Sir William Smith William Latham Bevan.

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very small portion of it was cultivated, but in the later times of the
Empire a large amount of com was exported for the use of the
Roman troops in Germany.* The greater part of the island was
given up to pasture, and the native British lived mostly on the
produce of their flocks and herds. The country was rich in mi-
nerals : the tin-mines of Cornwall were probably worked by the
Phoenicians from a very early period,' and led to the application of
the name Cassiterides to the S.W. coast and the SciUy Isles. In
addition to this we have notices of lead, iron, silver, and even gold.'
The dogs® of Britain were 'particularly prized, and the oysters of
Rutupifie' were well known at Rome. Pearls were found in con-

^ About A.D. 360 Julian had 600 vesseU built for the express purpose of im-
porting corn to the provinces bordering on the Rhino.

• This however has been denied by many modem writers, as no Phoenician
coins have been found nor any other eTidenoe of their having settled in Britain.
It has been supposed that the tin was carried across Gaul to Massilia and other
Greek colonies, and then sold to the Phoenician merchants.

' Specimens of these metals, as produced by the Romans, are still in existence.
Blocks of tin are rare; those of lead are more common, and bear inscriptions
giving the name of the emperor in whose reign they were smelted. A square
ingot of silver has also been found with a Latin inscription ; and there are un-
doubted proofs that the Romans crushed quartz for gold in the neighbourhood of
lAampeter in Wales.

• They are noticed by Claudian as a very powerftil breed :—

Magnaque taurorum flracturtD colla Brltannoe. — De Laud. Ital. ill. 301.
• — — - Rutupinove edita fundo

Ostrea. Jcv. ir. 141.



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siderable nnmbers, but of poor quality. We have also evidence that
there were abundance of sheep, pigs, goats, deer, oxen, and horses
on the island.i^ The seas about the shores of Britain were reputed
to abound with a kind of whale.'

§ 4. The inhabitants of Britannia Romana were Celts of the
C'ymry branch, and are described as siinilar to the Gauls in person
and manners. They had attained but a low degree of civilisation
at the time the Romans becnrae acquainted with them : their cloth-
ing was made of skins, and they were in the habit of staining and
tattooing their bodies.' They were warlike,^ and fought without
4irmour, but were acquainted with the use of the war-chariot.
They were divided into numerous tribes, which lived independently
of each other under their own chieftains. ITieir religion was
Dniidism, and the priests exercised considerable influence in the
state, as the depositaries of learning and the administrators of
justice. Their towns were little else than stockaded villages. The
introduction of Roman civilisation effected without doubt a consi-
derable improvement in their condition, though we have not much
information on this subject It appears, however, that they acquired
the art of coining money. The chief memorials of the ancient
British people consist of " cromlechs," barrows, and circles of stones,
all of which are ccnmected with their sepulchres, camps, traces of
villages, and above all the mysterious construction at Stoiiehenge,
The articles discovered in the sepulchres consist chiefly of urns,
sometimes rudely ornamented, and instruments of stone and bronze,
such as " celts " or chisels, arrow-heads, and the heads of axes and

'^ Proofs of the existence of these animals are fouiid in the Roman mbhlsh-plts,
where their bones exist in great quantities, showing that they were largely eaten.
From this source we learn that there was a very large breed of oxen then in the
island, described by naturalists as bo$ longifront.

1 Quanto delphinis baliona Britannica mi^or. Jrv. x. 14.

Mluoaut qui remotis

Obstrepit Oceanus remotis. Hob. Cbrm. iv. H, 47.

* This custom is frequently noticed by the Latin poeu : —
Claudia ettruleu cum sit Rufina Britannia
Edita. Maet. xi. 58.

Barbara de pietis'reni bascauda Britannis. Id. xir. 99.

Nunc etiam m/ectos dcmens imitare Britannos,

Ludis et extemo Uneia nitore caput. Pbopbbt. iL 14, 25.

