Sir William Smith William Latham Bevan.

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Their hardihood and bravery are frequently noticed : —

Cantaber ante omnes, hiemisque SDstusque famisque

Invictus, palroamque ex omni ferre labore. Sil. Ital. iii. 326.

Septimi, Gades aditure mecum, et

Cantabrum indoctum Juga ferre nostra. Hon. Oarm. ii. 6, 1.

Quid bellicosus Cantaber. /<{. ii. 11, 1.

' Et Istum equino sanguine Concanum. Id. iii. 4, 34.

Nee qui Massageten monstrans feritate perentem

Comipedis (Usa satiaris, Concane, vena. Sil. Ital. iii. 360.

* Merserit Asturii scrutator pallidus auri. Luc. It. 298.
Hie brevis, ad numerum rapidos qui colligit ungues,

Venit ab anriferis gentlbus, Astur equus. Makt. xiv. 199.

• Exercitus Astur. Sil. Ital. i. 252.
BeUiger Asttir. Id. xU. 748.

• * Gold was abundant in their country : —
Astur avarus
Vist^ribus lacene tellurls mergitur imis,

Et r;dit infeUx effoso eoncolor auro. Sil. Ital. 1. 231.

Accipe Callaicis quidquid fodit Astur in arvis. Ma&t. x. 16.


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the Romans, and were thus raised to great prosperity : these are
still important towns, and retain, \dth but slight alteration, their
modem names : we may instance Asturica, Astorga, and Legio YII.
Gemina, Leorij in the country of the Astures, Lucus Augusti, Lttgo,
and Bracara Augusta, Braga, in the districts of the Lucenses and

Aitnrioa Augusta^ stood in a lateral valley of the N.W. mountains
of Asturia, on the upper course of one of the tributaries of the Astiira.
It obtained its surname probably after the Cantabrian War, and it
became the seat of a conventus. Pliny describes it as urhs mamifica^
and th e mo dem Astorga gives a perfect idea of a Roman fortified town.
L^o Vn. Gemina was admirably situated at the confluence of two
tributaries of the Astura, at the foot of the Asturian mountains. It
was the station of the new seventh legion which was raised by the
Emperor Galba in Spain, and which was named Qemina from its amal-
gamation by Vespasian with one of the German legions. Brigaatinm
was an important seaport town of the Callaici Lucenses, variously iden-
tified with El Ferrol and with Corunna. Lncus Augusti, Lugo, stood
on one of the upper branches of the Minius : it was originally the chief
town of a small tribe named the Capori, but imder the Romans it
became the seat of a conventus, and the capital of the Callaici Lucenses.
Brac&ra Augusta, Braga, stood between the Durius and Minius, near
the river NsDbis, and was the seat of a conventus: among its ruins are
the remains of an aqueduct and amphitheatre.

§ 16. Tribes of the interior from W. to E. : the VaocsBi, between
the Cantabri on the N. and the river Durius on the S. ; the
Celtibfiri,' a very important race occupying the whole central plateau
from the borders of Lusitania in the W. to the mountains that
bound the valley of the Ebro in the E. ; they were subdivided into
four tribes, of whom the AreT&c8B» in the N., were the most |)owerful,
while the PelendSnes lived more to the E., the BerSnes, between Idu-
beda and the Iberus, and the Lusdnes, about the sources of the Tagus ;
the CarpetSni or Carpesii,^ one of the most numerous and most
powerful in the whole peninsula, occupying the great valley of the
upper Tagus and the intervening district to the Anas in the S. ; and
the OretSni, more to the S., on the borders of Baetica. The only
famous to\N'n in this district was Numantia.

P ftllan t ift , Palencia, the capital of the Vaccaei, stood on a tributary
of the Durius. Cluda stood on the summit of an isolated hill sur-

* The Asturians attributed its foundation to Astur, son of Memnon :—

Anniger Eoi non felix Memnonis Astur. Sil. Ital. iii. 3S4. ,

* The origin of the name has been already referred to ; it Is thus expressed by
Lucan: —

Profugiquc a gente retosta
Gallonun Celta* miscentes nomen Iberis. ir. 9.

