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the S. side, with an interval of space between the two generally of 60
to 70 yards, but sometimes as much as half a mile, and sometimes only
a few yards. It has been generally assumed that the two lines were
erected at different periods, the Vallum by Hadrian in a.d. 120, and
the wall by Severus in 208-211. It is, however, far more probable
that they were both ereot^ by Hadrian, and were subsequently re-
paired by Severus. The wall was pi-obably from 18 to 20 feet high,
and from 6 to 9^ feet thick. It was protected on the outside by a
fosse, in some places 40 feet wide and 20 deep. Between the wall and
the rampart were stations at intervals of four miles, eighteen of them on
the wall, the others on either side of it. These stations enclosed areas of
frx>m three to six acres, and one of them, named Borcnvicus, Houseteads^
even fifteen acres. In addition to these there were CasieULa, or forts,
about 60 ft. square, at intervals of a mile.

History. — The firat expedition of Caesar took place in B.C. 55 : starting
from Portius Itius he crossed the channel to the neighbourhood of
Dover, and thence coasted along probably to Deal.^ He defeated the

* The spot where Ciesar's dioembarkatioii took place has been the inhject of an
interesting controversy in the present day. Cieaar arrived off Dover on the 27 th
of August, at about 10 a.m. : he remained there until 8 r.M., and then, to use his


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Chap. XXXI. HISTORY. 657

Britons, but did not advance fiar from the coast. In 54 he again
invaded the island, defeated the Britons, probably on the banks of
the Stour^ crossed the Thames near Chertaeyt and took the capital
of Cassivellaunus, which stood probably on the site of Verulamium.
Having received the homage of most of the southern tribes, he re-
tired. The permanent conquest of Britain was commenced by Clau-
dius, who sent over Aulus Plautius in a.d. 43, and shortly after
followed himself^ and took Gamalodunum, the capital of Cunobeline.
Plautius was succeeded in 50 by Ostorius Sci^ula, who advanced
the Roman fi*ontier to the banks of the Severn, defeated the Iceni
of Norfolk^ the Brigantes of Yorkshire, and the Silures of S. Wales,
under their king Caractacus. Didius, who succeeded Ostorius, was
again engaged in war ^^ith the Silures. He was succeeded in 57 by
veranius, and he by PauUnus Suetonius, who attacked the isle of
Mona, but was summoned thence to quell the insurrection of the Iceni
under Boadioea. The next important event was the reduction of the
Brigantes by Petilius Cerealis in the reign of Vespasian. Julius Fron-
tinus succeeded as propraetor, and defeated the Silures ; but the final
conquest of Britain was achieved by Julius Agrioola, who became go^
vemor in 78, defeated the Ordovices of N, Wcdes, reduced Mona,
adopted various measures for civilising the tribes, and in 80 crossed
the frontier of Scotland, and succeeded in extending the Roman domi-
nion as far as the Firths of Forth and Clyde, between which he erected
the line of forts already described : beyond this he advanced in 84 to
the foot of the Grampians, and defeated the Caledonians under Gal-
gacus in a pitched battle, believed to have taken place on Ardoch Moor
in PertJuhire. In the reign of Hadrian these conquests are said to
have been given up, and the boundary was fixed at the Tyne and the
Solway, Antoninus Pius again advanced the border, and established
the vallum parallel to Agricola*s chain of forts in aj>. 144. The re-
maining £Bhcts in the history of Britain are — the death of the emperor
Severus at York, in a.d. 211 ; the revolts headed by Carausius and
AUectus; the appearance of the Picts in the reign of Diocletian, and
of the Attacotts and Scots in that of Julian a.d. 360. Britain was
abandoned by the Romans early in the 5th century in consequence of
the difficulties under which the empire laboured ; shortly a^rwards
the Angli and Saxonee made their appearance and subdued it.

