Sir William Smith William Latham Bevan.

The student's manual of ancient geography online

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' Note ' above.

* The terminations of rery many of the OalUc names of towns -vrere sigdifl*
cant; e.g. -dunum «■ ««hill;** -durum (compare the Welsh dwr) «= "water;**
-rf^ttm=*"ford;" -ftona = "boraidary;" -Artra ^^ " bridge ;** -m<vt« «=" field."
These Celtic terminations were combined by the Romans with Latin prefixes in
many cases ; e.g. Angostobona, Juliomagns, &o.

• It is noticed by Clandian {in Mt^fin. 1. 1S7) : —

InTadit mnros Elostt, notissima dudum
Tecta petens.
1 The pronunciation of the name is decided by Ausonius, who was a native of
Burdigala, and describes the place at length in his Ordo Nobiliuin Urbium : —
Burdigala est natale solum, dementia cqdU
Mitis ubi et rigofle larga indulgentia teme. xiv. 8.

Diligo Burdigalam : Romam colo. Civis in hac sum,
Consul in ambabus. Cunse hie, ibi sella cnrulis. Jd, 89.


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Chap. XXX. TOWXS. 633

are several Roman camps about the town. DivSna,' Cahars, the capital
of the Oaduroi, stood on the Oltis: it was supplied with water by an
aqueduct about 19 miles in lenp^h, a magnificent work, some remains of
which are still extant : ruins of the baths and of the theatre have also
been discovered. Segodfbmm, Rodez, the capital of the Ruteni, was on
a tributarj of the Tarnis. Aiidezltlun, the capital of the Gkbali, has
been variously identified with Javol$ and Anterrieux, Oergovia, a town
of the Arvemi, was situated on a mountain, still named Oergoie, about
4 miles S. of Clermont, and W. of the Elaver ; in front of the town is a
lower hill named Pay de JumcU: this place was the scene of some im-
portant operations in the (Gallic War, when Vercingetorix was attacked
by Csesar: the former was encamped on the plateau of Qergovia ; the
Latter seized the Puy de Jussat, and brought it into communication with
his camp : he then assaulted Gergovia &x>m the S. side, and at the same
time diverted the enemy's attention by a feigned attack on the N.W. ;
the troops succeeded m getting on the plateau, but were afterwards
driven back. jLvgiutoiiemetam, Clermont^ the capital of the Arvemi,
was on the Elaver : the modem name is derived from the Clarua Mons
of the Middle Ages. AvarlcnsL, Bourges, the capital of the Bituriges
Cubi, stood on a branch of the Cans : its walls are particularly described
by CflBsar "B. O. vii. 23), by whom it was besieged and taken in B.C. 52.
Angnstorltam, Limoges, was the capital of the Lemo vices. MadioltaTiin,
SairUes, the capital of the Santones, stood on the Carantonus : the
remains still existing of an aqueduct and an amphitheatre prove it to
have been an important town : there is an arch in honour of Qerma-
nicus CsDsar, singularly placed in the middle of the Charente. UmSiaam,
Poitiers, the capital of the Pictones, was situated on a tributary of the
Vienne ; there are remains of a huge amphitheatre, capable of holding
20,000 persons ; the walls are 7 French feet thick.

n. Nabbokensis.

§ 7. Harbonensif,' or, as it was originally termed, Provinda, ex-
tended along the Mediterranean Sea from the Alps to the Pyrenees,
and inland to the Rhone on the N., and Ms. Cebenna on the W.
With the exception of the three chains already noticed as forming its
limits, there were no other momitains in this portion of Gallia. The
chief river was the Bhodftaiifi which enters the province at the Lacus
Lemannus, and runs first to the W., as far as Lugdunum, then S. to
the Mediterranean, where it forms a delta : it receives as tributaries,

' The name is derived by Ausonius ttova. di, "god^** and von, "water** : —

Divona Celtamm lingua, Pons addite DItIs. Clar, Vrb, {Burdig.) 32.
* Its limits are thus described by Ausonius : —

Insinuant qua se Sequonis Allobroges oris,

Cxoluduntque Italos Alpina cacumina fines ;

Qua Pyrenaicis niribus dirimuntur Iberi ;

Qua rapitur prteceps Rhodanas genitore Lemano,

Interiusque premunt Aqultanica rura Cebennte,

Usque in Tectosagos prinueTo nomine Volcas,

Totum Narbo Mu Ord, Nob. Urb. xHi. 4.

