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called "Sepher Hamanhig" ("The Book of
the Rider, or the leading or governing
Book"), also called " Minhag Olam" (" The
Rites or Ceremonies of the World "), in which
the ritual and order of prayer in use among
the Jews of Spain, France, and Germany are
treated of. It was printed at Constantinople
by Salomon ben Massal Tob, a. m. 5279
(a.d. 1519), in 8vo. The " Siphte Jeshenim"
gives the above account of this work ; but the
author of the " Shalshelleth Hakkabbala,"
p. 52., attributes the " Sepher Hamanhig" to
R. Eliakim, the son-in-law of Abraham ben
Nathan Jarchi. Buxtorff calls this work
" Manhig Olam" (" The Governor or Ruler
of the World"), without giving the author's
name. In the " Or Horath " [Uri ben David]
this book is said to be very full of typo-
graphical errors. In the Bodleian catalogue
this author is called R. Aben Jarchi. (Wol-
fius, Biblioth. Hebr. i. 93. iii. 57. ; Buxtorfius,
Biblioth. Rabb. p. 304; Hyde, Catal. Libr.
Impress. Biblioth. Bodl. i. 3.) C. P. H.

C^?'Dnj), a Portuguese rabbi and physician
who lived towards the end of the sixteenth cen-
tury. He is the author of " Siphre Rephuah "
(" Medical Books") of which there are two
extant, both in the Latin language: one with
the title " Methodi Medendi universalis per
Sanguinis Missionem et Purgationem Libri
duo " (" The Method of curing Diseases by
Bloodletting and Purging, in two Books ") ;
the other is called " De Tempore Purgandi, et
Ordine Medendi, necnon de Tempore Aquae
frigidse in Febribus ardentibus ad Satietatem
oxhibendse. Liber unus" (" On the Time
proper for Purging, and Rules for adminis-
tering Medicines ; to which is added. On
the Time proper for administering cold
Water abundantly in burning Fevers, in one
Book"). They were printed at Venice by
Bernard Basan, a. d. 1591 (Bartolocci has
1691, but it is evidently a mere typographical
error) by the Venetian Typographical So-
ciety, A.D. 1604; and by Jo. Baptist Ciotto,
A.D. 1604. All these editions are in 4to.
There is a medical work by this author in
Hebrew among the manuscripts of the cata-

logue of the library of Hadrianus Junius,
printed at Leyden, 1669, p. 69., where it is
called " Opus Insigne." Wolff says he also
met with an anwer to a question on some
point of the Hebrew ritual by this author, in
the " Sheeloth Uteshuvoth " (" Questions
and Answers") of R. Joseph Karo, printed
at Thessalonica, a. m. 358 (a.d. 1598), folio.
Wolfius, Biblioth. Hebr. i. 92. iii. 56. iv. 768.;
Bartoloccius, Biblioth. Mag. Rabb. i. 47, 48. ; N.
Antonius,i?/6/«o^A. Hisp. Nova, ii. 3 1 3. ; Mange-
tus, Biblioth. Scriptor. Medic, ii. 407.) C. P. H.

'?1^ina). [Perizol.] ,

ABRAHAM PICKS (Dp'-Q nmnN "1). /
r Picks "I

XD'DD), an Italian rabbi who lived during
the early part of the sixteenth century, whose v'
name in full, according to the " Shalshelleth
Hakkabbala," p. 65., was R. Abraham ben
R. Isaac ben R. Jechiel ; in which work it
is also stated that he died at Bologna, a.m.
5314 (a.d. 1554). He is called "cohen u
philosoph" (the priest and philosopher").
Bartolocci says he wrote — 1. "Sepher Hacha-
sidun" ("The Book of the Pious"), which
is the title of a work by R. Samuel Chasid.
2. He also attributes to him the " Perush a!
Sheeltoth de Rav Achai Gaon" (" A Com-
mentary on the Postulates of R. Achai Gaon"),
which works Bartolocci also attributes to
R. Abraham Cohen the Spaniard; and, 3. "A
Treatise against the Argimients of R. Moses
bar Nachman, which attack the 'Jad Cha-
saka' of Maimonides," in which it is shown
that Nachmanides (R. Moses bar Nachman)
did not understand the work of Maimonides
which he attacked. This work of Abraham
of Pisa is among the manuscripts of the Va-
tican library. There seems to be a diffi-
culty in distinguishing the writings of Abra-
ham Cohen the Spaniard and Abraham of
Pisa, who was also called Cohen, but the
" Shalshelleth Hakkabbala" affirms that they
were certainly not the same person ; and
Bartolocci, who makes them both rulers of
the synagogue at Bologna, fixes the death of
the latter at a.m. 5314 (a.d. 1554), and that
of the former at a.m. 5310 (a.d. 1550),
Wolff says that there is an answer by Abra-
ham of Pisa to some legal query in the
" Questions and Answers " of R. Menachem
Asaria del Fano, printed at Venice, in 4to.
(Bartoloccius, Biblioth. Mag. Rabb. i. 50. ;
Wolfius, Biblioth. Hebr. i. 98. iii. 59.)