own words, " ventam et sstam uno tempore nactus secundum, clrdter millia
passuom vii. ab eo loco progressos, aperto ac piano littore naves constituit'*
{B, O. ir. 23). As low water occurs at 2 p.m. on that day, it was Inferred by Dr.
Halley that Ctcsar Was carried by the flowing tide to the N. and landed at%Deal.
Mr. Airy, the Astronomer Royal, has stated that the stream off Dover does not
tarn at the time of high water, but runs ^restward for 7 hours, commencing
with the 4 th hour after high water, and that consequently Cfesar was carried
wethoard. The accuracy of this statement has been in turn disputed by Dr.
Cardwell, who has ascertained that there is a difference in the currents of the mid-
channel and the in-shore water, the change taking place in the latter firom one to
two hours earlier than in the former. Moreover Uie westward set of the mid-
channel current commences at half ebb and continues until half flood, whereas the
Astronomer Rojral's computation adds one hour to the former and two to the
latter. Allowing (or theae differences. Dr. Cardwell thinks it more than pro-
bable that Cieear was carried northward by the inshore current, which would
commence on the day in question at S p.m. (See ArdMool. Cantian. vol. lii.)
Those who have adopted the Astronomer Royal's view, have placed the landing
either at Romncy Marsh, W. of Hythe, at Rye, or even at Fevensey.

. 2 F 3


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Idands. — Off the coast of Britannia were the islands— Veetis, J. of
Wightf which was conquered bv Vespasian in the reign of Claudius ;
letU, St. Mit^MeVs Movad, whither (according^ Diodorus) the Britons
conveyed their tin in waggons when the tide was out ; IGetis (appa-
I'ently one of the SfiiUy Isles), notioed by Pliny as a place where tin
was found, and which the natives reached in coracles ; Siliira, or 8y-
lina, the former appearing in Solinus, the latter in Sulpicius Severus,
probably one of the SciUy IsUi; Xona, And£$ey, the head-quarters of
the Druids in the time of the Romans, and hence attacked by Paulinus
in A.D. 61, and again by Agrioola in a.d. 78 ; and lastly, M o B a pi a, or
Xonarina, Ide of Man, which is also named Xoiia by Csesar (B. O, v. 13).

§ 6. Britannia Barbara embraces the whole of Britain N. of the
great rampart between the Sdway and the Tyne: it corresponds
generally to the Caledonia * of the ancients in its extended sense, and
to the modem Scotland. The Romans were very slightly acquainted
with this district, at all events with that portion of it which lies N.
of the Firths of Clyde and Forth, The names of the tribes and
localities are chiefly valuable to the ethnologist as indicative of the
races to which the inhabitants belonged. The occurrence, for in-
stance, of the names Cantae and Comubii in N. Britain, which are
almost identical with the Cantium and Comubii of S. Britain, and,
again, the appearance of the element Car in many of the names,
leads to the inference that the population of Scotland was originally
British rather than Gaelic* This is further supported by the pro-
bable etymologv' of the name Caledonii. The names of Picti ' and
Scoti appear only in late writers : the latter were imdoubtedly a
Gaelic race who immigrated into the N. of Scotland from Ireland^
and subdued the occupants of the whole district N. of the Clyde ;
the former, the Picti, appear to have been identical with the Cale-
donii, the name being a mere translation of the term 5n7, *^ painted,**

^ The name Caledonia first appears in Pliny : It occurs frequently in Tadtos's
Agricola as applicable to all the populations N. of the rampart, while in Ptolemy
the Caledonii are a tribe resident in the W. of Scotland. It appears again in the
Ooeanus HeM'Caledomm of the same writer, and in the Di-ealidoHn^ one of the
two gentsi into which the Piets are divided by Ammianus MaroclHnua. It is
probably derived ftrom the Welsh eeleddim, ** wooded district.** A oomparisan of
the passages in which it oocurs leads to the inference that until the Inrasion of
Agricola the term was restricted to the residence of the Caledonii or Di-caledonii
between Loch F^ and the Murray Firth, and that Agricola, having become tint
acquainted with this people as living immediately N. of his rampart, extended the
term to all the tribes of Scotland.

* The limit between the British and Gaelic Celts is marked by the prevalence of
the prefix aber in the former, and inver in the latter. This line runs obliquely
flrom Loch Fifne on the W. coast to the Spey on the E. On the N. of it are the
names /nrer-ness, /np«r-ary, Ac. ; on the S. ^6«r-decn, ^6er-dour, &c
' nie leves Maaros, nee falso nomine Pictos
Edomuit, Scotumque vago mucrooe seeutus,
Fregit nyperfooreos remis audadbus undas.

