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vindobona, and as the head-quarters of a legion. M. Aurelius made it
the base of hie operations against the Marcomanni and Quadi : Severus
was here when he was proclaimed emperor, and, though destroyed
by the Germans in the fourth century, it was restored and was the
centre of Valentinian's operations against the Quadi. Petovio, Pettau,
on the Dravus, was a Roman colony with the surname of Ulpia, and
was probably founded either by Trajan or Hadrian: it was the station
of a legion, and an imperial palace existed outside its walls, ^t™^^*^,
LaybacKy on the Savus, was a strongly-fortified town and a place of
considerable trade : it became a Roman colony with the title of Julia
Augusta. Siida, or Segesta, Simekt stood on an island formed by
the junction of the rivers Colapis and Odra with the Savus, together
with an artificial canal dug by Tiberius : it was from the first a strong
fortress, and after its capture by Tiberius it became one of the most
important places in Panuonia, being centrally situated on the great
road from JSmona to Sirmium. It was made a colony, possessed a
mint, and was the station of a small fleet on the Save : it sunk with
the rise of Sirmium.

(2.) In P. Jn/mor .—Siniiium, Miirovitz, stood on the left bank of
the Savus, and was the point at which several roads centered : it was
hence selected as an arsenal by the Romans in their wars against the
Danubian tribes and as the residence of the admiral of the first Flavian
fleet on the Danube: it contained a large manufactory of arms, an
imperial palace, and other public buildings. Taurfimun, Semlin, waa
a strong fortress at the junction of the SkvuB with the Danube, and
the station of a small fleet. Cib&l» stood near lake Hiulcas, betweifn
the Savus and Dravus, its exact position not being known : it was the
birthplace of the Emperor Valentinian, and in its vicinity Constantine
defeated Licinianus in A.n. 314. Mnrsa, Essek, on the Dravus, was
made a colony by Hadrian with the surname of iS)lia : it was the
residence of the Roman governor of P. Inferior, and near it GalUenus



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Chap. XXXII. ILLYRICUM. 673

defeated Ingebus. Aqninoum, or Acinemn, AU-Buda, a BtroDg fortress
on the Danube, ^as the centre of the Roman operations against the
Jazyges, and possessed a manufactory of bucklers. Bregetlimif E. of
Comom, on the Danube, was another very strong fortress: the Em-
peror Valentinian died there.

II. Illyricum.

§ 6. ITie country which the Greeks named JUfjig (very rarely
niyria), and the Latins niyrieum,' lay along the eastern shore of the
Adriatic (in this part termed the Illyrian Sea*), from the river Arsia
in the N.W., dividing it from Istria, to the Ceraunian Mountains in
the 8., on the borders of Epirus ; on the E. it was contiguous to
Moesia and Macedonia ; and on the N. to Pannonia. It was divided
by the river Drilo into two portions, Illyris Bomaaa or Barbara,
which included the modem districts of Dalmatia, Herzegovina^
and Monte-Negro^ with parts of Croatia^ Bosnia^ and Albania^ and
L Orsaoa, answering to nearly the whole of Albania, The former
was the proper province of lUyricmn ; the latter was annexed to
Macedonia by Philip of Macedon, and formed a portion of the
Roman province of Macedonia. The country is generally wild and
mountainous, and, with the exception of the coast of the southern
district, unproductive.

§ 7. The ranges which traverse Illyricum in a direction parallel
to the sea. coastf from N.W. to S.E. are the connecting links between
the Italian Alps and the systems of the Thracian Haemus and the
Greek peninsula. They were but little known to the ancients :
the most northerly range was named Alb&nns Ms., which was
followed by Ardini Ms., the Bebii Mtf. on the borders of Moesia,
Soardns and Candavia Mts. on the borders of Macedonia, and the
CeraTinii Mts. on the borders of Epirus. The chief rivers from N.
to S. are ; in Barbara, the Karo, Narenta, which waters the central
district, and which is described as navigable for a distance of 80
stadia ; the Barbana, Boj(tna\ which flows through lake Labeatis ;
and the Drilo, Drin, rising in lake Lychnitis. In Orceca, the
GentUos, Tjenna, rising on the borders of Macedonifi ; the Aptns,^



> The name was occanionally applied in a broader sense to the cotintries S. of
the Danube. It may have been used in this indefinite sense by St. Paul (Rom. xv.
19). After the subjection of the Dalmatie by the Romans the proTlnce was
officially named Dalmatia ; and henceforward Illyricum and Dalmatia became con-
rertible terms. It la thus that the term is used by St. Paul (2 Tim. iv. 10).
* Tu mihi, sen magni superas jam saxa Timavi :
Sive Oram Illyrici legis (equoria. Viao. Eel. viii. 6.

