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of an amphitheatre with a naumachia near it supplied by an aqueduct
from three large ponds outside the town, and the remains of a magni-
ficent temple of Janus : the names 3fon^ (Mens Jovis) and Chaumar

* Aot Lngdanenaem rhetor dictoms ad arain. Jvr. i. 44.


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(Campus Maitius) are vestiges of the Roman era. Aleda, AUMj a town
of the Mandubii, was situated on a lofbj hill between the streams Loxe
and Lozerairit tributaries of the Yonne. It was here that the Gauls,
under Yercingetorix, made their final stand in b.c. 52. Agendlenm, SenSf
was the chief town of the Senones, and under the later Roman empire
became the capital of Lugdunensis IV. Lntetia, Parts, the capital of
the Parisii, stood on the Sequana, and was originally confined to an
island forming a portion of La Cit€ (derived from dviim), the original
isle having been increased since the Roman period, by the addition of
two other small islands. It was never a large place imder the Romans,
though it may have occupied some ground on one or both of the banks
of the river, with which the island was connected by bridges. The
place was threatened by Labienus, in B.C. 52, without effect. Julian
spent a winter, and was proclaimed Augustus there, a.d. 358. Some
sculptured stones, and a portion of a subterranean aqueduct, are th^
only Roman remains. Sotom&gos, which was afterwards contracted
into Rotomimi, and this into Rwien, was the chief town of the Velio-
casses on the Sequana.^ C^en&bQm, or, as it was afterwards called,
Anreli&ni, and hence 0rl4ans, was an emporium of the Camutes on the
Liger : it was the focus of the great insurrection in B.C. 52, and was
taken and destroyed by Csssar : its later name is supposed to have been
given after the Emperor Aurelian, in whose reign the walls, of which
there are some traces, may have been built. OeMarodllniim, Tourt, the
chief town of the Turones (whence the modem name), was on the S.
bank of the Liger. Jnliom&gns, the capital of the Andecavi, from
whom its modem name Angen comes, was on the Meduana^ a short
distance above its junction with the Liger.

Islands* — Off the coast of Lugdunensis were two groups of islands —
VenetitosB Luralse, off the W. coast, of which Tindllis, Belle-Isle, is the
largest ; and Cssaria, Jerseyi, Saniia, Guernsey, and BidfLna, Aldemey,
off the N. coast.

IV. — ^Beloioa.

§ 11. Belgioa was bounded on the W. by the rivers Sequana and
Matrona ; on the N. by the Fretum Gallicum, Straits of Dover^ and
the German Ocean ; on the E. by the Rhine ; and on the S. by the
Rhone and the Alps. The mountain ranges of Jura, Vosegut, and
the Pennine Alps, fall within these limits, together with the fol-
lowing rivers — the border stream of the Bhenvs, which rises on the
W, side of Ms. Adula, passes through the Laciis VenStus, L. of
Constance^ in its upper course, receives as tributaries on its left
bank, the Hava, Ndhe^ at Bingium, Bingen^ and the Mosella,* MoseUe^

* The MoselU is nndoubtedly noticed in Cssar {B. O, It. 15) in the words «ad
confluentem Moam et Rheni." Whether the rircr was called Mosa as well as
Mosella, or whether there is a mistake of the author or his copyists, is uncertain.
The bonks of the Moselle presented very much the same appearance in the
4th century a.o. as at present, heing well clad with vines : —
Qua sublimis apex longo super ardua tractu
Et rupee et aprica Jugi, flexusque sinusque
YJtibus adsurgunt naturalique theatro. Avsok. Idyl, x. 154.



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Book IV.

at Gonfluentes, CcblentZf and finally discharged its waters throogb
two main streams,^ of which the western, uniting with the Mosa,
received the name of ValUUis, Waal, while the eastern retained the
name of the original stream ; the Mota, Meuse or Maaa^ which rise^
about 48"* N. lat., and flows towards the N., receiving, as above
noticed, a branch of the Rliine, before its discharge ; the Sealdis,
Schdde, more to the W., which is described by Cassar {B. G, vi. 33)
as flowing into the Mosa ; and, lastly, the Bam&ra, Somme^ which
falls into the Fretum Grallicum in the W. part of the province.

