Sir William Smith William Latham Bevan.

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Pot$dam in the N. and the hills of Lusatia in the S. ; they are men-
tioned after the time of M. Aurelius. The Lsiiffobardi,^ a Suevio tribe,
first met with on the left bank of the Elbe, N. of the junction of the
Sala ; then on the right bank, having been probably driven across the
Elbe by Tiberius in the reign of Augustus ; and again, in Ptolemy's
time, between the Rhine and the Weter ; a neople of the same name,
and probably of the same tribe, are next heara of in Pannonia, and late
in the 5th century a.d. on the right bank of the Danube in Hungary,
whence they extended their sway along the Danube into Dacia, and
finally crossed into Italy in a.d. 563, and settled in the country which
still Wrs their name, viz. Lombardy. The An^ii or Angli, a Suevic
tribe, occupying, according to Ptolemy, an extensive district on the left
bank of the Elbe, whence they subsequently migrated to Britain ; the
AiiffriTarii, on both sides of the We$er, but mainly between that river
and the Elbe; and the Brnetiri,' between the Rhme and the Em$, di-
vided by the river Luppia into two branches, the Mi^ores to the N.,
and Minores S. of that stream.

(3.^ Tribes yet more to the S., from W. to E.— The ITiipitet,^ ori-
dnall^ belonging to the interior ; then settled on the right bank of the
Luppia, after their defeat by Ccesar; and afterwards, as it appears,
more to the S., in the neighbourhood of the Biarsi. The Teneteri, a
companion tribe to the Usipetee ; they apparently emigrated from the
interior, crossed the Rhine m Casar^s time, were defeated and almost
cut to pieces by him, and finally settled on the right bank of the Rhine,
between the Ruhr and the Sieg. The Sioanibri, originally on the right
bank of the Rhine, betweto the Sieg^ and the Li^pe i afterwards, when
they had received the Usipetes and the Tencten into their territory,
they were transplanted to Qaul by Tiberius, and settled between the
Meuse and Rhine, with the exception of a section which remained in
Germany about Mons Rhetico. The Catti ^ or Chatti, E. of the Tencten,



Fundat ab extr^mo flaros Aquilone Suevoe
Albis, et indomitum Rheni caput. U. 51.

< The name has been generally understood to mean ** long-bearded ;" bat more
probably it is derived from the Umge Bdrde, ** the plain by the side <tf the river **
JBtbe, where they are first found, and where the name still attaches to a district
near MagtMturg,

> Venit accola silvtc

Bructerus Hercynlse. Clacdiak. de IV. Com. Hon. 450.

* Rem faotam Pompillus habct, Faustinc : legetur,
Et nomcn toto spargct in orbe suam.
8ic lere flavorum valcat genus Usiplomm,
Qulsquis et Ausonium non amat imperium. Mabt. vi. 60.

^ Their name is generally derived from this river ; but this is doubtAil. In
B.C. 17 they Invaded Oaol, but at the approach of Augustus retired to their own
territory. To this Horace alludes in the following lines, which also indicate the
reputed character of this people : —

quandoque irahet feroces

Per sacrum cliTum, merita decorus

Fronde, Sicambros. Hoa. Cat^. iv. 2, 34.

Te oerfe gaudentea Sicambri

Compositis vcnerantur armis. Id. iv. H, 51.

* The Catti obtained great celebrity for their resistanoe to the Romans : —
Traxerat attonitos et fcstinare ooactos,
Tanquam de Cattis aliquid torvlsque Sicambris
Dicturus. Jcv. iv. 146.



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Chap. XXXI. TRIBES. 665

between the Saale in the E., the Maine in the S., and the upper course
of the Weser in the N., thus occupying the country which still retains
their name, Hesse ; in Ptolemy 'd time they appear to have lived more
to the E. The Mattl&ei, probably a branch of the Chatti, occupying
the present Nassau, on the right bank of the Rhine. The Tahantei,
originally between the Rhine and the Ysselj but in the time of Qer-
manicus S. of the Lippe, in the former territoiry of the Sicambri, and
in Ptolemy's time still more to the S., near the Thuringer-Wald. The
COieniiei, an important tribe between the Weser in the W., the EU>e^
in the E., Melibocus Ms. in the N., and the Sala in the S. ; after their
conquest by the Chatti they dwindled down to a small tribe, which in
the time of Ptolemy lived in the Harz Mountains. And, lastly, the
Lygii, a widely-spread nation, containing a number of tribes, settled
between the Vistula and Oder ; they were probably Slavonians who had
been subdued by the Suevi.