C. P. H.

(pX'''? nDTlSO D,-n3S* "-1). [Abraham ^
BEN David Mishaar Arjeh.]

JN1DJD), a German rabbi who presided for i/
many years during the early part of the
sixteenth century over the Jewish college
and synagogue of Prague in Bohemia. He



is called by David Ganz " adam gadol u
mophelag be Torah" (a great man and ex-
cellent in knowledge of the Law), -who had
brought up many disciples. He died at
Prague, a.m. 5303 (a. d. 1543), according to
the same author, who cites the inscription on
his tomb as his authority. His -works are
— 1. "Biur al Perush Rashi" ("An Ex-
position of the Commentary of R. Solomon
ben Isaac "). 2. " Hagaoth al Tur Orach
Chajim" ("Animadversions on the Order
Orach Chaj im "), which is the first part (order)
of the " Arba Turim." [Jacob bar Asher.]
3. " Berith Abraham" ("Abraham's Cove-
nant") {Gen. XV. 18.), a little work which
treats, according to Buxtorfif, of four kinds of
arithmetic, and was printed at Cracow, in
8vo. ; but the " Sipthe Jeshenim" says it was
printed at Prague, and calls the author
" Abraham Sopher " (the scribe or doctor) of
Prague ; and this, says Wolff, is right ; who
adds, that it was printed at Pragiie by Gerson
ben Bezalel, in Svo. ; but he gives no date,
which leads us to suppose that no year is
given on the title. Bartolocci puts the "Be-
rith Abraham" among his list of anonymous
works. (Wolfius, Biblioth. Hebr. i. 98. iii.
60. ; Bartoloccius, Biblioth. Mag. Rabb. i.
698.) C. P. H.


NACHMAN (pm p pixn p Dmni< "i),

an African rabbi of the kingdom of Marocco,
a man of great learning and industry, who
edited the Mishnaijoth or Mishna, with
the notes of Maimonides and Bartenora, in
the Spanish language, printed at Venice,
A.M. 5366 (a.d. 1606), in folio. Wolff has
decided that this is the same Abraham Reu-
ben whose name has become familiar from
his correspondence with Hugh Broughton,
which arose out of the disputation held in
the synagogue of Frankfort on the Main be-
tween Broughton and R. Elias, in the year
1599. When the account of this public dis-
putation reached Constantinople, where Abra-
ham Reuben then resided, he wrote his
celebrated epistle to Hugh Broughton, which
he delivered to the British ambassador there,
who forwarded it to London. Broughton
being at that time an exUe from his country,
it was forwarded to him at Basle, where he
then was, and where he caused it to be
printed in Hebrew for circulation among the
Jews, as he tells us in the third volume of
his works. He tells us that he also had it
printed a second time at Basle, and would
have had it also printed at Geneva, but for
the interference of a certain Grinetus, who
not only prevented the publication, but asserted
that the epistle was written by Broughton
himself. Broughton takes great pains to re-
fute this calumny in his fourth volume, in
which he not only gives this epistle at full
length in the original Hebrew, but his own
answer to it, which is a most learned chrono-
logical treatise in proof of the Messiahship of

Jesus Christ, also in Hebrew, with a Latin
version on the opposite column, as well as a
Greek and an English version of the same.
In this famous epistle the Rabbi Abraham
ben Reuben, after complimenting Broughton
on his profoimd knowledge of Hebrew, anti-
quity, and the scriptures of the Old Testament
begs him to cause some person learned in the
Hebrew language to be sent to Constantinople
to instruct the Jews ; he also begs him to
write, or cause to be written, a treatise, in
Hebrew, on the perfection of the holy scrip-
ture of the Old Testament, and on the super-
fluity and uselessness of the Talmudic tradi-
tions. Broughton says, that, besides this
published epistle, he received five others on
the same subject from this learned Jew.
(Bartoloccius, Biblioth. Mag. Rabb. i. 52. ;
Wolfius, Biblioth. Hcbr. i. 101. iv. 770. ;
Broughton's Works, iii. 617. 709. iv. 927 —
932. 950—958.) C. P. H.