§ 12. The most important tribes^ were located in the following
manner — the Hilvetii,' in the plains of Switzerland^ between Jura
on the W., the Rhone on the S., and the Rhine on th^ N. and E. ;
they were divided into four pagi^ or cantons, of which two are named,
viz. : Urbigenus, or Verbigenus, which is supposed to have reached

Its dieerAxl wsptel is notioed : —

Hand aliter plaeida rabter yada Ueta Mosellso

Detegit admixtos non oono(^or herba lapillos. — Avson. It^l. x. 7S.

^ Pliny notices, in addition to the two already specified, a third,
Flevnm, which flowed towards the N. into the lakes {Zmder Zee), This was
probably identical with the artificial channel, FOMa DfOiiina, of which Tacitus
q)eak8 {Aim. ii. 6). Ptolemy notices three outlets, all of them N. ot the Mosa.
In the midst of these somewhat conflicting statements it is clear that the Rhine
Proper, which deviates from the Waal at Pannerden and enters the sea near
Leyden, was the boondary between Gaul and Germany.

* The ethnology of Bclgica is inToIved in considerable difflcnlty: generally
speaking it will be found that the divisions of this province represent the two
main elements of the population, i.e, that the tribes in the two Oermani® were
Germans, and those in the two Bdgics were Belgians. But it must be remarked
that many of the tribes on the border of Bclgica irere to a certain exteiit Germans.
We may instance the Menapii, Nervii, and Treverl.

* The Helvetii come prominently forward in the history of Ceesar's wars in

B.C. 6ft. They formed the
plan of migrating in a body
from their own territory
into the heart of Gallia.
C»sar prevented them firom
entering Pxovinda by throw-
ing up a wall, probably of
earth, 19 miles long and
16 feet high, marked ▲ a in
the accompanying plan,
along the 8. bank of the
Rhone (1) firem the point
(4) where it issues from
L. Leman (S) across the
Arve (3) to where the Mi.
aux Vachea (6) presses the
8. side of the river. The
Helvetii were compelled
therefore to go through the
pass of Fort V Solute on the
N. side, and thus to follow

the right bank of the Rhone to the Arar. They were met by Cnsar and utterly
defeated near Bibraote, and only 1 10,000 returned home out of 300,000.

Map showing the posiiion ofCoisar's Munis.


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from Salodumm, Soloihumf as far as Aquas HelveticsB, Baderiy near
the Aar ; and Tiguiinus more to the S., between L. Marat on the N.,
Jura on the W., and the L. of Geneva on the S., its limits on the
E. not being known ; the other two pagi are not named^ but may
have been the TugSni, between L. Zurich and L. of Cofistanz, and the
Ambrones to the S. of the two first ; the BanTanli along the Rhine
in the neighbourhood of Bdsh ; the Seqii&iii,^ between the upper Arar
in the W., Jura in the E., and the Rhone, near Geneva, in the S. ;
the Leuei,' in the valley of the Upper Moselle ; the Bsmi, Rheima^
between the Mame and the Meuee ; the German tribes of the Tr£boooi>
ITamStes, and Vangifines,' along the Upper Rhine ; the Meitomatrfcl,
MetZf N. of the Leuci on the course of the Moeelle^ and at one time
reaching E. to the Rhine, but subsequently restricted to the W. of
the Voeges by the German immigrants ; the Treriri^ or Treveii,
Treves^ on the Lower MoseUe, from the Meuse in the W. to £he
Rhine in the E., though their position on the course of the latter
river is by no means well defined ; the UMi, a German tribe, who
in Caesar's time lived E. of the Rhine opposite the Treveri, but in
the time of Augustus crossed the river and occupied a district
between the Treveri and the Gugemi, in the middle of which stood
Coioffne ; the Ongenii to the N. ; the Batavi,' a branch of the Ohatti
who left their country and settled, before Caesar's time, in the island
(Batavorum insula) formed by the two great branches of the Rhine
on the N. and S. and the sea on the W. ; the Menapii, in Caesar's
time, on both sides of the Rhine, and along the coast as far W. as
the Morini (the German tribes of the ITsipStei and TenothSrl crossed
the Rhine and settled in their territory) ; the ITenrii ' on the right

> The Sequani appear to hare been skilfU weavers : —
Hano tibi Sequanics plngnem textrids alomnam,

Qos LacedaDmoniam barbara nomen habet ;
Sordida, eed gelido non aspemanda Decembri

Dona, peregrinam mittimus endromida. Mart. ir. 19.