Clavdian. de III. Cotu, Bfmeir. 64.
See also note • below.


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Chap. XXXI. TRIBES. 659

which is supposed to be at the root of the name Briton, llie na-
tionality of the Picts is, however, a subject of much mystery.

Phy$ical Features. — There is but one mountain range named by
ancient writers, viz. CIranipiiis Ml., which evidently answers in name
to the Qrampiam, the scene of Galgacus's resistance to the Roman arms.
There is also a forest, CiJ^donia Silva,^ noticed by Ptolemy ; the posi-
tion of this could not, fix)m the geological character of the country,
have been further N. than the Clyde on the W. and the Dee on the
E. coast. The chief promontories, from the S.W. round to the S.E.
are — Prom. Hovantiriiiii, CortUl Point ; Tmrn, Epidhim, MuU of Con-
tyre ; Prom. Tarvidiiiii or Qreai , Dunnet Head ; Verafaiiun, Noee Head ;
and TsHnldmin Prom., Kinnaird's Head, The rivers and estuaries
are — ^the Koviui, Nith; Deva, Dee; lina 2st, Wigton Bay; Beri-

rdus SixL, Loch Ryan; Clota £st., Firth of Clyde; Lelaimoniiui Sin.,
Linnhe; Volsif Un., Loch Broom; Tarar Aft, Ftrth of Cromarty;
Tnmia J3M., Murray Firth; Tava JBst, Firth of Tay; and Boderia
Xst, FiHh of Forth.

Tribes.— {I. ) In Valentia, from S. to N., the 8elg9v» in Dumfries-
shire ; the Kovanta in Wigtonshire ; the Gadini in Roxburghshire ; the
Otadlni in Northumberland and Berwickshire; and the Banmii or Dum-
nooii in Peebles, Selkirk, Lanark, Edinburgh, Lirdithgotv, Renfrew, and
Stirling. (2.) To the N. of the Clyde, from S. to N. : in the W., the
Epidii, Cenmat, Vaoomagi, Camonaofls, and Careni ; in the £ , the
Venioontet, Tsiali, Decanta, Xeretss, Lngi, and Ck>mavii

Toums. — Blatum Bnlgium, Middleby, in Dumfriesshire, where there
are Roman remains; Bromeninm, a town of the Otadini, variously
identified with Brampton, Biechester, and Newcastle; OdUniaand Goria,
towns of the Damnii, identified with Carstairs and Crawfurd respect-
ively ; Vandvara or Vandogara, Paisley, and Vietoria, either on Inch-
keiA Island or Abemethy near PerOt, also towns of the Damnii ; and
Al&ta Cat tra near Inverness, the northernmost station of the Romans,
probably raised by Lollius Urbious in a.u. 139, but soou abandonod.

Islands.— OS the W. coast of Scotland lie the Hebndea or EbndfS,
Hebrides^ which are noticed by Pliny and Solinos ; and off the N. coast
the Oro&det,* the Orkney and Shdland Isles, which are noticed by
several writers. We may here notice Thvle,'^ which Pytheas, its dis-

' Martial implies that bears were imported at Rome fhnn the vilds of
Scotland : —

Nuda Caledonio sic pectora prsebuit urso. De Speetae. vii. 3.

9 Arma quidem ultra

Littora Javerna) promovimiu, et modo captas
Oi'cados, et minima contentos nocte BfHannos.

Juv. ii. 159.
Quid rigor tetemus cceli ? quid sidera prosunt !
Ignotumque fretum ? maduerunt Saxone fuso
Orcades : incaluit Pictorum Mtnguine Thule :

Scotorum cumulos flcvit glacialln leme. — Claudiax . de IV. Ckm*. ffonor. 30,
'• Thule was always regarded as the fiirthest point of the known world ; and
this is supposed to be expressed in the name itself, the Gothic tiei or tiufe
denoting the remotest land : —

tibi senriat ultima Thule. — Vieo. Ge^rg. i. 30.

We seem to have some reference to the firoien waters of the arctic seas in the
foUowing lines of Claudian : —


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coverer, placet at six days* sail from the Orcades, and thus leads us to
identify it with Iceland, while Ptolemy places it more to the S., in the
latitude of the Shetlanda, so that we may identify it with Mainland.