IXDII), a rabbi of Constantinople, who lived i/
at the end of the seventeenth and begin-
ning of the eighteenth centuries. His " Mil-
chamath Hobah " (" War of Duty "), which
is a defence of Judaism against the Christians,
was printed at Constantinople, a.m. 5470
(a.d. 1710). There are added to it some
other short tracts on the same subject, called
" Raashim ve Raamim " (" Commotions and
Disturbances." The work was edited and
corrected by Jacob ben David Pirna ( PUT'S),
which probably means a native of Pera, the
suburb of Constantinople. Wolff says he
could not ascertain whether this Abraham is
to be considered as the author, or merely as
the printer, of this work. (Wolfius, Biblioth.
Hebr. iii. 63. iv. 770.) C. P. H.

ABRAHAM ROVI'GO (l^in Dm3N* "1), /
an Italian rabbi, the son of Raphscl Rovigo.
He is the author of a book called " Eshel
Abraham" ("Abraham's Grove") {Gen. xxi.
33.), which is a commentary on the book
Zohar, and was printed at Fiirth, a.m. 5461
(a.d. 1701), in folio. The preface to the
" Eshel Abraham " was also printed '>y itself,
with the title " Hackarmath Sepher Eshel
Abraham," at Fiirth (Le Long has, erro-
neously, Wirda), in 8vo., without date, from
the press of Model of Anspach. Abraham
Rovigo also brought from Jerusalem the
"Miphtach ha Zohar" ("Key to the Zo-
har"), which was printed at Amsterdam,
A.M. 5470 (a.d. 1710), in Svo. The "Key
to the Zohar" is a complete index to the
cabbalistical matter which forms the greater
part of the books called Zohar and Tikku-
nim. In the preface it is stated that this
index was brought from Jerusalem by R.
Abraham Rovigo. We do not find any notice
of the time at which this rabbi lived ; but,
from the silence of the earlier Jewish chro-
nologists and historians, we cannot suppose
him to have lived before the latter end of
the seventeenth century. (Wolfius, Biblioth.
M 4



Hebr. i. 102. ii. 1364. ; Le Long, Blblioth.
Sacra, ii. 595.) C. P. H.

?J<10C'), a Venetian rabbi who was living at
the beginning of the last century. He is the
author of " Sirath Dodi" (" A Song of De-
light") (^Isaiah, viii. 1.) • it is a rjnhmical
version of the book called Shabbath of the
Talmud, which Wolff says is elegantly
written. It was printed, with the commen-
taries of Maimonides and Bartenora, in the
book Shabbath, at the foot of the page, at
Venice, a.m. 5479 (a.d. 1719), in 8vo. In
the title it is stated to be part of a great
poetical work, the First part of which was to
be called '• Ohel Abraham" ("Abraham's
Tent"). IL " Ohel Haeduth " ("The Tent
of the Testimony"). IIL "Ohel Moed"
("The Tent of the Congregation"). The
author adopted the title " Sirath Dodi," be-
cause the letters of the word "dodi" CIH),
by the Gematria or cabbalistical computation,
make the number twenty-four, which is the
number of the chapters of the book Shabbath.
Wolff supposes this rabbi to be the same with
Abraham Samuel, whose " Tocachah" ("Ex-
liortation"), in rhyme, is printed at the end
of the "Sepher Nagid ve Mitzvah" ("The
Book of the Leader and Commander"), pub-
lished by R. Jacob Chajim Zemach, at Am-
sterdam, A.M. 5472 (a. D. 1712), in 8vo.
(Wolfius, BihUoth. Hebr. iii. 65.) C. P. H.

(n^'pnj ^x1?^t^' p DmnK ';-\\ » rabbi, a

native of Jerusalem, who lived during the
early part and middle of the seventeenth
century. He wrote a work called " Berith
Abraham" (" Abraham's Covenant") {Gen.
XV. 18.), which also bears the title of " Pe-
rush al Sepher Jalkut " (" A Commentary
on the Book Jalkut"). [Simeon Haddar-
SHAN.] He brought this book to Europe in
hopes of getting it printed, but was prevented
by his poverty, until by chance he met with
a rich and liberal Spaniard, named Michael
Diez Mokato, who advanced him the ne-
cessary money. The work was printed at
Leghorn in the Jewish press, then newly
established in that city by R. Jedidjah ben
Isaac Gabbai, and was edited by R. Abraham
bar Solomon Chajim ; the first volume, A. m.
5410 (a. D. 1650), and the second volume,
A.M. 5420 (a. D. 1660); in 2 vols, folio, with
the text of the "Jalkut" in the square He-
brew character. The first volume contains
that part of the " Jalkut " which has refer-
ence to the five books of Moses ; and the
second volume that which refers to the whole
of the remaining books of the Old Testa-
ment ; in both cases accompanied by the
commentary of Abraham Gedalia, which is
far more diffuse on the Pentateuch than on
the other books, the first volume being twice
the thickness of the second. In this com-
mentary he has made use of the writings
of moi'e than ninety former rabbis, whose
Its 8

names he gives in a table at the beginning as
well as after every quotation from them.
(Bartoloccius, Biblioth. Mag. Rabb. i. 52, 53.;
Wolfius, Biblioth. Hebr. i. 104. ; Le Long,
Biblioth. Sacra, ii. 595.) C. P. H.