' The Lend and Rem! are noticed by Lnean as skilfbl spearmen : —

Optimos ezensso Lenoos Rhemusque laoerto. i. 424.

* £t qui te laxis imitantur, Sarmata, braocis

Vangiones. Luc. 1. 480.

* Tu quoqae, lietatas conyerti pnelia, Trerir. Id. L 441.

* The Batari are described as a fierce race, of large sixe, with light or red
hair: —

Batarique truces, quos »re recunro

Stridentes acuere tube. Lvc. 1.4^.
Hie petit Euphraten juvenis domitique Batari

Custodes aquilas, armis industrius. Jvr. riii. 51.

Sum flguU lusus, rt(/8 persona BatavL Mart. xir. 176.

Jam puer auHeomo praformidate Batavo. Sil. Ital. iiL 608.

• The NervU oflSnred a most determined resistance to the Bomaxis : they were


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644 ■ GALLIA,— BELGICA. Book IV.

bank of the upper Scaldis ; the Morini ^ along the sea-coast from the
mouth of the Soaldis in the E. to the territory of the Ambiani in
the W. ; the BaUoriei, Beauvais, between the upper Samara and the
Sequana, reputed the first of the Belgio tribes in numbers and
influence ; and the Caliti, Caux^ on the sea-coast E. of the Sequana.
The towns of Belgica rose to importance at a comparatively late
date, llie dangers that threatened the Roman empire on the aide of
Germany necessitated a number of garrisons along the coiurse of
the Rhine, commencing with Argentoratum, and extending down to
Lugdunum Batavorum, between which points we have Mogonti&cum,
Bingium, Bouna, Colonia Agripplna, Ajsciburgium, Castra Yetdra,
and other less important towns. Augusta Trevirorum, on the
Mosella, was the finest town in this part of the country, and the
general residence of the Roman Emperors in their visits to northern
Gaul. Divodurum, on the same river, and Durocort^rum, on a
branch of the Isara, are also proved by their remains to have been
important and fine cities.

Ck>lonia EquMtris Hoyiodunimi, Nycn, was in the country of the
Helvetii on the L. of Geneva : the name of Eq^cttre is said still to
attach to the neighbourhood of Nyon, ATOitXeiim, Avem^ie*, the
capital of the Helvetii, stood N.E. of Geneva: it became a Roman
colony with the name Fia Flavia Constans Emerita : there are remains
of its amphitheatre and aqueduct, and part of its wall. Salodflnun,
Bdoihum^ was another town of the Helvetii, of which some ancient
remains are still extant. VJndonissa, Windiach, near the Aar^ was a
oonaiderable place, and the station of the 2l8t Legion in a.j>. 71 : theiB
are traces of an amphitheatre, and various other Roman remains on its
site. Augusta BauraoOnuiif Augtt, 6 miles £. of Bade, wasthe chief
town of the Rauraci : a Roman colony was planted there in the time of
Augustus by L. Munatius Plancus. Vesonlao, Beeanfon, the chief town
of the Sequani, stood on the Dubis, Dovhs^ a tributary of the Arar :
the position of the town is correctly described by Csesar as being on a
peninsula surrounded by the Dubis ; but he is wrong in stating the
width of the neck of land which connects it with the adjacent country
as 600 Roman feet, its width really being 1500. Vesontio sufiered
severely from the Alemanni, Huns, and others ; a triumphal arch and
a part of the aqueduct are all the remains of the old town. TuUumf
TouLt was the chief city of the Leud. Catalauni, or, as the name is
otherwise given, Burooatalaumm, Ch^hne-eur-Mame^ in the territory of
the Remi, was famous for the defeat of Attila and his Huns by the
Roman Aetius in a.d. 451 : the name implies a people as well as a town«
Dnroeortfirnm, Beimsy was the capital of the Remi, and the centre where

CQt up by Gicsar on the banks of the Sabis in b.c 57 ; they revolted in 54, and
were again defeated by C»8ar in 53.