2 E 3


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on ite left bank, the lOra,^ Ish^, which rises in the Alps, and,
flowing by Gratianopolis, QrtnoUe, joins the main stream a little N.
of Valentia ; the Snlgai, Sorgue, which joins at Vindaliimi ; and the
SroMitlaf Durancey which rises in the Cottian Alps, and rushes down
with a violent course to the Rhone at Avenio. The other rivers
which flow into tlie Mediterranean are — the Yarns, Var, which in ite
lower course forms the boundary on the side of Italy ; the Araniis,
Herault, rising in the Gehenna, and entering the sea near Agatha ;
the Ataz,' Attagroi, or Harbo, Aude, rising in the Pyrenees, and
falling into the Sinus Qallicus to the E. of Narbo : and lastly the
Telis or BuKdno, Tet, near the border of Spain.

§ 8. The chief tribes from S.W. to N.E. were— the SardSnei, at
the foot of the Pyrenees and on the adjacent sea-coast ; the Voloa
divided into two branches, the Teotof&gM and the Arecomld* who
occupied the whole country between the Garonne and the Rhone,
the former W., the latter E. of the range of Gehenna ; the Salyw,
or Sallavii, E. of the Rhone from the Druentia to tiie Mediter-
ranean ; the CavarMt N. of the Druentia about Avenio ; the
Vooontii,' more to the E., at the foot of the Alps &om the Druentia
to the Isara ; and lastly, the AllobrSgei,' between the Rhone, the
Isara, and the Lake Leman, Narbonensis contained, as might be
inferred from its proximity to the Italian frontier, some of the most
important towns of Gaul. In the interior were Aquas Sexti«, the
first Roman colony in the country, Narbo, the earliest colony W. of
the Rhone, and the future capital of the province, Arelate, com-
manding the valley of the Rhone, Nemausus on the road between
Arelate and Narbo, and Vienna on the E. bank of the Rhone, S. of
Lugduniun. These towns were adorned with magnificent buildings,
some of which rank among the finest specimens of Roman architec-
ture. On the coast we meet with the old Greek colony of Massalia,
which attained a high pitch of commercial prosperity, and planted
several colonies along the coast ; and Forum Julii, a Roman colony,
and the chief naval station on this coast.

Clib&ii, Elne, was the nearest town to the Spanish frontier on the
coast-road from Narbo : Hannibal passed through it on his advance to
Italy. Busolno lay on the same route and on the river of the same name :

* Hannibal followed the course of this stream, " ijur," in JArj, zxi. SI, being
a corrupt reading for Isara. The insula of which he speaks was at the junction
of the rivers.

^ Mitis Atax Latias gaudet non ferre carinas,
Finis et Hesperiffi, promoto limite. Varus. Lvc. i. 403.

• Hannibal's route lay through their territory : —

Jam faciles campos, Jam rura Vooontia carpit. SiL. Ital. ili. 467.
7 iEmula nee virtus Capufls, nee Spartacus acer,

Novisque rebus infidelis Allobrox. Hon. ^pod, zvi. 5.