* Their name appears to be connected with that of Calpe and Carpessns, or
Tartessus ; they may, therefore, have onee stretched down to the Mediterranean


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Chap. XXIX. TOWNS. 625

rounded with rocks, somewhat N. of the Durius : it belonged to th6
Arevacse, and is desoribed by Pliny as CeUiberim finis: under the
Romans it became a colony, and the seat of a eonventus, IfTiinantift,.
the capital of the Arevacse, stood on a moderately hi^h but steep lull
near the Durius, and was accessible only from one side, in which
direction it was strongly defended:^ it was besieged and destroyed by
Scipio Africanus in B.C. 134: ' the ruins at Puenie de Don Ouarray are
supposed to mark its site. Bilbllis, Bambola, the second city of the
Celtiberi, stood on a rocky height overhanging the river Salo : ^ it was
the birthplace of the poet Martial. It was famed for its manufacture of
steel, the water of the Salo being remarkably adapted to tempering the
metal ; ^ gold was also found there.' Under the Romans it became a
mvmcipium, with the surname of Augusta. The neighbourhood was
for some time the scene of the war between Sertorius and Metellus.
Segobriga, the capital 'of the Celtiberi, lay S.W. of Csesaraugusta, near
Priego ; the surrounding district was celebrated for its talc. Contrebia,
one of the chief cities ot Celtibeiia, lay S.E. of Csssaraugusta, probably
near AXbarracin ; it was besieged by Sertorius, and held out for forty-
four days. TolStnm, Toledo^ the capital of the Carpetani, was situated
on the Tagus : it was a very strong town, and famed for its manufac-
ture of arms and steel- ware : there are numerous remains of Roman
antiquities, especially the ruins of a circus. CSaitttlo, Cadona, was on
the upper course ' of the Bietis, near the E. border of BsBtica: it was
the chief city of the Oretani, and one of the most important towns in
the S. of Spain, having very rich copper and lead mines ' in its neigh -

* Nolls longaferw bella Numantiie. Hor. Oaiin, ii. 12, 1.
* Hence named Numantinos : —

nie Numantina traxit ab orbe notam. Ov. FcuL L 506.

Afra Numantinos regna loqaimtar svos. Pbopebt. It. 11, 80.

^ Municipes, Augusta mihi quos BilbiUs acri
Monte creat, rapidiu quern Salo eingit aquis ;
Ecquid IcDta Jurat vestri tos gloria ratis !

Nam deoTu et nomen, famaque vestra tumns. — Mast. x. 108.
AltQin Bilbilin, et tuum Salonem
Quinto foraitan essedo videbis. In. x. 104.

* SsDTO Bilbilin optimam metallo,
Quee Tincit Chalybasque, Noriootque,
£t ferro Plateam suo sonantem,
Quom fluctu tenui, aed inquieto

Armorttm Salo iemperator ambit. In. ir. 55.

* Me mnltos repetita poet Decembree
Accepit mea, mstioumque fecit

Awo Bilbilis, et supfrha ferro. In. xii. 18.

1 The Tolley in which Castulo stood has some resemblance to that abore Delphi ;
hence the allusion in Silius Italicus : —

Fulget pnecipuis Pamaeia Castulo signis. ill. 891.

At contra Cirrh»i sanguis Imiloe
CastalU. iii* 97.

« These mines are stiU produetiTe ; the weU-known mine of Linaret, the pro-
perty of an English company, is near Castulo ; and perhaps the mine whence
Hannibal's wife drew her wealth is the one N. of Xtnares, named Lo9 Poxo9 dt



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bouriiood : Himiloe, the rich wife of Hannibal, was a native of Castulo.
In the Second Punic War it revolted fi'om the Carthaginians to the
Romans, and became the head-quarters of P. Scipio; it afterwards
returned to the Punic alliance, but was obliged to yield to Rome in 206 :
under the Romans it became a municipium with the Jus Laiinum,