Antenor potuit, mediis elapeus Achiris,

Illyricos penetrare sinus. ^n. i. 242.

* Both the Apsus and Genusns, particularly the former, are mentioned in con.
nexion with the campaign of Ctesar and Pompey : —

AKC. GEOG. 2 G



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674 ILLYEICUM. Book IV.

BercUinoe^ whicli riseB in the Candavian range, and leoeives an
important tributary in the EordaJcus, Devol ; and thtf Aftos/ VomuM,
which rises in Mount Lacmon and flows generally to the N.W.,
reaching the sea near ApoUonia ; in its midoourse it takes a sudden
turn for 12 miles to the S.W., passing between lofty diflfs which
formed the Fauces Antigonenses of the ancients (so named from the
neighbouring town of Antigonia), where Philip V. engaged the
Roman consul Flaminius. There are sev^al large lakes in Blyricum,
particularly LabefttUi Scutari^ and Lydhaltii, Okridha, both of which
abound with fish. The sea-coast is extremely irregular and, in the
northern district, is fringed with islands. The only important
bays are the Simu Flaaatitomi, O. di Qvuimtro, in the extreme N.^
and the land-locked Sin. Bhiioiileiis, B. qf Caitaro, near Epidaurus.

§ 8. The Illyrians were regarded by the ancients as a separate
race, distinct both from the Thradans and the Epirots ; they are
imdoubtedly the progenitors of the modem Albanians^ who have
now spread southwards over Epirus under the pressure of the Sla-
vonian tribes. They were a warlike and, previously to the Boman
conquest, a thoroughly uncivilized race. Like the Thracians they
tattooed their bodies, and offered human sacrifices. The northern
tribes, particularly the Libumians, were skilful sailors and built
peculiarly swift vesseb' {Lxbumxc(B naves). They were much
devoted to piracy, for the prosecution of which their coast offered
great advantages.* They were divided into numerous tribes,* of

Prima docet Junctis vidit consistere cattrls

TelluB, qoam Tolacer Gcnasan, quam mollior Ap«iw

Circumeunt ripis. Apso gestare carinas

Causa palos, leni quam faUens egerit unda.

At Genusum nunc solo nives, nunc imbre solutA

Pnecipitant. Neuter longo sc gurgito lasaat,

8ed minimum terrce, vicino littore novit. Lvc. r. 461.

* Lucan's description is hardlj appropriate to the Aoua, which is a oonsiderable
stream: —

Purus in occasus, parvi sed* gurgitia, JEas
lonio fluit inde muri. vL S61.

' Ibis Libumis inter alta navlnm,
Amiee,*propugnacula ;
Paratus omne CsMaris perieulum

Subire, MneenaA, tuo. Hok. Epod, L 1.

t Hence Tii-gil's description : —

'■ — ^— intima tuttu
Regna Libumorum. JBm. i. 34S.

* The Libumians appear to haTe been numerous at Borne, where thej acted at^
attendants in menial offices : —

Prooul borridns liburaus, et quemlus eUena ;

Imperia riduarum procnl. Mabt. L 50.

Primus, damante libumOi
Currita ] Jam sedit I rapta properabat aboUa
Pegasus, attonits positus modo Tillicns urbL Jmr. It. 75.



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Chap. XXXII. TOWNS. 675

which the most important were — the lapj^dat in the N. in the
interior ; the Lilranii on the adjacent sea-coast, from the extreme N.
of the Adriatic southwards ; and the Dalm&tSB in the central district.
The country was divided by the Romans into three parts, named,
after the above tribes, lapydia, Libumia, and Dabnatia.