(4.) Tribes along the course of the Danube firom E. to W.— The
Qnadi, in Moravia, the N.W. of Hungary, and the E. of Bohemia ; they
were regarded by Tacitus as Germans, but thev may have been Sar-
matians ; their name disappears towards the end of the 4 th century of
our era. The Maroonuumi, t.e. " march-men,'* or " borderers/' a tribe
who first appear on the Rhenish frontier about the lower course of the
Maine, as having crossed thence into Qaul, and being driven back by
Csesar in B.C. 58 ; hence they migrated into the territory of the Celtio
Boii, BoHiemia, where they organised a powerful kingdom about a.d. 6 ;
they came prominently forward in their wars with the Romans, a.d.
166-180, and made inroads into Italy; they are last mentioned as
forming a portion of Attila's army. The aenmmdflri, between the
mountains in the N.W. of Bohemia and the Roman wall in the S.W.,
which bounded the Agri Decumates; they were a Suevic race, and
first appear in history at the time of Domitius Ahenobarbus, who
settled them between the Maine and the Danube, whence they spread
out in a N.E. direction. Lastly, within the limits of the Agri Deoa-
m&tet, i.e. " tithe-lands," which lay in the S.W. of (Germany, and were
separated from the interior by a wall from Ratishon on the Danube to
Lorchy and thence by an earthwork to the Rhine near Cologne, were
located various immigrant bands of Oauls and Germans, to whom were
subsequently added colonies of veterans for the defence of the border ;
this district was incorporated with the empire, as a part of the pro-
vince of Rhsetia, but it was wholly lost about a.d. 283.

The distinctive names of the German tribes appear to have fallen
into disuse about the end of the 3rd century of our era, and the whole
nation was classified under two broad appellations, Alenuomi and
Franci, the first applying to the tribes that lived on or about the
Upper Rhine, the second to those on the Lower Rhine. Alemanni waa
(as the word itself implies, being derived from AUe Manner, ** all men")
a confederacy of many tribes, chiefly of the Suevic race. It first ap-
pears in the history of Dion Cassius, about a.d. 200 ; and it is pre-
served in the modem French name of Germany, AUemagne, The cnief
seat of the contest between them and the Romans was in the Agri
Decumates. The Fraud, i.e. " free-men," are first mentioned in a.d.
240, and were also a confederacy of which the Sicambri were the most
influential member. They conquered the N. of Gaul, and, having there
adopted the civilisation of the Romanised Celts, they acquired such
power that they wete enabled, in a.d. 496, to return and subdue their
German kinsmen.



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666 GERMANIA. Book IV.

Totom. — Of the towns wbioh were scattered over the extensiTe dis-
tricts above referred to, we know little else than the names. It is in-
teresting, however, to observe that the much-freqaented watering-
places in the neighbourhood of the Rhine were not unknown in ancient
times, Baden being described as Aquas AureUs, and Wiesbaden as Aqns
MattiAoei. Kattlum, the oi^ital of the Chatti, which was burnt down,
▲.D. 15, in the war with Qermanicus, was at Maden, on the right bank
of the Eder. The only district bearing marks of Roman occupation is
the Agri Decumates, where not only roads, but walls, inscriptions,
and numerous antiquities, have been discovered in many places : we
may instmice the remains of 8amiiloo§n» at SUUha^, of CJuia at Oaiui-
itadt, of darenna at K&ngen, all of them on the Nedcar. The position
of Sdifiiiiiiim, in the same district, rendered famous by the victory
gained by Yalentinian over the Alemanni in A-d. 369, is imoertain. In
the territory occupied by the Quadi the names of sevend towns (such
as Eburodunum, MeUodtmum, &c.) indicate a prior occupation of that
country by the Celts.