— — -^ nimiumqae rebellis

Nerrias, et Cfcsi pollutos sanguine Cottao. tvc i. 438.

' Their name, ftom tnoTt " the sea,** bespeaks a Celtic origin : they ai« notioed
by Yirgil as the m<Mt distant of the Continental nations : —

JSztremique hominum Morini. ^n, viii. 737.


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Chap. XXX. TOWNS. 645

numerous roads met ; it also possessed a school of rhetoric : it contained
numerous Roman edifices, of which a triumphal arch with three
gateways and eight Corinthian colunms, and some traces of the.Thermso,
are the only remains. Bivodflnun, Meiz, probably derived its name
from being situated at the junction (diro = **two**) of thp Moselle and
SeiXle : it was the chief town of the Mediomatrici, and became from its
position an important place. In a.d. 70, 4000 of its inhabitants were
massacred by the soldiers of Vitellius : it was destroyed by the Huns in
the fifth century. The town was supplied with water by a magnificent
aqueduct six French leagues in length ; of this, five arches remain on
the left bank of the Moselle, and seventeen on its right bank at Jouy,
one of which is 64 feet high. Argentor&tam, afterwards Stratisburgium,
whence its modem name Strasburgy was the chief town of the Tribocci
on the Rhine. The Romans had a manufactory of arms, and Julian
defeated the Alemanni there. Hoviom&giis, Speier, lower down the
course of the Rhine, was the capital of the Nemetes. MogontUUmm,
MainZy on the Rhine, was a municipium, and Ib noted as the spot where
a monument was erected in honour of Drusus, father of Germanicus.
Bingiimi, Bingen, at the junction of the Nava and the Rhine, was a
Roman station, and is noticed by Tacitus in connection with the war of
Civilis. Augusta Trevi r gn u n, Trier or Treves, was a Roman colony,
planted probably by Augustus, on the right bank of the MoseUe : it was
connected with the other side of the river by a bridge, and it appears to
have been walled from the time of its erection. Ausonius places
Treviri fourth in his list of "nobilee urbes:" it appears to have been
the regular imperial residence in this part of QbuI in the fourth century.
It was one of the sixty cities taken by the Franks and the Alemanni
after the death of Aurelian, and recovered by Probus. Constantine the
Great frequently resided there, and restored the place, and Eumenius
the rhetorician speaks of the great circus, the basilicse, the forum, and
the walls, as the works of that emperor. The piers of the bridge, the
remains of the amphitheatre, and a gigantic gate — a quadrangulfu* con-
st motion, 115 feet long, 91 high, and 67 deep — are the most striking
Roman monuments. Bonna, Bonn, was a town of the Ubii, on the
Rhine : it was here that Drusus made his bridge of boats across the
river in B.C. 12 or 11. It became a military station of the Roman
legions, which were attacked here in a.d. 70, by the Batavi and Cannine-
fates. It was probably taken by the Alemanni, as the walls were
repaired by Julian in a.d. 359. Colonia Agrippiiia, Cologne on the
left bank of the Rhine, was originally called Oppidum Ubiomm, as being
the chief town of the Ubii : the change of name ¥ras effected, in a.d. 51,
by Claudius, at the request of his wife Agrippina, who was bom there,
and at the same time a colonv of veterans was planted there. The
town was well situated at the chief place of transit between the E. and
W. sides of the Rhine, and the inhabitants soon became enriched with
the tolls they levied on the merchandize that crossed there, as well
as probably on that which passed down the river. It became the chief
town of Germania Secunda, and enjoyed the Jus Ilalicum. Aulus
Vitellius was proclaimed emperor by the soldiers in a d. 69, and Trajan
assumed the imperial insignia there in 98. The place was taken by the
Franks, but recovered by Julian about a.d. 356. The Roman remains
consist of a gateway, the Pfaffen-porte, supposed to be the Porta
Claudia, and portions of the walls, with numerous antiquities : the name
Cologne is a modification of Colonia. Aidbiirgiiim, Asburg, on the
lower Rhine, was a Roman station in a.d. 70. Caitra Vetm, Xanten,


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Book IV.