Sed Scythiam, Cilioasque feros, vir idtt que Britannoe. — Or. Aw^. ii. IS, S9.
* Vlsam Britannoe hospitibus feros. Hob. Carm. iii. 4, SS.

Qua nee tcrribiles Cimbri nee Bri tones unqtiam
SauromatiBve truces aut immanes Agath}Tsi. Jit. xt. 124.

Galllcum Rhenum, horribilesque ulti-

mosque Britannos. Catvll. xL 1 1.


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The native tribes of Britain were arranged as follows : — (1.) 8, of
tlie Thamea— the Cantii in Kent ; the lUgni in Surrey and Sussex. ; the
BelgSB in WiUsy HanU, and SomerseUhire ; the Burotrigei in Dorset-
shire; the Atrebatii in Berks ; and the Daomonil in Devon and Cornwall.
(2.) Between the Thames, the Severn, and the Humher — the Trino>
bantet in Middlesex, Essex, and the 8. of Suffolk; the DobUni in
Oxfordshire and Gloucestershire, with the Catuell&ni as a subdivision ;
the Catyenohlfini in Nortliamptonshire, Beds, Hunts, and Builand ; the
Cenimagni in the N. of Suffolk ; the loSni in Norfolk ; the Corit&ni in
Lincolnshire and Leicestershire ; and the Ck)ma7ii in Cheshire and parts
of Staffordshire and Shropshire. (3.) W. of the Severn — the lUliires in
Monmouthshire and the E. of S. Wales ; the DimStaB in the three W.
counties of 8. Wales ; and the Ordovioet in Shropshire and N. Wales.
(4.) Between the ff umber and Hadrian's Wall — the Brigaates, with
the Setantii as a subordinate tnbe on the banks of the Bibhle, and the
Pariiii just N. of the Humher. The position of the Oangi, noticed by
Tacitus, is quite uncertain.

§ 5. The Romans first entered Britain in B.C. 55, under Ca-sar ;
but they did not permanently occupy it until about one hundred years
later, when Claudras subdued the tribes S. of the Thames (a.d. 43).
lliat emperor constituted Britain a province under the government
of a consular legatus and a procurator. It remained in this state
until A.D. 197, when it was divided into two provinces, Superior and
Inferior, the latter being in the S., each under a separate Praeses.
It was subsequently, probably under Constantine, subdivided into
four provinces named as follows : Britannia Prima, S. of the TJiames ;
Brit. Seonnda, W. of the Seveim ; Maxima CeMariensis, between the
Thames and the Humher ; and Flavia CaBsariensis, N. of the Humher.
Our information with regard to the political and social state of Bri-
tain under the Romans is unfortunately scanty : the sources whence
it is derived may be classed under three heads,— (1) historical do-
cuments ; (2) itineraries and geographers, particularly Ptolemy ;
(3) existing remains. 1. From the first of these sources we learn
somewhat of the topography of the country and of the ix)litical
status of the towns ; the classical writers notice the capital Londi-
nium, London, Camalodunum, Colchester, the first Roman colony,
Verulamium, St, Alban^s, the capital of Cassivelaunus, and Ru-
tupi», Bichboroughf the chief port for communication with the con-
tinent ; later writers (Dio Cassius, Eutropius, &c.) notice Eborftcum,
Tarkf the great station of the Romans in the later period of their
occupancy : and a very much later authority, Richard of Cirencester,*
who, however, probably drew his information from original sources,

* Richard of Cirencester flourished in the 14th century. Among other works
be ocxpposed a treatise, ** De Sitn BrltannisB," which was not known to the world
until 1747, when it was discovered by Dr. Bertram of Copenhagen. The mann-
•CTii»t has been lost, and it is doubtful whether Bertram has given his author with
fidelity. There tseems, however, to bd^no doubt that Richard of Cirencester's
treatise contained local information not found in the Itineraries.