J«{atids.— The ancients not unnaturally regarded the Scandinavian
peninsula as an island or collection of islands. Pliny names two of these
islands Sea&dia and Beaadiiutyia, the latter being the largest in the
whole group. Ptolemy speaks of four under the general name of
Scaudise Insulse, of which the lai'gest was Scandia. Tacitus does not
mention Scandia, but the tribes of the Sitones and Sniones must un-
doubtedly be placed there : the latter name is the original of Sweden,
and the southern part of Sweden still bears a name not imlike Scandia,
Scania, Sooner or Schonen. Pliny also speaks of an island named
Kerigos, whence people used to sail for Thule : this has been identified
with Norway; in which case his Bergi may represent Bergen, and BnBUia
Dunoen : this is, however, uncertain.

History. — We have no connected history of the Qerman nations until
the time of Julius Csasar, who in his Qallic campaigns came in contact
with and defeated Ariovistus. Osesar himself crossed the Rhine twice, in
B.C. 55 and 54, but he did notBttempt to mainUun himself in Grermmy.
In B.C. 37 Agrippa transplanted the Ubii to the W. bank of the Rhine,
as a barrier on the side of the G^erman border. This plan, however,
did not fully succeed ; and hence Nero Claudius Drusus undertook a
series of expeditions against the Germuis from the Insula Batavorum.
He advanced as far as the EVbe ; and on his death, in B.C. 9, the opera-
tions were carried on by Tiberius and Domitius Ahenobarbus, who sub-
dued for a while the tribes between the Rhine and the Weser; but in
A.D. 9, Arminius, king of the Cherusci, defeated the Romans in the
Teutoburg forest, and terminated their supremacy in the N., while the
resistance of Maroboduus, the Marcomannian, on the Middle Rhine,
checked them in that direction. In the latter district Qermanicos
gained some advantages, but was unable to re-establish a permanent
ascendancy. The Romans then withdrew within the Agri Decumates,
which they fortified between a.d. 16 and 68. The great revolt of the
Batavi, in a.d. 70 and 71, was followed by repeated wars with several
German tribes, until in the reign of M. Antoninus the great Haroo-
mannic war broke out on the Danube, resulting in the surrender of the
Roman forts along the course of that river in a.d. IBO. Soon after-
wards the Qerman tribes began to pour over the Rhine ; and towards
the end of the 5th century they had subdued Qaul, Spain, and Italy,
and had even crossed over into Africa.



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Tbe Court-yard of Diocletian's Palace at Salonn (Spalato).
CHAPTER XXXIL

THE DANUBIAN PROVINCES, ILLYRICUM, MOCSIA, DACIA, AND
8ABMATIA.

I. The Danubian Provinces. §1. Vindelicia. §2. Rhsetia. §3.
Noricum. § 4. Pannonia. § 5. Its inhabitants and towns, II.
Illtbicum. § 6. Boundaries. § 7. Mountains and rivers. § 6.
Inhabitants; Towns; Roads; History. III. M(KSIA. §9. Bounda-
ries; Rivers. § 10. Inhabitants; Towns. IV. Dacia. § II. Boun-
daries; Mountains; Rivers. § 12. Inhabitants; Towns. § 13. The
Jazyges Metanastse. V. Sarmatia Europjba. § 14. Boundaries:
Tribes; Towns.

§ 1. Yindelioia,^ the most westerly of the four Danubian pro-
vinces, was bounded on the N. by the Danube and the Vallum
Hadriani, on the W. by the territory of the Hclvetii, on the S. by



1 This name contains the root Ftitd, which occurs in other Celtic names, such
as Vindobona, Vindomagus, &c.



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668 THE DANUBIAN PEOVINCES. Book IV.

Rhaetia, the ridge of the RhaBtian Alps fonning the limit, and on
the E. by the river ^nus, separating it from Noricom. It embraced
the N.E. of SwUzerlandy the S.E. of Baden, the S. of WUrtemlmrg
and Bavaria, and the N. of Tyrol, The country is for the most
part flat, but spurs of the Rheetian Alps traverse the S. district.
The chief river is the Danubius, which receives numerous tributaries
on its right bank, of which the Mnn§, Inn, is the most important.
The Brigantlniit Laeoff L, of Constanz, belonged to this country.
The inhabitants were in the time of Augustus a Celtic race, and
were divided into numerous tribes. They were subdued by Drusus
and Tiberius" in B.o. 15, and their country was formed into a sepa-
rate province. About the end of the first century after Christ, it
was united with Rbsetia, but subsequently was separated from it
with the title of Khietia Secunda.