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Chap. XXX. TOWNS. 635

its name has been transformed into BouiiRoUt and the site of the town
is at Castd BouiiUon. TolQfa, Toulouse, a town of the Tectoaages, stood
on the right bank of the Ghsurumna : it was enriched with the gold and
silver found in the siirrounding district, and which was kept in ^e
temples as a sacred deposit. The plunder of these treasures by Caepio,
followed as it was bv his defeat bj the Cimbri, led to the proverb
"Aurum Tolosanum/' as a warning against sacrilege. It afterwards
became a colonia, and ^pears to have been a seat of art and literature.'
The important town of Karbo, or VarbOna, NarhonM^ which the Romans
elevated into the capital of the province, stood on the river Atax : it
belonged originally to the Volote Arecomici, and was first occupied
by a Roman colony in b.c. 118, and sumamed "Martius" or Marcius,
probably after a consul who was engaged in a contest with a Ligurian
tribe in that year. It was at all times an important commercial town,
the Atax being navigable up to it ; but its chief importance was due to
its position in reference to Spain and Aquitania. It was adorned with
public buildings," none of which are now in existence, though numerous
antiquities have been discovered. The adjacent coast was famous for
its oysters. B»t6R», B^iers,^ was on the Orbis, E. of Narbo, in the
midst of a wine-producing district: there are vestiges of an amphi-
theatre and of an aqueduct. KemAQSiii, Nimea, Hie chief town of the
VolcfB Arecomici, stood a little W. of the Rhone on the road between
Arelate and Narbo. The town was itself large, and contained twenty-
four villages in its territory. The remains of the old town are very fine :
the amphitheatre, which is tolerably perfect, was 437 feet in diameter,
and could hold 17,000 persons; the present height of the walls is 70 feet :
there is also a beautiful temple dedicated to M. Aurelius and L. Yems,
now used as a museum, and named Maiton Carrie, 76 feet long, and 40
wide, with 30 Corinthian fluted pillars. The feunous fountain, noticed by
Ausonius,' still exists, but the chief supply of water was obtained from
some springs near UzA, and conveyed by a splendid aqueduct: a portion

Aqueduct of Nemansus, now odled the Pont du Card.

* Hence Martial (iz. 100) terms it Palladia :~

Te sibi PalladiiD antetulit toga docta Toloss.

* Qaem puleherrima Jam redire Narbo. Mast. viii. 73.

> Festus Avieniui (589) ftimishes us with a link between the ancient and
modem names : —

Besaram stetisse fama casca tradidit.
* Non Aponus poto, vitrea non lace Nemausus
Pnrior. Ord, Nob, Urh. xiv. 33.


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of this work remaina acroas the Talley of Yardo, and is named ihePorU
du Oard: it has three tiers of arches; the lowest containing six arches,
the next eleven, and the upper one thirty-five; the total height is about
155 feet, and the length on the top about 870. AieUlte, Atiea, a town
of the &tlyes, was situated on the left bank of the Rhone at the point
where it bifurcates. It became a Roman colony in the time of
Augustus, with the surname of Sextani, and was a place of considerable
trade. It was improved by Constantine, and a new town* added on
the other bank of the river at TrinquetaiUe, The amphitheatre, of
which there are remains, was capable of holding 20,000 spectators : it
is not in so perfect a state as that of Nemausus. An ETgyptian obelisk
and some ancient tombs are the other most interesting monuments.
AqnsB Seztitt, Jtx, the first Roman colony^ planted in Qaul, B.c. 122,
stood about 18 Roman miles N. of Massilia. Its name indicates both
the presence of mineral waters, and that it was founded by Sextius
Calvinus. The great battle, in b.c. 102, between Marius and the
German tribes of the Cimbri and Teutones, was probably fought at
Meiragues, two leagues from Massilia, the modem name being a cor-
ruption of Marii Ager, Ifawirilift, or Ifaiwwilifti as the Greeks wrote it,
MarseiUeSf stood on a bay some distance E. of the mouUi of the Rhone,
in the midst of a rather sterile district.'* The accounts of its founda-
tion are somewhat conflicting, but they agi^ee in asserting that Pho-
cseans settled there about 600 b.c.^ It was built on rocky ground:
the harbour, named Lacydon, faced the S., and lay beneath a rock in
the form of a theatre. Both the harbour and city were well walled,
and the town was of considerable extent, but contained few buildings
worthy of notice except the Ephesium, or temple of Ephesian Artemis,
and the temple of Delphinian Apollo, both of which stood on the citadel.
Massalia became an ally of Rome in the Second Punic War, and was
aided by her, in B,c. 154, against the Ligurian tribes of the Oxybii and
Deceates. In b.c. 49, it sided with Pompey in the Civil War, and was
taken after a long siege by C. Trebonius, Caesar's legatus. The con-
stitution of the town was aristocratic, and its institutions weregenei^y
good. The habits of the people were simple and temperate : literature
and medicinal science were cultivated to a certain extent. Its com-
merce was extensive, and it planted colonies on the shores of Gaul
and Spain. Its prosperity declined aftei: the planting of a Roman
colony at Narbo. Fomm Jnlii, FrijuBt was the chief naval station of
the Romans, and held the same position which Totdon (the ancient
T«lo ICartiiifl) now holds on this coast. It lay considerably £. of
Massalia, at the bottom of a small bay, which was partly enclosed by

s It ifl hence termed by Ausonius duplex : it also reoeived the name of Con-
stantina : —