2 F 2


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infonns ns that there were in Britain 2 municipiOj viz., Verula-
mium and Eboracum ; 9 colonioe, viz., Londinium, Camalodonum,
Rutupiae, Bichborough, Aquae Solis, BatJi^ Isca, CaerUon, Deva,
Chester y GleviuQ[i, Gloucester, Lindum, Lincoln^ and Camborfcmn,
Cambridge; 10 cities Lotto jure donatce, of which we may notice
Durobrivae, Castor, Luguballinm, Carlide, and Corinium, Ciren-
cester ; and 12 stipendiarice, of which we may notice Venta Bel-
garum, Winchester, Segontimn, Carnarvon, Maridunum, Car^
marthen, Batae, Leicester, Cantiopolis, Canterbury, Durinum,
Dorchester, Isca, Exeter, and Durobrivae, Bochester, 2. From the
Itineraries we obtain information with regard t^ the roads con-
structed by the Romans, and the numerous towns which lined
them. No less than fifteen routes are given in the Itinerary of Anto-
nine, and eighteen in that of Richard of Cirencester, lliese routes de-
monstrate how completely the Romans had opened up the country, and
how great was the communication carried on between the different
districts. Ptolemy also mentions numerous towns. 3. From the
third source of information we obtain a vivid idea of the extent to
which the country was Romanised, and the high pitch of wealth and
refinement that prevailed throujgh all parts. We learn, for instance,
from this source, that the towns were inclosed within strong walls * —
that every one of any size possessed its basilica or court-house, and
its public baths— that ma^ificent temples were erected ' — ^that
many of them had amphitiieatres' — and that all were furnished
with large cemeteries outside the walls. We further learn that
villas were dispersed all over the land, and that in the southern
counties they were almost as numerous as gentlemen's seats in the
present day — that these villas were of vast extent* and of great
magnificence, furnished with " hypocausts ** for the purpose of
warming the rooms, and with baths, and adorned with painted walls
and mosaic floors with elaborate designs. We fuirther learn that the
Romans carried on extensive manufactories of pottery • and of
iron,*® and that, as we have previously poticed, they worked and
smelted other metals. We further learn that there was the usual
amount of refinement in matters of personal appearanoie : among the

^ Specimena of Roman walls and gates are- found at 2iichborotiffhj Bmrgh in
Suffolk, Lymnct ForAf, Lincoln^ CTiiehester, Pevmaey, and other places.

• We know of the existence of a temple of Minerva at Bath^ a temple of Neptone
and Minerva at Chiche»tw, and a temple of Minerva at Cocciom, Mibehetter,

' As Atlhrehstiert OireticeHer^ Caerleot^ Richborought Colchester, and SUchsst^.
" The most perfect remains of villas are found at Bignor in Suuex^ and at
Wooichester in Gloueetterahire,

* Remains of potteries have been found at Vpchureh IfartkM on the Medwa^,
and at CaUtor in Northamptonshire.

** The Fbrest <tf Dean was the main seat of the iron-works : the heaps of aeoris
may still be seen there in vast numbers. -Iron also appears to have been made is
the Weald of Sussex.


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Chap. XXXI. TOWNS. 653

articles which have been discovered, si-ejihulce or buckles, bone and
bronze hair-pins, metal specula or looking-glasses, gold torques or
collars, bracelets, needles, atyli or pens, spoons, &c. Lastly, the
vast number of coins which are discovered amid Roman ruins, ex-
tending over the whole period of their occupation of the country,
afifordfl no slight indication of the extent to which Roman * influence
prevailed in the transactions of daily life. From this brief review of
the state of Britain under the Romans we now revert to the notices
of the towns. '