The following towns are described in order from N. to S. : —
(1 . ) In Barbara, — Metttlnm, the capital of the lapydes. was situated
on the frontier of Pannonia either at MoUling or Metlioa. ladSra,
Sktra, the capital of Libumia, was made a Roman colony by Augustus.
Soaarddna stood on the estuary of the Titius, somewhat W. of the
modem Scardona; as one of the three ''oonventus" of Dalmatia it
must have been an important place. Tragniinm, Trau, celebrated for
its marble, stood on an island out off from the mainland by an artificial
cuial. SttlSna, more correctly Salfinss, Salona, the capital of Dalmatia,
stood on the banks of the river lader,* which falls into a small inlet of the
Adriatic. It was the head-quarters of Metellus in B.C. 1 17, and was
again besi^ed and taken by Cosconius in 78 : in the Civil War it was
vainly attacked by the Pompeian fleet under M. Ootavius: it was
again taken by Asinius Pollio in 39, and from that time became the
great bulwark of Roman power on this side of the Adriatic. All the
great roads met here, and it became one of the three '*conventus" of
Dalmatia. Its neighbourhood was selected by Diocletian as the place
of his retirement : he built about 3 miles from the town a magnificent
palace covermg nu leas a space than eight acres and containing temples
dedicated to Jupiter and uEsculapius, the former of which is now
named the Duomo, while the latter is a baptistery of SL John: the
modem name Spalaio is a corruption of Salonss Palatium. Kar5na
stood on the river Naro, about 2^ miles from its mouth at Vido,
and was a Roman colony and a "conventus/* the Romans made it
their head-quarters in the Dalmatian war. Epidanms, Ragwa-
Veeehia, is first noticed as being besieged by M. Octavius in the
Civil War. It afterwards became a Roman colony. Seodra, Scutari,
was a very strong place at the outlet of lake Laoeatis : Oentius was
defeated under its walls in b.c. 168. lissiii, Letch, at the mouth of
the Drilo, was founded by Dionysius the elder in B.C. 385, and was the
limit appointed by the Romans for lUyrian commerce: Philip of
Hacedon captured it in 211.

(2.) In lUyrie Grxca, — ^Epidamniii, or Pyrrhafthinm, the latter name
being descriptive of the niggedness of its situation, was founded by
a mixed colony of Corcyrsans and Corinthians about 627 B.o. It
stood on the isthmus of a peninsula,' and from its favourable position
rose to commercial importance at an early period. The dispute rela-
tive to it between Curcyra and Corinth led to the Peloponnesian War :
from 312 it was much exposed to attacks from the Illyrians until it
obtained the protection of the Romans. It was the scene of the



> Qua marU Hadriad longas ferit onda Salonas
£t tepidom in moUes Zephyrot excnnit lader. Lvo. iv. 404.
< Its position is thus described bj Lacan : —

Bed munimen habet nuUo qnassabile ferro,

Naturam, sedcmqne loci. Nam clausa proftindo

Undique, et illisom scopulis revomentibas osqaor,

Exiguo debet, quod non est insula, colli. vi. 33.



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67G ILLYBICUM. Book IV.

contest between Cecsar and Pompej, and dariDg the last CiTil Wan
it sided with M. Antonius. Its inhabitants, whose patron deity was
Venus, were an immoral race:' it is still, as DurctzzOj an important
town. ApoUonia, Pollinay a colony of Corcyrajans and Corinthians,
stood about 10 stadia from the right bank of the Aous and 60 from
the sea. Under the Romans it became the seat of a flourishing
university, and in the Civil Wars between Caesar and Pompey it was
an important military post. Lyehnidvi, on the E. shore of lake
Lychmtis near its S. extremity, was, from its position on the frontier,
an important point in the Macedonian Wars of the Romans : it was
on the EgnatiA Via. Oxieiii, or Oricnm, Ericho, was a harbour ^ not
far S. of the mouth of the Aous, much frequented by the Romans in
their communication with Greece. It was taken by Philip V. in
B.C. 214, but afterwards fell into the hisnds of the Romans. Here
iBmilius Paulus embarked his army for Italy in 167 ; and here Caesar
laid up his fleet in his war with Pompey. The place was famous for
its turpentine.^

BoaSs. — The great thoroughfare between Rome and the East, the
Yia Egnatia, crossed the southern part of lUyricnm, where it received
the specinl name of Candavia from the ridge ^ which it crossed on the
border of Macedonia. There were two branches of it, one starting
from Dyrrhachium, the other from ApoUonia: these united at Clodiana
on the Oenusus, and passed round the head of lake Lychnitis to Lych-
nidus, and thence to Ueraclea in Macedonia.