Islands. — Off the E. coast of Spain lies an important group of islands,
consisting of the fialefiret,' or Gynmedn, and the Pityus. The former
contained two chief islands, named, from their respective sizes, Mijor,
Majorca, and lOnor, Minorca: the latter also contained two, Ebl&siis,
Iviza, and Ckdubniria, or OpMtlaa, Formeniera, The Baleares had
numerous excellent harbours, and were extremely fertile in all produce,
except wine and olive-oil. They were celebrated for their cattle, and
especially for the mules of the lesser island. Their chief mineral
product was the red earth named sinope. The inhabitants were &mou8
for their skill as slingers:* they were quiet 'and inoffensive. The
Carthaginians originally colonized these islands ; after the fall of
Carthage they were independent until B.C. 123, when they were sub-
dued by the Romans under Ciecilius Metellus. The chief towns of
Majorca were Palma, on the S.W., and FoUentia on the N.E. coast,
both of which still retain their names; and of Minorca, Jamna, Ciu-
dadela, on the W., and Mago, Port Mohan, on the E. coast, both of
them Phoenician colonics.

History^ — The earliest notices of Spain are connected with the com-
merce of the Phoenicians : the T^rians are described by Ezekiel as
trading to Tarshish for silver, iron, tin, and lead; and the extent to
which this commerce was carried is incidentally proved by the Biblical
expi;es8iou "ships of Tarshish," meaning lai^, seargoing merchant-
men. The Phcenicians settled chiefly on the S. coast and in Bsdtica,
but did not endeavour to found a dominion in Spain until B.C. 237, when
Hamilcar formed the design of establishing a new Carthaginian empire
there, partly as a counterpoise for the loss of Sicily and Sardinia,
and partly perhaps as an asylum for himself, should he be expelled
from Carthage. His plan was successful, and the rights of the Car-
thaginians were so far recognized by the Romans that a treaty waa
concluded with Hasdrubal in 228, by which the Iberus was fixed aa
the boundary between the two states, with a special stipulation in
favour of t^aguntum, as an ally of Rome. The infraction of this stipu-
lation led to the Second Punic "War, when the contest was transferred
by Scipio to Spain itself in 210, and the Carthaginians were wholly
expelled in 206. The subsequent progress of the Roman arms has beea
already traced in Chap. iv.

' Tbe name Balearea was derired by the Greeks from B<£AA«, hi refnenoe to
this dlutinguiBhing feature of the inhabitanta ; it is, however, deriTed tnm tbe
Phfcnician root Bal. The Greek name Gymnesiee may have reference to the
practice of slinging, as osoal among light-armed troops (-yv^nrrw).

* Stuppea torquentem Balearis rerbera ftindfl^. Vibo. Oeorp. L 309.
Kon secus exarsit, quam cum Balearica plumbum
Funda jacit. Or. Met. ii. 727.

Impiger et torto Balearis verbere ftindfo
Oclor. Lrc. i. 228.


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Temple at Nemausus, now called the Maiwn Carv^



§ 1. Boundaries. § 2. Mountains and riyers. § 3. Inhabitants. § 4.
Divisions. I. Aquitania. § 5. Boundaries ; rivers. § 6. Tribes ;
towns. II. Narbonensis. § 7. Boundaries ; rivers. § 8. Tribes ;
towns ; roads ; Hannibal's' march. III. Luodunensib. § 9.'
Boundaries; rivei-s. §10. Tribes; towns. IV. Beloica. §11.
Boundaries ; rivers. § 12. Tribes ; towns ; history.

§ 1. The boundaries of Gallia coincided with those of modem
France on tliree sides, viz. : on the N., W., and S. — ^the Mare Bri-
tannicum, the Atlantic, and the Mediterranean, with the Pyrenees,
forming the natural limits in these directions. On the £. there is a
considerable diflfereuce, as the ancient Gallia was carried forward to the
Uliine in its lower and middle course^ and thus included the greater
part of Switzerland,^ the Duchy of Luxemburg, Germany W. of the
Rhine, Belgium, and part of the Netherlands, The soil was fertile,
and the climate good : com, wine, and oil were produced in various
districts, and fmits of all kinds ripened. Cattle, pigs, and horses
were abundant, and of good quality. Iron, lead, silver, and even
gold, are enumerated among its mineral productions ; and its rock
salt and brine springs were well known.

^ The eastern pert of Switzerland was not in Gallia. The pfrovinoefl 8. of
the Ldk€ of Geneva and of the upper Bhone were not included among CaDsar's
Helretii, and most therefore have been regarded as a border country between
Gaul and Italy. In the extreme 8. the French border until recently coincided
with that of later Gallia, the Vanu being regarded as the limit : the addition of
Nice to France has once more reinsUted the maritime Alps as the boundary.