was an importaDt^Boman station on an elevation near the Bhine, formed
in the time of AuguBtns : Civilis blockaded and captured some Bomap
legions there in a.o. 70. Lngdllniuii Batavdmm, Leyden, was the chief
town in the Batavitm isle : the name itself is Celtic, and leads to the
inference that the Celts had oooupied this district before the entrance
of the Batavi. GMorUUnun or ''^'■^ifi Boulogne, was the chief port of
the Morini, .and the place whence Claudius crossed into Britain : it is
described by Pliny as Portus Morinorum Britannicus, and the distance
across (probably to Butupiee) is estimated by him at 50 M. p. : there are
no Boman remains at Boulogne. The Itins P«nrtiii, whence Cieear sailed
certainly in his second expedition, and probably in his first, is more to
the E. at Wissant, where there is no port strictly speaking, but a wide,
sheltered, sandy bay : the Ulterior Portiis of which he speaks would
thus be Sangatte, CafteUum, Cussd, near Dunkerqutj was a Boman
station, as also was Tamenna, T^rouetme^ both in the territory of the
Morini. temarohrlva, Amiens, a town of the Ambiani, was situated (as
its name implies) on the Samara. Angufta BnftmriXnmn, the capital of
the Suessiones, is the present Soieions; and JnliobSna, the capitu of the
Caleti, is LtUehormef where are the remains of a theatre, and tombs,
together with other antiquities.

History. — The history of Gallia oommences with the settlement of
Massalia by the Phoceeans of Asia Minor, about b c. 600, who introduced
the vme, and taught the Galli the use of letters. We hear little of the
country until the time that the Bomans entered it in 125, as allies
of the Massaliots against the Salyes. In this and the two following
years the Salyes were attacked, and finally subdued ; and in 122 the
colony of Aqus Sextise was planted. The gradual progress of the
Boman arms has been alreadv traoed,^ and need not be repeated here.
After the completion of C888ar^s conquests, various colonies were planted
throughout the country, but no regular government was introduced
until B.C. 27, when Augustus established the fourfold division to which
we have referred.

* Sec pp. 52, 53.

Coin of NemaasuB.


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Uemains of Romt&p Wall.


Britannic^ iNsuLiE. Germania.

I. BRiTANNiciE Insula. § 1. Names and diviBioDs of the islands.
§ 2. Rivers, &c. of Britannia Roiuana. § 3. Climate and produc-
tions. § 4. Inhabitants. § 5. Roman divisions ; towns ; roads ;
walls; history. § 6. Britannia Barbara. § 7. Hibernia. II. Geb-
MANIA. § 8. Boundaries and general description. § 9. Mountains;
rivers. § 10. Tribes ; towns ; history.

I. BRiTANiCiB Insula.

§ 1. The term BritaanioaB Intnla was employed by Greek writers
to describe the whole group of the British Isles, but more espe-
cially the two largest of them, Qreat Britain and Ireland, Subse-
quently to the time of Cffisar these two were distinguished, the
former as Britannia,* or Albion,' the latter as Hibernia, or leme. At

* The Greeks generally wrote the name BpcrraF^, ^th a doable t ; the Latins
used the single t. Lucretius alone lengthens the % in the line —

Nam quid Brltannis coolum dlfferre putamus. ri. 1105.

The origin of the name is not known ; it is usually referred to the Celtic britf
" painted."

s This name is generally regarded as derived from aMtu, in reference to the
** white " clifb on the S. coast. It is more probably connected with the Celtic
Alhan, signifying •• height.'*


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a later period Britannia was applied to England as distinguished
from Scotland. The position of the group in relation to the con-
tinent of Europe, and particularly to Gaul, was well known- to the
later Romans ; • very inaccurate views, however, prevailed, even
down to the time of Ptolemy, as to the form and relative positions
of the islands themselves. The seas which surround them are — the
Mare Britannicum on the S., the Mare Germanicum on the E., the
Oceanus Atlanticus on the W., and the Mare Cronium or Pigrum
on the N. Britannia itself was divided into two portions, Fiw*^?*^
and Barbara, corresponding generally to the modem England and
ScoUandy though Romana was sometimes carried into Scotland as
far as the Firths of Forth and Clyde, and was sometimes restricted
to Hadrian's Wall. As the latter appears to have been the proper
boundary of the Roman province, we shall regard it as the limit of
Britannia Romana in the following pages.