§ 7. The ancient accounts o( Ireland^ are chiefly interesting as illus-
trative of the progress of geographical knowledge : they also, to a
certain extent, assist the ethnologist. The oldest form of the name is
leme, which appears in Aristotle, and which most nearly approxi-
mates to the native name ErL Diodorus Siculus calls it Iris ; Strabo,
leme; Mela, iTema; Pliny, Hybemia; Solinus, mbemia; and
Ptolemy, Ivemia. ITie statements of these writers are somewhat
febulous. The people were cannibals, according to Diodorus; and
the country was so cold as to be barely habitable, according to Strabo.
Ptolemy alone gives any details as to the geography, and hb descrip-
tion of it is fuller even than that of Britain. It nmy be observed
that many of the rivers and places retain their ancient n'mies at the
present time. The population was substantially Gaelic. The occur-
rence of the German names Cauci and Menapii^ and of the British
name Brigantes, suggests the probability of colonies having been
planted on the E. coast from Germany and Britam. The Sooti, who
migrated to Scotland, are not noticed by Ptolemy, but appear in

Phytical Features. — The rivers noticed are— the Bargm, Barrow;
SanuB, Shannon; liboius, Liffy; Obooa, Avoca; and leniiis, probably
the Kenmare. The promontories are— Sacnmi, Camsore Point, at the
S.E. ; Isanmium, St. Johns Point; ^obogdinm, Fair Head, at the
N.E. ; BorSnm, Malin Head; and Kotivin, Miten Head, on the S.W.

TW&6«.— The Brigantes and Ooilondi on the S. coast ; the VelleMri,
Gasgftxd, Aatlni, Kagn&ta, Erdini, and Vennicnii, along the W. coast
from S. to N.; the Bazini and Bohogdii, along the N. const; the
Volimtii, Ebl&ni, Cavd, and Manapii, along the E. coast from N. to S.

Towns. — The situations of the towns noticed by Ptolemy are pro-
blematical. Eblftna' represents Dublin; Kagnata, described as an im-

Facta tui numerabat &▼{, qaem littas^adoBts

HorrcBcit Libyic, ratibusgue impertia Thule. — De HI. Cons, Sonor. 52.
I It is difflcolt to decide the date of the earliest notice of Ireland. If the
Orphic poem on the Argonautio expedition were composed by Onomacritos, we
should carry it back to the reign of Darius I. The form of the name is the
old one : —

yrjffourw 'lipyia-iv Si<r<rw ucwfiat. Orprbds, 1164.

The knowledge of Avienus was derived from the Carthaginians, perhaps from the'
account of Hanno's expedition : he describes it as the '* sacred isle,'* from the
similarity of the name to Upa : —

Ast in duobus in Sacram, sic insulam

Dixere prisci, solibus cnrsns rata est.

HfDC inter undas multa cespitem Jacit

Eamqne late genus Hibemorum colit. Or, MoriU 109.

* — ^^^ totam quum Scotus lemen

Movit. In I. Cons. StUiok. U. 251


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portant town, waa probably on 8ligo Bay;- lUziapUi may be Wexf&rd.
In addition to these, six inland towns are enumerated, proving that the
country was well occupied : their names were Rhseba, Laverus, D\mum
(a well-known Celtic termination), Macolicum, perhaps MUlick on the
Shannon, and two named Rhegia.

II. Germania.

§ 8. The jboundaries of Q«niiaxiia were the Rhine on the W., the
Dtmube on the S., the Sarmatian Mountains and the Vistula on the
£., and the Mare Suevicum, Baltic^ and Mare Germanicum on the
N. Sometimes indeed the peninsula of Scandia was regarded as a
part of Germany, in which case the N. boundary was carried on to
the Oceanus Septentrionalis. Taken at its fullest extent, it would
include, in addition to the greatest part of Germany, EoUand,
the W. of Poland, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, The greater
portion of this extensive district was unknown even to the Romans :
the parts with which they were best acquainted were in the W.
and S. It is described as a wild and inhospitable* country, covered
with forests and marshes, excessively cold, and much infested with
wild beasts. Its soil was generally unfertile, yet it produced, in
certain mrts, wheat, barley, oats, flax, and various edible roots. The
vine was Jiot introduced until the 6th century of our era : the ordi-
nary drink of the country was a kind of beer. The ooimtry sup-
ported a large number of pigs, together with a fair amount of sheep
and goats, valuable hounds, strong but small horses, and short-homed
oattle. Numerous kinds of wild beasts are mentioned, particularly
elks (alces) and wild oxen (uri).