2 E 2


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Book IV.

Aameg. — Gallia proper was oommonly described as Tr aii ia lirfiia , and
occasionally as Ulterior, to distingaish it from the Italian Gallia. It was
also described as 6. Oomita,* from the fiishion of lettinji^ the hair grow,
which prevailed among idl the Gauls except the Narbonenses ; while
Narbonensis itself was named BnM&ta, from the braocm or '* breeches ?
worn in that part. The Greeks termed it originally Celtioe, then
Golatia, and finaUy Gallia.

Hketoh Map of the physical featares of GalUa and the political divisloiu in Cman^a time

§ 2. The chief mountain ranges of Gaul (exclusive of the Alpet, on
the borders of Italy, and the PyrenaiHtc on the borders of Spain)
are the Gehenna,' Cevennes, extending in a S. and S.W. direction
between the basins of the Khone on the E. and the Liger and
Ganunna on the W. ; Jua, Jura^ between the Rhone near Geneva

' £t nunc toofle Liger, quondam per ooUa decora
Crinibos eifUais toil pnelate Ooinat». Lvo. 1. 442.

* The Cepennet calminate in Mt. Mexene at a height of 5820 ft. When Cieiar
croMod this range the snow lay 6 ft. deep on the summit of the pass. Henoe
Lacan*8 description :

qua montibas ardna snmmis
Oens habitat eana pendentes rape Gehennas. i. 434.


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and the Rhine near Bade ; and Votigiu, or Yogistti/ VotgeSf running
parallel to the left bank of the Upper Rhine for above 170 miles. A
high wooded district between the Rhine and the Mosa, in the N.E. of
the country, was named Ardii«nna Silva,* the Ardennes. The most
important rivers of Ghdlia are the Shenns, on the borders of Ger-
mania, rising in the Alps, and flowing northwards into the German
Ocean ; the BbodSnnt, Rhoney rising in the same range, and flowing
southwards to the Mediterranean; the Oarimmai Oaronne^ in the
8. W., flowing into the Atlantic ; the Ligw, ZotVe, which traverses
an extensive district in central Gaul, having a circuitous course, first
towards the N., and then towards the W. into the Atlantic ; and
the Saqu&na, Seine, the chief river on the N. coast, flowing into the
Mare Britannicum.' Of the numerous lakes in Switzerland, only
the Laeos Lemannnst L, of Geneva, is spoken of by ancient writers :
the Yenetus Lacus, L, of Constance, was outside the limits of

§ 8. The inhabitants of Gallia belonged to various stocks : the
proper Galli, who supplied the bulk of the population, were Celts ;
in the S. W-., between the Garonne and the Pyrenees, were an Iberian
race, named Aquitani ; and in the N.E. were numerous Germanic
and semi-Germanic tribes. In addition to these, Greek settlers
occupied at an early period some spots on the S. coast; and at a
later period Romans were dispersed in great numbers over the whole
country. The Celts appear to have been divided into two great
branches— the Galli, whose name survives in the present Oael of
Scotland ; and the non-Gralli, corresponding to the modem * Cymry of
Wales. The latter class occupied the N. and N.W. districts, and
have preserved their language to the present day in Brittany : the
Belgas appear to have been substantially Cymry, but were in many
instances intermixed with Germans. The Gauls are described as a
fine, stalwart race, with &ir complexions, blue eyes, and light hair.
The prominent features in their character were desperate courage,
skill in war, fickle temper, and great ingenuity. When the Romans

* This form appear^ in Laesn : —

Castraque que Voged curvam super ardoa mpem
Pugnaces pictis oohibebant Lingonas armia. L 897.

* The extent of this tract is oter-estimated by Croaar [B, G. ri. 20), nnless the
present reading be (as is probable) a mistake of the copyists. The text states it
as 500 mile^ whereas the whole distance ttmn Cohlemtz to the German Ocean does
not exceed 300. The name \b probably significant of a ** forest," and reminds ns
of onr " Arden" in Warwickshire.