History, — The lUyrians first encountered the Greeks under Brosidas
and Perdiccas in the Peloponnesian War. They were defeated and
their country partly conquered by Philip of Maoedon about B.C. 360.
Their piractical practices led to the interference of the Romans in 233,
when an honourable peace was concluded, and again, in 219, when the
whole country was subdued. Various wars followed : the Libumians

S 'elded to Rome in 176; the Dalmatse, though defeated by L. Cscdlius
etellus in 119, were not incorporated into the Roman Empire until
the year 23 ; the lapydes were defeated in 129 by D. Junius Brutus,
and were united with the Libumi in a province by Augustus, but



• Xam ita est hiDc hominnm natio Bpidamnia,
Voluptarii atqne potatorea maxumi :

-y^ Turn sycopbantffi et palpatores plurimi,

^ In urbe hao habitant : turn meretrlces mulieres

Nusquam pcrhibentur blandiores gentium.
Proptcrea huic urbi nomen Epidamno inditiim est,
Quia nemo ferme hue sine dumno divonitur. ViJk.vr. Men(teh.)L\.

* lUe Notis actus ad Oricum
Post in«ana CaprsD sidera, frigidas

Noctes non sine mollis

Insomnis lachrimls agit. Hob. Catm. iU. 7, 5.

rt te felicl pneveeU Ceraunia remo

Acdpiat placidis Oricos ODquoribus. Pbopxbt. i. 8, 19.

• quale per artem

Inclusum boxo, ant Oricia terebintho,

Lucct ebur. ^^n, x. 135.

• sic fatus, in ortus

PhoDbeos convertit iter, terrieque secutus
Be via, qua vastos aperit Candavia saltus,
Contigit Emathiam, bello qnam fata parabant. Luc. tL 82».



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Chap. XXXII. ' MGESIA. 677

were not finally conquered until 34 by Octavianus. The province of
niyricum embraced the northern district as far as the Drilo. In
Constantine's division, lUyricum Occideutale was a diocese of the
Prefectura of Italy, and included Dalmatia, Noricum, Pannonia, and
other provinces, while lUyricum Orientale embraced Illyris Greeca and
a large number of provinces out of lUyricum proper.

IsJande.—Off the coast of Illyris Romana lie from N. to S. :— The
AbsyrtXddi, Cherao, 0$ero, and others, said to have been named after
Absyrtus, brother of Medea ; and the IdbnniXdes, the chief of which
are Lissa, Growa^ Brattia, Brazza^ Pharus, Lenna, Corcyra Nigra,
Cunola, MeKta, Mdada, and Issa, Litsa^ on which Diouysius the elder
planted a colony in B.C. 387 ; the attacks on it by Ag^on and
Teuta brought on the first Illyrian War in B.C. 229. its i^abitants
were skilful sailors, and the ** Lembi Issaici" did the Romans good
service in their war with Philip of Macedon. These islands (Issa
excepted) fringe the coast "in a parallel direction from N.W. to S.E.,
and are uniformly long and narrow : the channels between them are
deep and give ships a secure passage between them ofif the coast of
Illyris Grseca. The small island of Saso,^ Sasaa, N. of the Acroce-
raunian promontory, was a station for pirates: the approach to it was
deemed very dangerous.

III. MCBSIA.

§ 9. XoBtia' was bounded on the W. by Ms. Scordus and the
rivers Drinus and Savus, separating it from Illyricum and Pannonia ;
on the S. by Ms. Haemus on the side of Thraoe, and Orbelus and
Soordus on the side of Macedonia ; on the E. by the Euxine Sea ;
and on the N. by the Danube, separating it from Dacia. It cor-
Fesp(Mids to the present Servia and Bulgaria, It was an irregular
country, intersected by the various offsets of the lofty ranges which
surroimd it, viz. : Bmmvm in the S.E., Orbelus and Soordus in the
S.W. and W. The rivers are all tributaries of the great border
stream of the DanuUus, which in this country resumes its easterly
course and retains it until it approaches the Euxine, when it turns
northwards for a while, and then to the S.E. entering the sea by
several channels,' some of which enclosed the triangular isle of
Feuoe.^ Its chief tributaries are — the Sayns, of which only a



- cum iotas Hadria vires



Movit, ct in nnbes abiere Ceraunio, camqae

9t)am(M0 Calaber perfunditur sequore Sason. Luc. ii. 625.