The towns possess no historical associations: the capital Aagofta
IHndelioOrom, Auaiburg, was founded by Augustus about a.d. 14, at
the jimction of the rivers Licus and Virdo. The oth«r important
towns were — BrigantLom, Bregem^ on the lake named after it; Camp
Iiipdtinam, Kempten on the Iller ; Beglnuin, RatUhon, on the Danube ;
and Yeldidina on the Muub,

§ 2. BhsBtia, or, more properly, B«tia, was bounded on the N. by
Vindelicia, on the W. by the territory of the Helvetii, on the S. by
the Alps from Mons Adula to M. Ocra, and on the E. by Noricum
and Venetia. It comprised the modem Orisons, the l)/rol, and a
portion of Lornbardy, It is throughout a mountainous country,
being traversed by the ranges of the Rhaatian Alps. The valleys
were fertile, and produced a wine' not inferior to that of Italy ; the
inhabitants depended on their flocks rather than on agriculture :
wax, honey, pitch, and cheese were largely exported. The chief
rivers are the Xnus* which flows northwards to the Danube ; and
the Athiiis, Adige, with its tributary the At&gis, Eisach, which
flows B. into the Adriatic. In addition to these the upper streams of
many of the Alpine streams, such as the Addaa» Sarins, OlliuB, and
Mineiiis, £Edl within the limits of Rhaetia. The inhabitants of this



' The expedition of Drusus is commemorated by Horace : —
Videre Rhieti bella sub Alpibus

Drusum gerentem Yindelid. Carm» It. 4, 17.

The expedition of Tiberius, which took place at a later period of (he asme year,
is commemorated in the following lines : —
Quem legis expertes Latinn
Vindelici didicere nuper
Quid Morte posses. Id. iv. 14, 7.

s et quo te carmine dicam,

RhsBtioaT nee oellis ideo contende Falemis. Vnto. 0«org. U. 95.

Si non ignota est docti tibi terra Catulli,

Potasti testa Rhfetica rina mea. Mast. xir. 100.



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Chap. XXXII. NORICUM. 669

province in the time of Augustus were mainly a Celtic race.**
They were a wild, cunning, and rapacious moimtain people, ardent
in their love of freedom, and fierce in their defence of it. They
were conquered by the Romans imder Drusus and Tiberius* in
B.C. 15, and their country was reduced to a province. . The chief
tribes were the Lq^ntii who inhabited the valleys on the S. side
•of the Alps about the head of the lakes of Como and Mof/giore;
the Tridenflni in the valley of the Athesis ; and the Eiigaiiei,^ who
at one time occupied the whole tract from the Alps to the Adriatic,
but were driven by the Veneti into the Alpine valleys ; they were
a distinct race from the Rhaetians, but their ethncdogical position is
quite unknown.

The onlv important town in Rhsetia was Tridflatiim, Tren/, on the
Athesis, which appears to have been made a Roman colony : it stood
on the road which the Romans constructed between Verona and
Augusta VindeUcorum. Another road,^ between the latter town aoct
Comum, passed through Rhrotia.

§ 3. Koiioum^ was bounded on the W. by Rha^tia and VindeHcia,
on the N. by the Danube, on the E. by Mons Cetius, which 'sepa-
rated it from Pannonia, and on the S. by the Savus, the Alpes
Camica9, and Mount Ocra. It comprised portions of Austria, the
greater part of Styria, Carinthia, and portions of Cam tola, Bavaria,
and Tyrol, It is a mountainous country, intersected by numerous



* An opinion preTailed among the ancients that the Rhietians were Etruscans
who had been driven into the Alps from Lombardy by the Gauls. This view has
been adopted by some eminent scholars in modem times, who have discovered in
some remote districts (the GrUdnerthal and the valley of the Engadino) names of
places, peculiar words, and a few monuments, all of which bear some resemblance
to those found in Etruria. This question docs not affect the statement thut in the
time of Augustus the Rhetians were essentially Celts.