Pande, duplex Arelate, tuos, blanda hospita, portxis,

Oollula Roma Arelas : quam Narbo Martius, et quam

Accolit Alpinis opulenta Vienna oolonU. Ord, Clar. Vrh. viii. 1.

* It produced the vine : —

Cum tua centenos expugnet sportula cives,

Fumea Mossiliic ponere vina potes. Mart. xiii. 13S.

* Aristotle names Euscenus, and Plutarch Protos, as its founder. There is a
romantic story that one of these ttvo was chosen as husband by the daughter of
Nannud, king of the country, her choice being signified by the presentation of a
cup of water, or of wine and water.


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two moles : the entrance of the bay has been choked up by the deposits
of the river Argenteus, and the entrance to the port is now 3000 feet
from the sea. The place was probably named after Julius Csosar, but
it first became a station in the time of Augustus. It had various sur-
names, such as Classica, from its being the station of the fieet, and Octa-
vanorum, probably fr^m the 8th legion being settled there. It was the
birth-place of On. Agricola, and was further known for the manufacture
of the sauce named garum. A triumphal arch, the ruins of the amphi-
theatre, an old gateway, and parts of the aqueduct still remain.
AxLtip6)is, Antibes^ further £. on the coast, was a colony of Massalia,
and under the Ilomans a munieipium': it was rather famous for its
pickle : there are remains of a theatre and a few other buildings there.*
AyaniOy Avignony stood at the junction of the Druentia with the Rhone :
it was reputed a colony of Massalia. ArauiiOi Orange, was in the
territory of the Cavares, near the E. bank of Uie Rhone; it became a
oolony with the additional title of SecundanOrum. The Roman remains
are numerous, the most' remarkable being a triumphal arch, about
60 feet high, with three archways, inscribed ** Mario," but of a later
period than the Marius who defeated the Teutones ; and the remains of
an aqueduct near the town. EbrodflniinL, Enibrunt was situated on the
upper course of the Druentia imder the Cottian Alps : it became the
capital of Alpes Mmitimfe. Brigaatiiim, Briangon, was the first town
in Q&vii on the road from Segusio over Mont Qtnevre : at this point the
road branched off W. to the valley of the Isara, and S.W. to that of the
Druentia. l^snna, Vienne, lay on the £. bank of the Rhone, in the
country of the Allobroges. Under the Roman empire it became a
ooloma, and a great place, even rivalling Lugdunum.^ The foundationa
of the massive Roman walls, 20 feet thick, still remain; there are also
some arcades which probably served as the entrance to the thermse, a well
preserved temple of the Corinthian order, dedicated to Augustus and
Li via, now used as a museum, and the remains of an amphitheatre, and
of four large aqueducts, chiefly constructed under ground. Pilate is said
to have b^n banished to Vienna: an unfimshed pyramid on a quadran-
gular base, of a total height of 52 feet, is called, without any good
reason, "Pontius Pilate's Tomb."

Roman Roads. — The l^a Amelia was carried on under Augustus fr^m
Vada Sabbata in Li^uria to Arelate^ on the Rhone, passing through
Antipolis, Forum Juhi, and Aquse Sextise. From Arelate the chief line
of communication with Spain commenced, passing through Nemausus
and Narbo. A road sometimes named Via Bomitia ran along the £.
bank of the Rhone through Vienna to Lugdunum. From Vienna roads
led to the Alpis Graia, Little St, Bernard^ and to the Alpis Cottia,
Mont Oenevre.