Non homilem Saaona vadis, noa littora cnrvgB

TheasaliiD saxosa. ^ Is. v. 650.

Hadriaci Aigite inikustas Sosonit arenas. Sil. Ital. vlL 480.

' The Greek form of the name was Mvaut, sometimes with the addition of n <f
Evpttfvg, to distingaish it from the conntry of the same name in Asia.

* Multifidi Peuoen onum caput adluit Istri. Lvc iii. 303.

* Martial describes it aa a Oetic, Valerius Flaccus as a Sarmatian isle : —

I, liber, ad Oeticam Peucen, Istrumque tacentem. — Makt. tIL 84.

Insula SarmaticQ Peuoe stat nomine Nymphs,

Torvus ubi, et ripa semper metuendiis utroque

In f^eta per sffivoo later descendit Alanoa. Val. Fi.ac. vili. 217.



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678 HCESIA. Book IT.

small portion belongs to Moesia ; the Sriniis, a feeder of the Sayns,
rising in M. Scordus ; and the Xargiis* Morava^ which rises in
Orbelus and joins the Dannbe W. of Viminaduni.

S 10. The inhabitants were reputed to be a Thracian race, allied
to the Mysians of Asia Minor. Among them were settled a Celtic
tribe, named Scordisci, who entered mider Brennus in B.C. 277.
The Romans subdued Moesia in B.C. 29 under the generalship of
M. Licinius Crassus, and kept military possession of it as a frontier
province. It was originally organized ss a single province, but eariy
in Trajan's reign was divided into two provinces, separated from
each other by the river Giabrus, X«tU Superior to the W., and
X. Inibrior to the E. When Aurelian withdrew from Dada, he
formed a settlement in the heart of Moesia which was named after
him Dada AnraUinL The most important of the tribes were—
the XoBii proper on the river Giabrus ; the Triballi to the W. in the
valley of the Margus ; the Peuelni on the Isle of Pence at the mouth
of the Danube ; and the Crobyii near the frontiers of Thrace.* The
towns of Moesia may be divided into three classes : (1) the Greek
commercial towns on the shores of the Euxine, which were colonies
of Miletiis, such as Istropolis, Tomi, Gall&tis, and Odessus ; (2) the
Roman fortresses along the course of the Danube, such as Singi-
dunum, Ratiaria, and others, which became of great importance
after the Romans had withdrawn from Dacia ; and (3) the towns
of the interior, which were comparatively few and little known.
The names of many towns in the second class betoken a Celtic
origin, e,g. Singi-duntim, Duro-storum, and Novio-dunttm. The
historical associations are very scanty. The Danubian towns were
mostly destroyed by Attila and his Huns, and restored by Justinian.
Moesia gave three emperors to Riune, Constantine the Gieat^
Maximian, and Justinian.

(1.) TovDn9 along the course of the Danube from TT. to J^.—Slngi.
dtlnum, Belgrade, at the spot where the Srvub falls into the Danube;
Kargnm, at the junction of the Mai^s, known as the scene of Dioole-
tian's victory over Carinus ; Yiminaeiiim, somewhat £. of the Siargus,
either at Ram or Koetotaczy the head-quarters of the Legio VII. Claudia;
Eg§ta, near Trajan's bridge over the Danube; Batiaria, Arzar-Palancay
the head-quarters of a legion and the station of a fleet on th4 Danube;
(Eseus, OreszavitZf near the mouth of the river of the same name ;
BuroftSmm, celebrated as the birth-place of Aetius; and Hoviodtbiiim,
Isaczi, a little above the point where the Danube divides: near it
Valens constructed a bridge over the river.

(3.) in the Interior, — ^Vaiisna, Nieea, upon a tributary of the
Mai^us, the birth-place of Constantine the Great, and also known for

3 In addition to these tribes a number of Ooths setUed la the eonntry in
▲.D. 895, and were thencefbrward named Mooeo-Oothi. They were oooTerted to
Christianity, and for their use Ulphilas made a translation of the Seriptorea. paita
of which still exist.