^ The Genanni lived between the lakes Maggiore and Como : —

• Milite mm tuo

Drusus Genaunos, implacidum genus,

Brennosque veloces, et arces

Alpibus impositas tremendis

Dcjecit acer plus vice simplid ;

Major Ncronum mox grave proelium

Commisit, immanesqne Rhuetos

Auspiciis pepulit secundis. Hon. Csrm. iv. 14, 9.

• They left a memorial of their former residence in the Euganeus CoUis and the
Eugauci Lacus, and in the modern Colli Euganei^ the volcanic group near Padua.

' This second route crossed the SplQgen to Curia, Coire ; it is described b^
Clandian : —

Protinus, umbrosa qxia vestit littus oliva
Larins, et dulci mentitur Nerea fluctu,
Parva puppe lacum pnetervolat. Ocius indc
Scandit inaccessos brumali sidere monte?. Bell. Get. 319.

" The name is probably derived from that of the town Noreia ; its use dates
fh>m the time that the Romans became aequaii\ted with the country.



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670 THE DANUBIAN PBOVINCES. Book IV.

valleys opening out towards the Danube, along the course of which
thdre are some plains. The climate was rough and cold, and the
soil unfertile.. The wealth of the country consisted in its iron
mines,* which were extensively worked by the Romans. Salt was
also abundant. The chief range of mountains is the AlpM Korios,
which traverses the country from E. to W. Cethis Mont, K(^len'
herg^ lies on the borders of Pannonia ; Ocra was the name ji^iven to *
the lowest part of the Camic AIim between Aquileia and iEmona.
The chief rivers are the DanuMuB, the JBniu 'with its tributary the
JoY&vos, Salzachy and the upper courses of the BraTiUf Drave, and
S&TaSf Savey which rise, the former in the Norican, the latter in the
Carnic Alps, and flow in an easterly direction with nearly parallel
courses through the S. part of the province. The Norici were a
Celtic race whose ancient name was Taurisci ; about B.C. 58, the
kindred race of the Boii immigrated into the northern part of the
country. The Noricans offered an obstinate resistance to the
Romans, but were subdued about B.C. 13 by Tiberius, Drusus, and
P. Silius, and their country was formed into a province, which was
subdivided in the later division of the empire into two, Noricmn
Ripense about the Danube, and N. Mediterraneum in the S. The
Romans were obliged to keep a strong military force in it as a safe-
guaixi partly against the inhabitants themselves, partly against the
Trans-Danubian tribes ; they also maintained three fleets on the
Danube, named Classes Comaginensis, Arlapensis, and Laureacensis,
for the latter purpose.

The capital Noreia, Neumarki^ was situated S. of the river Mnriua,
and formed the central point for the gold and iix>n trade : it is cele>
brated for the defeat there sustained by C. Carbo against the Cimbri
in B.C. 113, and for its siege by the Boii, about B.C. 59. The other
important towns were — B<nodtlriim, Innttadt, at the mouth of the
^ni^, a town of the Boii, aa its name indicates ; Ovil&ba, WeU, a
Roman colony, to the S.W. of Boiodurum.; Lauri&enm, Lorch near
En$f at the junction of the river Anisius with the Danube, the head-
quarters of the third legion, a fleet statiou, an ai-senal, and probably
a Roman colony; Juv&yum, SaUzhurg, on the left bank of the river
Jovavus, the station of a cohort, the residence of the governor of the
province, and in early times prolmbly the residence of the native kings;
T^rflnnm, an important town on the road fh>m Aquileia to Lauriacum,
the rtiins of which are found at Mariasaal near Klagenfurt; CMcia,
Cilly^ in the S.E. corner of the country, a fine town, as its remains
testify; and Teurnia, on the Upper Dravus near Spital.



■ qoas neque Noricut



Doterret entis. Hoiu Corwi. L 16, 9.

Voles modo altln desilirc tnrribas

Modo ense pectus Korico recludere. Id.' J^mnI. xvli. 70.