* These rirers exercised an important office as the commercial rontes of ancient
Gaul. The Rhone, the Arar or SaHnf, and the Sequana, formed the links in the
ehain of communication between the Mediterranean and the British Channel ; the
Rhone and the Liger between the MediterAmean and the Bay ^f Bitca^f; and
again the Atax and the Garumna in the S.W.


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first entered the country, their social and political conditicm were
low : dnmkenness and many barbarous practices prevailed : the poor
were in a state of servitude, and the nobles engaged in constant
feuds. Their religion was a form of Druidism. Great improvements
took place under the Romans: universities were established; the
Latin language and Roman law were introduced ; and the religion
was modified by an infusion of the Roman tenets. The towns were
beautified with temjdes and other puUic buildings, roads and aque-
ducts were formed, and the remains of these magnificent structures
prove, better than anything else, the advance of wealth and civiliza-
tion. Literature was cultivated, and the Gauls were noted for their
skill in rhetoric even as early as the days of Juvenid7

§ 4. llie first political division in Gaul dates firom the time that
the Romans entered the country, when they named their conquests
in the S.E. Provinelaf in contradistinction to the rest of Gaul, which
was independent. Gsesar divided Gallia (by which he means Gallia
excltmve cf Provincia) into three portions, corresponding to the main
elements in the population, viz. : Aquitaoiaf between the Garumna
and the Pyrenees ; Oaltloa, between Uie Garumna, the Atlantic, the
Sequana, and the limits of Provincia ; and Balgfea, betweoi the
Sequana and the Rhine. Augustus, who first organised the country,
modified these divisions by substituting the name of HarlMnsDsis for
that of Provincia, enlarging Aquitania by the addition of an
extensive district N. of the Garumna, and assigning the name of
Lugdunenflis to the remainder of Caesar's Celtica. These divisioiis
were retained until the 4th century a.d., when the whole was
re-arranged into 17 provinces, which were collectively described as
" Galliae et septem Provinciae," the former term including Lugdu-
nensis in four provinces, Belgica in five, and a part of Narbonensis,
bordering on the Alps, named Alpes Penninss ; the latter, induding
the remainder of Narbonensis in four, and Aquitania in three pro-
vinces. We shall adopt the division of Augustus in the following

L Aquitania.

§ 5. Aquitania was bounded on the W. by the Atlantic Ocean, <»i
the S. by the Pyrenees and the Mediterranean, on the E. by the
lower course of the Rhone and the Cevennes, and on the N. by the
Liger. This district contained within it the northern slopes of the
Pyrennl HtCi and the whole range of Cebeiuuw' The Hvots which

^ Nunc totns GrtUs noctraaqne habet orbi« Atbonan.
Gallia cauaidioM doooit/ortimto Britannos. — xv. 110.
* The name sonrires in the oorrupted form OMiwme: it hasbeen eo^Jeotond
that the original name tras derived fttHn the nnmeroos sprinifs (aqafls) in tbia
district ; but this etymology Is donbtfUl. The Romans nndoubtedly were aoqnainted


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Ml within it are — the Atttnu, Adour^ which rises in the Pyrenees
and enters the B. of Biscay near its S.E. comer ; the Chmmma.* which
rises in the Pyrenees, and flows towards the N.W., into a large
estuary of the B, of Biscay, receiving in its course as tributaries, ou
its right bank, the TarniB* Tarn, the Oltis, Lot, and the Dnraains,
Dordogne ; the Oaraatdnni, Charente, which joins the sea more to
the N., flowing through the country of the Santones ; and the liger,'
the border stream on the side of Lugdunensis, receiving on its left
bank as tributaries the El&yer, AUier, which joins it at Novioduniim,
and the Carif* C?ier, which joins it at Cassarodunum.

§ 6. The tribes * of Aquitania were the Tarbellif' along the coast in
the extreme S.W. ; ihe Oonytea^^ N. of the Pyrenees, on the upper
course of the Garumna ; the Ansel {Aiich), N. of the Convenae ; the
Elns&tes (Eause), N. of the Aturus ; the Vas&tes (Bazas), N. W. of
the Elusates ; the Bitnrlges yivisei, about the estuary of the Garumna ;
the P^trocorii (Perigord), N. of the Duranius ; the Hitiobrigeti ou
the middle course of the Gbirumna; the Oadnrei (Cahors), more to
the E., along the course of the Oltis ; the ButSni ^ (Rodez), extending
along the base of Gehenna, in the valleys of the Tamis and its tri-
butaries ; the OabUi {Javois), on the range of Gehenna, somewhat N.