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Chap. XXXII. DACIA. 679

a victory obtained bv Claudius II., in i.d. 269, in ita neighbourhood ;
8«rdXoa, or Satdioa, the later capital of Dacia Interior, situated in a
fruitful plain at the spot where the sources of the (Escus unite, and
from the time of Aurelian sumamed Ulpia ; the Emperor Maximilian
was bom near there ; Seupi, UidtkSb, a most important point as com-
manding the passes into Illyricum : near it was Taureeium, the birth-
place of Justinian ; Xareiftiiopolii, near Fravadi, founded by Tngan
and named after his sister Marciana ; near it Claudius II. defeated the
€k>th8 in several battles.

(3.) On (he Euxine from N. to iSf.— IitropSUl, situated at the S. end
of lake Halmyris and a place of considerable trade ; Tomi, Tomisvar,
some 40 miles to the S., the reputed spot where Medea cut up her
brother's body,* but still better known as the place to which Ovid
was banished; OallHtii, CoUat, originally colomsed by Miletus and
afterwards replenished with settlers from Heraclea; lastly, OdestUf,
Vamat which appears to have presided over th^ Greek towns on this
.coast : its coins bear deVtces relating to the worship of Serapis, the
god imported from the shores of Pontus to Alexandria by Pompey.

IV. Dacia, with the Country of the Jaztges MBTANAE7r.£.

$11. DftoU under the Romans was bounded on the S. by the
Danube ; on the E. by the river Uieraaos ; on the N. by M. Cai^
pStes ; and on the W. by the river Tysia, separating it from the
country of the Jazyges. It thus contains the Banat of Temesvar,
Hungary E. of the TheisSy Transylvania, the Bukowinoy the S.
point of ChUicia, Moldavia W. of the Pruth, and Wallaehia. The
only range of mountains noticed by ancient writers is Oarpates Xons*
described by Ptolemy as an insulated range lying between the
sources of the Tibiscus and the Tyras. It thus answers to the
W, Carpat?iian$. The rivers are all 'tributaries of the Danubins;
they are, as follows, from W. to E. : the Tjiia, or Tisiians, Theiss,
with its tributaries the Oerftras, Koros, and the Maxlsns, Marottch ;
the lihiMiis or Pathissnfl, Temes ; the Altltai, Aluta ; and the
Hier&siis, Sereth,

§ 12. The inhabitants of Dacia belonged to the Thracian group of
nations. Their original name was Ctotas,^ which was subsequently
changed to Dad, though the date and the causes of this change are
quite unknown. The position of this people varied at different
historical periods,' but at the time they became known to tlie



s This legend probably arofle firom a fiuicied derivation of the name from Hfiv^
«* to cut."

* The resembUnce of the name$ Gets and Goths has oecadonaUy led to a mi«.
taken Idea that the two races were identical. The names Oeta, Dacus and Davns,
are the generic titles of sUtTes in the plajt of Aristophanes and Terence. This
originated in the number of captives made by the Gaols when tl»ey invaded
Eastern Europe, and sold as slaves to the Athenians.

* Herodotos and Thuoydides describe them as living between the Ister and
Ht. H0mus. When Philip invaded Scytbia they had been displaced from these



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680 DAGU. Book IV.

Romans/ they occupied the dlBtrict we have above described. The
Romans first entered the country under Lentulus in b.o. 10, bat
they did not subdue the country imtil Trajan's expeditions' (a.d.
101-105), when a large number of the inhabitants migrated to the
banks of the Borysthenes, where they were known as Tyragetsi.
The country was now reduced to a prorince, and remained an in-
tegral portion of the Roman empire until the time of AureliaQ
(a.d. 270-275), when the Roman settlers withdrew to the 8. of
the Danube and settled in Dacia Aureliani, leaving Dada Proper to
the Groths.^ It remained for a long time a barrier against the bar-
barian tribes of the north, but it was at length overrun by Attila
and his Huns about a.d. 376. The conqueror of Dacia, Trajan,
connected Dacia with Moesia by a magnificent bridge,* and con-
structed three important roads, connected with the Via Trajana,
which ran along the S. side of the Danube, partly cut in the
rock and partly 8upi)orted by wooden beams set up against the per-
pendicular wall of rock above the water of the river.* The first

quarters by the TribalU, and had been driren N. of the Isten Here they irere



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