Towns. — LondiniiiTn, the capital of Homan Britain, originally stood
wholly on the N. side of the Thames ; but in the time of Haihian and
Antoninus Pius it had extended to the S. bank (where SouOitoark now
stands), and is hence described by Ptolemy as a town of the Cantii. It
is first noticed bv Tacitus, who speaks of it as a place of great trade ;
it was plundered by the Britons at the time of Boadicea's revolt. It
bore at a later date the surname of Augusta, and became the ter-
minus of the great roads of Britain. The remains that have been dis-
covered, show the extent and magnificence of the town. The walls
enclosed the same circuit as those of mediaeval London ; they were 12
feet thick, and were furnished with at least seven gates. Numerous
tesselated pavements and fragments of statuary and sculpture have
been discovered at depths varying from 1 2 to 20 feet below the present
level of the soil. There was a mmt at London, the coins strucx in it
belonging chiefly to Carausiiui, All«fctu8, and Constantinus. Vemla-
mium, Old Verulam, near St. Alhan's^ was probably the residence of
Cassivelaunus, which was taken by Csesar : it was afterwards the capital
of a prince named Tasciovanus, some of whose coins still exist : it was
plundered at the time of Boadicea's revolt. It subsequently became a
municipium^ and one of the chief Roman stations in the island. The
abbey church o{ St. Albans is built to a great extent of Roman tiles
taken from the old town. Camalodflnimi was the chief town in the
country of the Trinobantes. It was the residence of Prince Cunobe-
linus in the reign of Tiberius, and was taken by Claudius in a.d. 43,
and couverted into a Roman colony under the name of Col. Camalodu-
neusis Yictricensis. Tacitus {Ann. xii. 32, 33) states that this was
done for the repression of the Silures ; but this is clearly erroneous.
He also informs us (Ann. xiv. 31, 32) that it possessed a temple of Clau-
dius, a curia, and a theatre. It was taken and destroyed by the Britons
before Boadicea's revolt. Some doubt exists as to whether it is to be
identified with McUdon or Coloftester : the general opinion is that the
Roman Colonia and Camalodunum were the same place, in which case
it would be Colchester, where a vast number of Roman remains have been

> It is important to obeerve that the Romans of Britain were not oil of them
Italians. With regard to the ciTillans, indeed, we know little or nothing ; but the
legionary troops who were stationed in the island were drawn from the most
remote and widely-separated districts. There were, for instance, Gauls stationed
at Lymne ; Spaniards at Anderida, Fevensey ; Dalmatians at Branodunnm, Bran-
cMter ; Thracians at Gabrosentum, Dmrnburght and Dacians at Amboglanna,
Birdonoaid. These nations introduced various kinds of religious worship ; and
hence we find altars not only of Jupiter and the other Roman gods, but of deities
whose names even are iinknown to us.


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discov^^. Venta, the capital of the loeni, and hence surnamed loend^
mm, to distmguish it from the other towns of the tame name, pro*
bably stood at CaistoTj a little S. of Norwich. lindnm was an im-
portant town in the district of the Coritani, and a colony, as its modem
name Lincoln, from ** Linili colonia," implies. The Roman remains are
very important* and consist of a gateway, named Newport, still in nse;
a sewer, a wall now known as the "Mint Wall," numerous inscriptionsy
coins, &c. Ebor&eiixn, York, was situated in the country of the Bri-
gantes, and became from its northerly position the chief military station
of the Romans in the later period of their residence in the island. It
was the station of the 6th Legion, surnamed Vidrix, The emperors
Severus and Constantius Chlorus died there ; and Constantine the
Oreat is said (but on insufficient authority) to hare been bom there.
The foundations of the old Roman walls on three sides have been disco-
vered, together with the remains of one of the gates, probably the Prse-
torian, facing the N. The town appears to have been of rectangular
form, 650 yards long by 550 broad, and to have been protected by a
wall, with a rampart on the inside and a fosse on the outside. Outside
these limits were suburbs of considerable extent. The remains of pri-
vate dwellings, baths, tesselated pavements, and votive tablets, parti-
cularly two to Serapis and Mithras, are very numerous. LugoyaUiini,
Carlisle, appears to have been an important place, though the notices
of it are very scanty. It stood near the W. extremity of Hadrian's
wall, and on one of the roads leading into Caledonia. Dera, Cheiter,^
was so named from the river on which it was built. It was an im-
portant military station, and the head-quarters of the 20th Legion,
surnamed Valeria Victrix. The Roman remains are numerous; con-
sisting of the foundations of the walls, a postem now called Slapgaie,
altars, and baths, statues, particularly one of Mithras with a Phrygian
bonnet, vases, &c. Vriooiiiiim, Wroxeter, was situated on the main
road between Deva and Londinium, and in the t«'rritory of the Cor-
navii. The explorations which have been made here prove that it
was a very important town. The buildings as yet discovered consist
of a basilica, ihermm, a forum, and numerous other objects. Isea,
Caerleony in the countiy of the Silures, was an important military post
for keeping that nation in order, and was at one time the station of the
2nd Legion, surnamed Amjutta. Numerous antiquities have been dis-
covered there, particularly an amphitheatre, the remains of a Roman
villa, with specimens of Samiau ware and bronze ornaments, tesselated
pavements, and inscriptions. In the same neighbourhood stood Venta,
surnamed Silurnm, Caervjent, where are traces of the Roman walls.
OoriBinm, or Dnrocomovium,^ Cirencester, was centrally situated at the