§ 2. The names of the physical features of Britannia Romana are
known to us, partly from the writings of Caesar and Tacitus, and
partly from the description of Ptolemy. The notices of the two
former writers are few, but are the only ones that possess any his-
torical interest : Caesar mentions the Prom. Cantinm, North Foreland,
and the river Tamtsia, Thames ; and Tacitus the river Sabifna, Severn,
and the Antona, for which we should probably read Aufima, Avon.
The description in Ptolemy is sufficiently full, but consists of names
alone without any associations. These are valuable, as proving the
identity* of the modem and ancient names, and occasionally as
affording indications of the ancient British language* We give them

* The remoteness of Britain is noticed by Tlrgil and Horace : —

£t penitos toto dirisoe orbe Britannos. Vnto. £cL i. 67.

Serves itorum Cfesarem in ultimos

Orbis Britannos. Hor. Carm, i. 35, S9.

Pestemque, a populo, principe Cesare, In »

Persas atqne Britannos

Vestra motus aget prece. Id, L 31, 14.

Te bellnosos, qui remotis

Obstrepit, Oceanos, Britannis. Id. iv. 14, 47.

* The identity is not indeed nniTersal, but it holds good in many instances
where there is an apparent discrepancy ; s.^. Idumania and BlaekwQter probably
have the same meaning, the latter being a translation of the former: Oorr^
hnenos is radically the same as Tare; while Itona, Solwap JVrfA, no donbt baa
reference to the Eden^ which flows into it. The orthography of the classical nanne^
is very doubtfUl : we have, for instance, three forms for the ancient name of the
ThatMSt viz., Tamesis in Cieear, Tamesa in Dion Cassias and Tacitus, and lanMoa
in Ptolemy, the latter being probably an error of a copyist. 8o also of the tribes ;
0. p.f Trinobantes and Trinoantes, Damnonii and Dnmnonii, Demetss and DimetB,
fto. And so still more of the towns ; «. g., Camatodonnm and Camnlodumna,
Verolamium and Vemlamiam, Lngnvallum, LugaTaUinm, and Lngobalnm, Ike
We deem it unnecessary to specify all these rariations in the text.


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therefore in brief, taking a survey of the coasts, beginning \vitli
the N.E.

(I.) On tJie E. coast iJitwa— Vedra, Wear; AhuM, Huniber ; Oar-
rlmenuj, Yare; Stnriiu, Stour ; Idnmania, Blachioater ; andTamdsa,
ThameB. Egtuaries and Bays.—Jhmxua Sinns, Dumley Bay, near
Whitby; Gabrantniodnuii Sin., FiUy Bay; Met&ris .Sstaariiun, the
Wash ; and TaxnSsa 2st., the mouth of the Thames. Promontories. —
Ooellom, Flamhoro Head; and Oantliim, North Fordand.

(2.) On the S. coast. Bivers. — ^Trisanton, probably the Arwi; Alau-
nns, perhaps the Axe; Ii&ca, Face; and Tam&ms, Tamar, Promon-
tories. — Danmoniiun or Ooriniun, the Lizard ; and Antiyestaenm or Bo-
lerinm, Land's End.

(3.) On the W. coast, i^ivers.— Sabrina, Severn; Bhatoftathybinsr
Taff; Tobiiis, Towey ; TnerSbis, Teify; Stnda, Dovey; and ToM^bii,
Conway, Estuaries. ~SB.hrlnak JBst,, Bristol Cliannd; Seteia 2st,
mouth of the Bee ; Belisama JEst, mouth of the RihUe ; Moricambe
£8t., Morecambe Bay ; and ItlUiafst., Solicay Firth. Promontories. —
HerciUis Prom., Hartland Point; Oetapit&nim, 8t. David's Head; and
Cangandmm Prom., Braich-y-PwU.

§ 3* The climate and productions of Britain are described by
several writers. The former is characterised as humid and foggy,
but otherwise temperate. A large amount of the country was
covered with forests and morasses, which rendered it more moist
than it now is. The soil was regarded as fertile : in Ciesar's time a

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