with the mineral springs ; for we have notices of AqtUB TarbelUcs, Dar ; Aqufe
Oonvenamm, Bagniret in Comingns Aqnensis Vkms, Bagnires de Bigorre ; Aqufe
Calidfe, Vichy ; Aqn® BormOnis, BourhoMu4e$'Bains ; and AqtUB Sicce, perhaps

* The gender of Ganmma is dnbions. TibnUns (i. 7, 11) calls it "magnns
Oanunna;" bat Aosonius {MoseUa^ t. 483), "nqoorefe Garamnee.'* The tide
enters the Oaronne with great yiolenoe : —

Qnosqne rigat retro pemicior onda Gammnss,

Ooeani pleno qnotles impellitur »stu. Claxtd. in Bt^f. it. 113.

' The proper Greek form is Acfyi)p : hence the first rowel woold natnrally be
long. The Romans, however, made it short, as in the lines interpolated in Lncan
(i. 488) :— .

In nebolis, Mednana, tois marcere perosus
Andns jam plaoida Llgeris recreatar ab unda.
And in Tibollns : —

Testis Arar, Bhodannsqiie celer, magnusqne Gammna,

Camuti et flavi cserala lympha Liger. L 7, 11.

* The names of almost all the Gallic tribes correspond to the modem names
either of districts or towns— generally the latter -to which they were transferred
in the later Boman era. As these towns serve to identity the position of the
ancient tribes, we have added them in the text.

* They extended down to the Aturis and the Pyrenees : —

CUii tenet et ripas Ataifi, qoa littore cnrvo

MoUiter admiwnim claudit Tarbellious »qaor. Luc. i. 420.

Tarbella Pyrene
Testis, et ocean! littora SantonicL Tuvll. i. 7, 9.

* The Convenie were (as their name implies) a mixed race.

* Solvuntor flavi longa statione BatenL Luc. L 402.


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of the soviroefl of the Tamis ; the Armni* (Auvergne\ in the valley
of the Elaver and the adjacent highlands; the Bitoilget Ciibi {BowyesX
along the course of the Liger from the Elaver to the Caris ; the
LamofloM {Limoges^ to the W. of the Arvemi ; the Santgnai
{Saintes)y N. and E. of the estuary of the Garumna; and the
Ptetifaies, or Pieta^ {Poitiers\ along the left hank of the Liger. Of
the ahove-mentioned tribes only the Tarbelli, Convenes, Ausci,
Elusates, and Vasates, were proper Aqvitani, t.^. of the stock allied to
the Iberians. The others were Celtae, whom Augustus added to the
Aquitani when he extended the borders of the country from the
Grarumna to the Liger. Of the towns in Aquitania we know little
more than the names: Burdig&la, the and^it representative of
Bourdeauxy appears to have been the moat important: and the
Roman remains at Mediol&num, 8ainte$, and Xim5num, FoUiers^
prove them to have been large towns. It may be said generally that
ahnost every place of present importance was in existence in the
Roman era, the names in most instances corresponding to those of
the ancient tribes.'

Lngdllnum," the chief town of the Convenae and a Roman colony, stood
on an isolated hill by the Qarumna ; it is now named St. Bertrand de
Cominge. Elttsa,' the capital of the Elusates, stood at CivUat near
Eauee. BnrdigUa,^ Bordeaux, on the left baok of the Qarumna, was
the port of the Bituriges Yivisci, and a place of great commerce under
the empire : it became the metropolis of Aquitania II., and was also the
seat of an uniyersity. The only Roman building still existing is the
amphitheatre, called the Arines, now in a much shattered state.
Vsiimna, Perigueux, the capital of the I^trooorii, was on a branch of
the Duranius : the Roman remains are extensive, consisting of several
bridges, the ruins of an amphitheatre, and of the citadel, and a round
building named the Tour de Vesone, about 200 fb. in drcumferenoe ; there

' The Arreml elainied descent from tiie Tro»)ant : —

Arremiqae ansi Latio se fingere fratres

Sanguine ab Iliaoo populi. ' Lvc. i. 427.

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