* In many inrtances, where the ancient differ Tram the modem namen, the
{6rmeT still exist in reference to other o)]t|ect8 ; e.g. we may compare Dera with the
river Dee; Uriconium with the mountain Wrekin; Segontium with the river
Seioni ; and laea with the Uisk. In other cases the andent names are modified
hy the addition of the word eastra in difl^rent fbrms.' The Saxons tamed this
into Chester or eest€r, and the Danes Into castor or eattier, wliile the British wed
the form coh- or ear as a prefix. Hence we have the names 04ou-e99t«r as
equivalent to *' Olevi castra,** Dtm-^saster to DanH cattra, OmrH$U to Caatra Logo-
valli, Catr-i^n to Castra Legionis, Ourmarthtn to Cwtra Maridoai ; and in sone
instances we have simply Castra, as in Cketttr and OaUfUtr.

* The prefix Ihtro, which appears in ntonerous instances, is eqaivatent to the
"Welsh d%or, ♦* water," and expresses the position of the town hy a river. The twe


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Chap. XXXI. TOWNS — EOADS. 655

junction of three Roman roads, and in the midat of a well-occupied
district. Many villas have been discovered in and about the towui and *
it appears to have been one of the most fashionable towns of Homau
Britain. Aqnn Solii, Bath, was the favourite watering- place of the
Rouviuia. ** 8olia " may be a corruption of '' Sulis/* a British goddess,
whose name appears on an altar found there. Remains of the baths
and of a temple of Minerva have been discovered there, together with
inscriptions which prove that it was much frequented. Dnrnovazia,
Dorchester^ was one of the chief towns on the S. coast : the walls have
been traced, and an amphitheatre is still in existence. Venta Belgftmnif
Winchester, and SorliiodflBiim were the chief towns of the Belgse ; the
walls of the latter have been traced at Old 8arwm near Salisbury, and
numerous coins have been found there. OaUera, the chief town of the
Atrebates, is represented by Silehester, where walls three miles in circuit
mark the site of the old town. Finally, in Kent we have to notice
JhirobriTtt, Rochester, where coins, fibutsB, and pottery have been found ;
DnroTemum, (Canterbury ; Btgnlbiimi, BectUter, a fort, of which some
walls still exist, commanding the entrance of the channel that separated
the isle of Thanet from the mainland ; Smtqpitt, Biehboroughf its port
being named Portus Rutupensis (Trutulenais in Tac. Agrio. 88) ; it was
evidently a town of great magnificence ; portions of its walls still exist
to the height of between 20 and 30 feet, as well as the foundations of
its amphitheatre, and a vast number of smaller objects, such as fibulas,
pottery, coins, &c. ; we have already noticed Rutupise as the chief port
for the Continental traffic; there were also ports at Dnbirii, Dover,
where is a tower supposed to have been a lignthouse ; and at Portus
LemaaiSy Lymne, where one of the gates has been discovered as well as
the old walls : both Dover and Lymne were stations for the marines
{CUusiarii Britannid),

