX. POPULATION. 623

W. of the Vascones, reaching from the upper Ebro to the S.E.
comer of the Bay of Biscay ; the Caiiiti* the Autrigineg, from the
upper valley of the Uhro to the sea-coast about the mouth of the
Nerva ; the Cant&bri,' an important tribe occupying the mountains
about the sources of the Ebro and the maritime district to the N.
of them ; they offered an obstinate resistance to the Romans, having
been first subjugated by Augustus in B.C. 25, and again by Agrippa
in 19 : the Basques are their genuine descendants : they were
divided into seven tribes, of which the Conc&ni were the most
notorious for their savage habits ; ' the Astfires, between the upper
Durius and the sea, in a coxmtry abounding in gold, and also famed
for a breed of horses, the small ambling jennet now named Asturco f
the N. part of their country (the modem Asturias) is the " Wales " of
Spain, and has always been the stronghold of Spanish independence ;
the people were a wild and warlike • race, and were defeated by the
Romans oq the banks of the Astura in b.c. 25 ; * the GallsBoi, or
CallaXei, who were divided into two great tribes, the Luoeiuei in the
N., from the coast in the neighbourhood of the river Navia to the
Minius ; and the Brao&ri in the S., from the Minius to the Durius,
a warlike but barbarous race, who imposed ordinary labour upon their
women ; the Bracari were subdued by Decimus Bmtus in b.c. 1 36 ;
the Lucenses yielded to Augustus along with the other northern
tribes ; lastly, the Art&lni in the extreme N.W. The towns along
the coast of the Bay of Biscay were unimportant, but in the interior
there were some places which were occupied as military stations by



« The name was sometiraes loosely applied to the inhabitants of all the moun-
tainous districts on the N. coast : e.g, in Juvenal, xv. 108, compared with 93.



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