SsDYo Bilbilin optiinara metallo,

QofT vincit Cbalybasqnc yorieosquf. Makt. iv. 55.



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Chap. XXXII. PANNONIA. 671

§ 4. PanneiiiA was bounded on the N. and £. by the Danube,
on the S. by Illyricum and Mcesia, the valley of the Save forming
the limit in this directicai, and on the W. by Noricum and Italy.
It comprehends the E. portions of Aust^'ia^ Carinthia, Carniola, the
S.W. of Hungary^ Slavonian and parts of Croatia and Bomia. It
is a vast plain, enclosed on the W. and S. by lofty moimtains, but
elsewhere traversed by hills of only moderate height. The dimate
is described as severe, and the soil unproductive ; but this is not the
present character of the country. The vine and olive were not in-
troduced until the time of the Emperor Probus; previously the
beverage of the country was a kind of beer, named Sabaia. The
mines do not appear to have been known to the ancients ; timber
was the most important production.* The mountains were described
by the general name of PaniumiMB Alpes, the special names being
Cetiut and Carvanoas for the ranges on the side of Noricimi, and
Albii or Albftni Mts. «n the side of Illyricum. The chief rivers are —
the DannMns, which in this part of its course deviates from its usual
easterly course by a southerly bend ; the Brayui and Sayui, which
flow in parallel courses to the Danube, and receive as tributaries,
the former the Murios, Muhr, on its left bank ; the latter the
Brinutf Drinay and several less impoi'tant streams on its right bank.
The Danube receives also the Arr&bo, Baab, previous to taking its
southerly bend. A large lake named Pelso, Flattenseey lies in the
N. part of the province.

§ 5. The Pannonians were generally reputed an Dlyrian race ; the
Greek writers, however, identified them with the Paeonians of
Thrace. Whatever their origin may have been, it is certain that
there was a large admixture of Celts among them.* They are
described as a brave and warlike people, faithless and cunning, and,
previous to their subjectioa to the Romans, mde and uncivilized.
They were conquered in the first instance by Octavianug in B.C. 35
and completely subdued by Tiberius in a.d. 8, and again by Drusus
when they had broken out after the death of Augustus. The
country was then divided into two portions, Pannonia Superior and
P. Inferior, the boundary being formed by a line drawn* from
Arrabona in the N. to Servitium in the S., Superior lying W. of the



1 Amon^ the animals of Pannonia we have notice of bears, an unknown animal
named eattth hounds, and the charax or blaolc-ooclc :—
Pannonls hand aliter post ictnm ss^vior nrsa
8e rotat in Tolnos. Lrc. vi. 220.

Pannonicas nobis nunquam dedit Umbria cattas. — Mart. xiii. 69

* testis quoque fallax

Pannonios gelidas passim disjectus in Alpes. Tibvll. iv. 1, 108.

Hnnc qaoqne perqne norem timuit Pamphylia messes

Pannouinsqae fbrox. Stat. &7r. L 4, 77.



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672 THE DANUBIAN PEOVINCES. Book IV.

line. In the 4th icenttiry, Galerius subdivided Inferior by taking
away the part N. of the Dravus, and constituting it a province with
the name of Valeria. Finally, Constantine the Great equalized the
size of the provinces by adding to Inferior the S. part of Superior.
Under the Romans the people became thoroughly civilized ; colonies
and municipia were established, and fortresses were built for its
protection; military roads were constructed, of which we may
especially notice those from iBmona, where the road from Aquileia
in Italy emerges from the Julian Alps, down the Savus and across
to the Danube at Vindobona, another along the course of the Danube,
and again one through the central district from Vindobona to
Sirmium. The chief towns were situated on the Danube, and on
the course of the Savus, with some few on the cross roads. They
were all strongly fortified, but of their history we know little.

. (1.) In P. Superior, — ^YindobOna, Vienna, on the Danube, was
originally a Celtic town : the Romans made it a uiunicipium with the
name of Juliobona, and it became their most important military posi-
tion as the station of the Danubian fleet and of the Legio X. Gemina.
Camnntimi, near Haimburg, on the Danube, was a place of the
greatest importance as the station of the fleet after its transfer from



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