Name, — ^The name was regarded by many ancient writers as derived
from the Latin germani, and as intended to describe the " brotherhood"
supposed to exist between the Qauls and Germans. Tacitus, however,
regarded it as originallv the name of a particular tribe, the Tungri. It
has also been derived from the Persian tribe of the same name, noticed
by Herodotus (i. 125). Most probably it is of Celtic origin, and came
into use among the Celts in Qaul before the time of Cssar. It has been
referred to a Gaelic root gair, " to cry out,** giving it the sense of the
Homeric fio^y i,yal96s, a fierce wamor. The indigenous name has
always been Detiitch, which appeeurs in the classic form TeuUme9, Ger-
many proper was named Germania Magna, Transrhenana, or Barbara,
in contradistinction to the Germania on the W. of the Rhine.

§ 9. The mountain ranges of Germany received for the most part
specific designations. The Her^ynia^ Silva has been already noticed

* Quia Parthnm paveat ! quia gelidura Scythent
Quia, Germania quoe hcrrida parturlt

FcDtus, inooluml Cffisare T Hor. Carm, ir. 5, 25.

* The name is of Ccltio origin, signifying a " wooded mountain :" it still sur-
▼iTes in the modem Han,


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662 GERMANU. Book IV.

(p. 320). The otber ranges are — ^TftnmUi in the angie between the
Rhine and the Moentis, Maine ; BheHeo, of uncertain position, in the
same neighbourhood ; and Saltiu Teutobnrgientis in the N., between
the Lippe and Weser. The only promontory noticed is CimbrSmm
'Prom., Skagen, the N. point of Denmark, Several great forests * are
noticed, as CsBsia SUva, between the rivers Lippe and Yssd ; Badu-
henxisD Lwoum, Holtpade in West Friedand ; HeronUs SilTa, Suntdge-
hirge, W. of Minden; BemnOniuii SilTa, between the iJlster and
Spree ; and KaharvalSmm Silva, between the Oder and ViattUa.
The chief rivers are — the border stream of the BlLenm, Shine, which
receives on its right bank the tributary waters of the Kioar, Neckar,
MoBBQi, Maine^ and Lnppia, Lijtpe, with others of less consequence ;
the Amliia, Ems, flowing into the German Ocean, and historically
known for a battle fought on its banks in B.C. 12 between Dmsos
and the Bructeri ; the Tisorgis, Weser, reaching the ocean in the dis-
trict of the Chauci ; the Albis, Mbe^ the most easterly river reached
by the Romans, having been crossed by Domitius Ahenobarbus in
B.C. 3 ; the YUdiu, Oder, which flows into the Mare Suevicum in
the land of the Rugii ; the YlstiUa on the G. border ; and the Dannbiiis,
which has its sources in Abnoba Ms., and receives numerous tri-
butaries on its left baiik, of which the Mams, Mc^rch, is the most im-
portant. In the N.W. of Germany a large lake is noticed under the
name of Flevo Laont, now the Zuider Zee, This was connected
with the Rhine by a canal cut by Drusus, and named after him Foesa
Drusiana, which commences below the separation of the Rhine and
Waaly and joins the Ysael near Doeaburg: this new outlet for the
Rhine was named Flevum Ostium.

§ 10. The Germans are said to have regarded themselves as an
autochthonous race, and they certainly have preserved no tradition of
their Asiatic origin. In physical appearance they were tall and hand-
some, with blue eyes' and fair or red hair.' They subsisted chiefly
on the cattle they reared, and on the proceeds of the chase and war.
They enjoyed a character for independence and faithfulness combined
with cunning and &lsehood. The various tribes were classified by
Tacitus in three groups : the IiigflB¥5net on the ocean, the Barmbam

» The forests of Germany were In many cases sacred to certain gods, as in the
case of the Semnonom and Baduhennro groves : —

Ut proool Hercynls per vasta silentia silvte
Yenari tuto Uceat, Ittcosque vetustm

lUfligume trucet Clatoiak. m I. Stil, i. 228.