< Antipolitani, fateor, sum filia thynni

Essem si scombri, non tlbi missa forem. Mabt. xiii. lOS.

f Its beauty is referred to by Martial, i^d its state of cnltore may be inferred
ttom the circumstance that both his own and Pliny's works were to be had at the
booksellers' shops there : —

Fertur habere meos, si vera est fiuna, llbelloe,

Inter delicias, pulehra Vienna, suae. In. TiL 88.

It was also famous for its wine : —

Hieo de ritlfera veni se pioata Vienna

Ne dubites : mislt Romulus ipse mihl. Id. xiii. 107.


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Book IV.


The Pftsses of the Alps, to Illustrate Hannibal's Route.

KannxbcXn March. — The route pursued by Hannibal in hia celebrated
expedition from Spain to Italy, lay wholly through the portion of Gaul
we have been describing. He entered it by the E. extremity of the
Pyrenees, and thenoe followed the coast-road by Ruscino, Narbo, and
Nemausus, reaching the Rhone a little above Avenio. Having crossed
the river, he followed up the left bank to the Isara, and thenoe along
the latter stream to the point where it emerges from the lower ridges
of the Alps near Orenoble. From this point his route is unoertain :
according to some authorities he pursued the route marked I. in the
accompanying plan, which follows the Isara, and crosses the LitHe St,
Bernard into the valley of ^osta^ and thenoe down to Turin: according
to others he pursued route II., which follows the Arc over Ml. CenU,
and thence straight down to 8iua and Tiurin: lastly, he may have
pursued route III., following the Romanche by Boura d'Oytans and
across ML Chnhre. The objections to route I. are its length, and the
fact that the valley of the Dora was occupied by a verv warlike tribe,
the Salassi, who would not have permitted Hannibal s army to pas«
unopposed. Between II. and III. there is not much to choose : but the
latter was probably the one: at all events the Mont Oenevre route was
the more frequented route in the Roman period; it was probably the
one explored by Pompey in B.C. 77, and was certainly followed by
Caesar m his expedition against the Helvetians. The two stations Ad
Martis and Brigantio are the modem Otdx and Brianfon.

Many of the villages on the road to St. Bernard derive their namee
from the Roman miles measured from Vienna, as SepUme (7), Oyiier (8),
and Diimoz (10).


§ 9. Lngdnnaniis was separated from Aquitania on the S.W. by
the Liger, and from Narbonensis on the S.£. by the Bhodanus : on


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the E., where it was contiguons to Belgica, there was no natural
boundary, but the limit between them would be coincident with a
. line leaving the Rhine near its great bend at Bade^ and striking
across to the British Channel at the point where the 50th parallel
falls on it. The mountain range of Jura lies wholly in Lugdunensis,
and the chief rivers are the border streams of the liger and the
Bhodanus, the former of which receives on its right bank at Julio-
magus the MeduAoa, Mayenney while the latter has an important
tributary in the Arar, Saone^* which rises in Vosegus, and flows
with a slow current to the S., receiving the Bubii* Doubs^ on its left
bank, and joining the main stream' at Lugdunum. We have
further to notice the Seqn&na, /Seine, which rises in the high lands
S. of LangreSy and flows to the N.W. into the British Channel : it
receives on its right bank the Xatrfina, Mame, and the Ii&ra, Owe,
with its tributary the AxSna, Aime ; and on its left bank the
Zoaunus, YonnCy which is known to us only from inscriptions.

§ 10. The nations occupying Lugdunensis from S.E. to N.W.
were — the Segnsiini, between the Liger and the Rhodanus, and, in
Caosar's time at all events, in the angle formed by the Rhodanus
and the Arar; the .fidui, between the Liger and the Arar; the
Idngdnei,^ Langres^ about the sources of the Mame and Seine, N.'of
the iEdui ; the Bendneit Sens, N.W. of the ^dui to the Sequana
near Paris; the Camfltei,^ Chartres, between the Sequana below
Paris, and the Liger, and even beyond the Liger to the Elaver;
the Aulerei, between the Sequana in its lower course and the Liger,
divided into two great branches, the Eborovloei,' Evrettx, in the N.,
and the Genomftni, Mans, in the S. ; the Vanmitef, Nantes, on the
right bank of the Liger near its mouth ; the Amioilei,^ a general
name for the maritime tribes between the mouths of the Liger and
of the Sequana, of which the most important were the VenSti,

^ The modem name is derired from Saacona, which appears to have been the
true Gallic name of the river.