Roads, — The Roman roads were constructed in a most substantial
manner, and may still be traced in many parts of the country. The
most remarkable feature about them is the undeviating directness of
their course. The original names have not come down to us, with the
exception perhans of the Via Julia along the coast of 5. Wale$: in
their place, we have the names given to some of them by the Saxons.
Five main routes traversed the country in various directions, as
follows : — 1. Watling Street, from Rutupisd through Durobrivse to Lon-
dinium (where the name is still applied to an important street), and
thence by Verulamlum, Venonso, High Cross in Leicestershire, and
Etooetum, WaU in Staffordshire, to Uriconium, where it divided, one
branch going through Wales to Segontium, Carnarvon, while another
went northwards to Deva and Mancunium, Manchester, whence it was
carried on by Caractonium, Catterich, to Cortospitum, Corbridge on the
Tyne, and thence into ScoUand. 2. Ermine Street, or the great north
road, which appears to have started from Anderida, Pevensey, on the S.
coast, and passed through Londinium, by Durolipons, Godmanchester
in Huntingdonshire, Durobriv©, Castor, and Causennas, Ancaster, to

farms Corininm and Doro-cornorium differ mainly through the addition of the
prefix in the latter case, and the same root lies at the bottom both of these and of
the modem dren-eetUr, all of them haring reference to the river Churn. So
again DnrobriTic and Boehe$ter may be identified by the rejection of the prefix
Duro in the ancient, and the affix ehester in the modem names, the connecting
links between the remaining— briVAB and Bo — being found In the forms " Civitas
MoW," snd the Saxtm JTro/f-ceaster.


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Lindum, whence it waa continued in one direction to the Huniber, in
another to Dauum, Donoaster, and Eboracum. 3. IkniM Strtet^ from
Venta Icenorum by Caiuboricum, Cambridaet Sorbiodunnm, and laca
Damnoniorum, Exeter, to the extremity of Cornwall, 4. Fotse Way,
from Lindum in a S.W. direction by Ratae, Leicester j Corinium, Aques
Solis, and Ischalis, llehester, to Moridunum, probably SeaJUm near Ho-
niton. 5. Ryknidd Street, from Hadrian's ynll near Tynemoulh, in a
S.W. direction to Glevum, Oloueeeter, and thence along the coast of
S. Wales by Nidum« Neath, to Maridunum, Ckirmarthen, Important
roads also led from Londinium to the eastern counties by Ciesaro-
magus, Chdmsford, to Camalodunum and Venta Icenorum ; and again
to the W. by a route which crossed the Thames at Pontes, Staines, and
thence by Callera and Spinee, Speen in Berks, to Corinium in one di-
rection, and Aquse Soils in another : from the latter place it was con-
tinued across the Bristol CJiannel (where the old Roman name for the
passage, August! Trajectus, is still preserved in the form Aust) to Venta
Silururo, Burrium, IJsk, Gk>bannium, Abergavenny, Luentinum, in Cor-
diganshire, and thence in a line parallel to the coast to Conovium,
Conway : this road is now called Sam Helen in Wales.

Roman WaUs, — Among the monuments which survive to tell of the
presence of the Romans, none are more striking than the lines of de-
fence erected by them on the N. frontier. The first in point of time
was erected by Agricola in A.D. 81, between the Firths of Clyde and
Forth, and consisted of a chain of forts, of which there are said to have
been nineteen in all, though the sites of onl^ thirteen Rave been disco-
vered. This line of defence was completed m a.d. 144, by the addition
of a rampart and ditch, constructed by LoUius Urbicus, the lieutenant
of Antoninus Pius, and named, after the emperor, Yalliun AlLtoiiiiiL
It began near Old Kirkpatrick on the Clyde and terminated between
Abercom and Borrowstoness on the Forth: its course can still be
traced in some parts. Another and more important line of defence
was erected between the Tyne and Solway Firth, consisting of a wall
of stone, and a vallum or rampart of earth running parallel to it on

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