* Nee fera csemlea domoit Germania pube. Hon. JBpod, xvi. 7.

They had a custom of heightening the red colour of their hair by artificial

Caustica Teutonicos acoendit spuma capiUos ;
Captivia poteris coltior esse comis. Makt. xir, 26.


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Chap. XXXI. TEIBES. 663

in the interior, and the UtttTfinet in the E. and S. To these we
may add the inhabitants of the Scandinavian peninsula, who bore
the general name of H311evi5neff The chief tribes belonging to these
groups were located in the following manner : —

(1.) On the coast. — The Frisii, about Lake Flevo, between the Bhine
and Ems, divided into two clana, Majores and Minoree, the former
living probably W. of the canal of Drusus in N. Holland, the latter
E. of it, in Friealandf which still retains the ancient name. The Ghancd,
between the Ems and the Elbe, in Oldenburg and Hanover, also divided
into Majores and Minores, living respectively W. and E. of the Weser ;
they were skilful navigators^ and much addicted to piracy. The
SazSnes, E. of the Elbe in Holstein, a people whose name does not
appear in history until a.d. 287, but who mav have occupied that dis-
trict in the days of Pliny and Tacitus. The Oimbri, in the Chersonesus
Cimbrica,^ Jutland, in all probability a Celtic race, as the ancients
themselves believed, their name bearing a close resemblance to that of
Kymri, and their armour and customs differing from those of the Ger-
mans ; the Yaxliki, between the Chalusus, Trove, and the Suebus,
Warne; the TentSnes, also between the Trave and the Wame, the
representatives of the original tribe which sent forth the mighty horde
whom the Romans defeated in B.C. 102 ; the BidSni, between the Suebus
and the Viadus, Oder; and lastly the Bngii, between the Oder and
Vistula, and on the island which still bears the name of Rugen.

(2.) South of these, from E. to W., lived -the HelveoSnsB, below the
RugiL The Bnrgmididnes,^ a €k>thic race, between the Vistula and
Viadus ; in later times (a.d. 289) a people of the same name appear in
the S.W. of Germany, and in the early part of the 5th century these
crossed the Rhine and established themselves in Burgundy. The Van-
d&li, a powerful race, of which the Burgimdiones were regarded as a
tribe, and whose settlements were frequently shifted : we first hear of
them as seated on the Palus Meeotis, then (in Pliny's time) between the
Vistula and Viadus, next in the country N. of Bohemia, about the
Biesengebirge, which were named Vandidici Mts. after them ; in the
reign of Constantine in Moravia, whence they were transplanted by
that emperor into Pannonia ; in the reign of Probus in Bocia ; in
A.D. 406 ravaging Gaul ; in 409 in Spain ; in 429 across the Straits of
Gibraltar in Africa, where they established themselves for above one hun-
dred years, when Belisarius succeeded in destroying their power, A.D. 534 ;
they have been variously regarded as a German or a Slavonic race. The
Semnonet, a Suevic ^ tnbe between the Viadus and Albis, and between

- latlsque palndibus exit

Cimber. CLxrDiAN. de IV. C&ns. Hon. 451.

* The name is explained by Ammianus Harcellinus as meaning those who lived
in " townships" {burgi). It is uncertain whether the later Burgundians were the
same race as those of the N.E., but they probably were so.

1 Suevi appears to have been a general designation, embracing a great number
of the tribes of Central Germany. By Ciesar they are placed on the E. bank of
the Rhine in Baden ; by Tacitus to the N. and E. of that district ; by Strabo
between the Xhitu and £ibe. The Suevi of Ciesar were true Germans ; those of
Tacitus and Strabo contained Oeltio or Sh&vonian elements. About a.d. 250 a
people calling themselves Suevi, though they appear to have belonged to various
tribes, settled in Suabia, which still retains their name. Their general position is
indicated by Laean : —


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664 GERMANIA. Book IV.

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