* Qua Rhodanus raptom velocibus undis

Ifi mare fert Ararim. Luc. i. 483.

1 The Lingones are described as a warlike race by Lucan : —
Castraque quae Yogesi ourvam super ardua rupem
Pugnaces i^tis oohibebant Lingonas armlt. i. 397.

> They are noticed by Tibullus (i. 7, 22) under the form of Camuti :—
Camuti et llavi cierula lympha liger.

* In Caesar {JB.G, iii. 17) the text has Eburones instead of Eburoviccs. The
reading in vii. 75, *' Brannovii,'* as a branch of the Aulerei, is probably an
interpolation ; the Brannovioei noticed in the same passage must have been a
distinct tribe, as they lived 8. of the iBdui; the SiabUlitef, N.W. of the
Oenomani, are noticed as a branch of the Aulcrci by Ptolemy.

* The name Armorica is derived ftom the Celtic words ar, ** on," and mor, '


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VanneSf on the coast W. of the Namnetes, a sea-faring race, who
carried on trade with Britain, and who, from the character of their
coast, hroken up hy numerous promontories or Ungfdce surrounded
with shallow water, enjoyed great security ; the Otismii, in the ex-
tremity of Bretagne; and the ITnellii in t^e peninsula of Cotantin,
Lugdunensis contained comparatively few towns of importance :
Lugdunum, the capital of the proVince, stood opposite the point of
junction of the Bhone with the Arar. Augustodunum, near the
Liger, is i»oyed, by its extensive remains, to have been a fine
town ; and the position of Gen&bum, in command of the passage
across the Liger, rendered it a valuable military station. The
modem capital of Frcmce is represented by Lutetia, which appears
to have been a small place, but valuable from its safe position on
an island in the Seine, whence either bank was accessible to its

The Roman colonv of LugdfliLiim was planted by L. Munatius Plancus
in B.C. 43, and peopled with the inhabitants of Vienna. It stood on the
right bank of the Arar on the slope of a hill named Fourvi^. The
modem town of Lyon$ originallv occupied the same site, that portion of
the city which lies between the two rivers Arar and Rhone being a
modem addition. The position of Lugdunum, as a place of trade
and a central spot of communication, seciu^ to it a large amount of
prosperity. It was destroyed by fire in Seneca's time, and restox^ed
by the Emperor Nero. It was again burnt by the soldiers of Septimius
Severus in a.d. 197. Between the two rivers stood the Ara Augusti,*
dedicated to the emperor by the sixty states of Gaul, each of which was
represented by a figure. A church was planted at Lugdunum at an
early period, which suffered a furious pei'secution in the time of Marcus
Aurelius in a.d. 172 or 177 : Irenseiis was one of its bishops. The
Roman remains are small : there are traces of a theatre on the Place cies
Minimes, and of a camp on the W. side of the 8a6ne : some of the
arches of the great aqueduct (50 miles long) are preserved at Cham-
ponost : there were two other aqueducts of great length. Cabilld&imi,
Chdlon, was a town of the iEdui on the Arar: the Romans kept a fleet
of some kind there, and it appears to have been a place of conunerdal
importance. Bibraete, or, as it was afterwards called, Au^pxitodllniiiii.
whence the modem AutuUt was the chief town of the JBdui, and stood
on a tributary of the Liger: it was the chief place of education for the
noble youths of Gaul, and was altogether a verv important town. Near
it Ceesar defeated the Helvetii in a pitched oattle: it was seized by
Sacrovir in a.d. 21, was taken by Tetricus in the time of Gdlienus, and
is said to have been destroyed by Attila. The Roman remains at
Autun are numerous, oonsisting of the circuit of the walls, with two of
the main entrances, Porte d'Arroux, 50 feet high and 60 broad, and
Porte 8L Andri^ 60 feet high and 40 broad, the rums of a theatre, traces

Online LibrarySir William Smith William Latham BevanThe student's manual of ancient geography → online text (page 73 of 82)