CUTH or ZACUTHO ("1 p DmiK "I
NniDT IX niDT '7NIJDC')' a Spanish rabbi and
celebrated Jewish astronomer. He was a
native of Salamanca, if we may trust the title
to his " Perpetual Almanack " by Alphonsus
Hispalensis de Corduba, for none of the
Jewish writers seem to have given the time
or place of his birth. His p>eriod, however,
is determined by the fact that he was one of
the Jews who were banished, from Spain by the
edict of Ferdinand and Isabella, a.d. 1492, a
misfortune which he shai-ed with Don Isaac
Abrabanel and other great men of his nation.
According to the author of the " Shalshelleth
Hakkabbala," he was at the time of his
banishment public professor of astronomy at
the university of Saragossa. On his banish-
ment from Spain he repaired to Portugal,
where he was gladly received, and appointed
astronomer and chronographer royal by King
Emmanuel ; and here he wrote his celebrated
work called " Sepher Juchasin" (" The Book
of Genealogies"), which comprises a complete
chronological history of the Jewish people
from the creation to the year a. m. 526<!)
(a.d. 1500). In this work the unbroken
chain of the Cabbala or oral tradition trans-
mitted from Moses is particularly demon-
strated, and traced down to the author's own
times. He also adds a brief chronicle of the acta
of the kings of Israel and the surrounding na-
tions ; also of the ruler of the Jews who were
carried captive into Babylon, who is called
" Rosh Gola" or " Rosh Gelutha" (the head
of the captivity), of whose authority he gives
an account : he also treats of the two cele-
brated Babylonian colleges at Sora and Pura-
badita and their authority, and of other
matters which occurred during the second
Temple, chiefly taken from the works of
Joseph ben Gurion : it also gives a full ac-
count of the various sects into which the
nation was at Fhat time divided, — the Phari-
sees, Nazarites, Hessaites or Essenes, and
Sadducees, — with their doctrines, worship, and
mode of life. This work was first printed at
Constantinople, edited by R. Samuel Shullam,
who added Hagaoth or notes to it : this
edition is in folio, without date, and has at
the end a notice forbidding any one to re-
print the book for ten years ; or, if it should
be printed by any Christian printer, forbidding
the Jews to buy it. It was next printed at
Cracow, a.m. 5341 (a.d. 1581), in 4to. In
this second edition many things are added
which were not in that of Constantinople, as
the Cabbala or oral tradition from the
creation to Moses ; select stories from the
" Jesod Olam " of R. Isaac the Israelite, with
additions and annotations by R. Closes Isarles;



and a catalogue of the rabbis, arranged chro-
nologically, also from the " Jesod Olaui ; "
also a chronological series of popes, em-
perors, and Chi-istian kings, especially those
of France, with the caliphs, sultans, and
Turkish emperors, including their actions,
wars, the crusades, and other remarkable
events. R. David Ganz, in " Tzemach
David," says that the " Juchasin " was finished
A.M. 5262 (a.d. 1502), which he proves from
a passage in the " Juchasin " itself, wherein
the author makes this reference : " And this
I saw in the ' SjTitagma' of Almegistus
Ptolemseus, from which time to the present
year have passed 1370 years." Now the book
of the Almagest, says David Ganz, was written
in the year 3892, to which if 1370 be added,
we have a.m. 5262 (a.d. 1502). Bartolocci
enters into a long argument, and quotes
Abrabanel and other rabbis in defence of this
computation, in which we do not think it
necessary to follow him ; we shall only add,
that the author seems to have taken the title
of his work from an ancient book called
" Sepher Juchasin," referred to in the Tal-
mud (book Pesachim, cap. v. 62.), where,
speaking of the loss of this book, Rami bar
R. Juda says, " Rav says, from the day in
which the book 'Juchasin' disappeared the
virtue of the wise was weakened, and the
light of their eyes was darkened." To judge
from its title, this ancient " Juchasin " was
most probably a genealogy of the families of
Isi'ael according to their tribes, though Bux-
torf, in his " Lexicon Chaldaicum," under the
word " Juchas," thinks it meant the " Book of
the Law." The Cracow edition of the " Ju-
chasin" was reprinted at Amsterdam, in the
square Hebrew letter, by Solomon Proops,
A.M. 5477 (a.d. 1717), in 8vo. Eric Benzel,
in the " Notitia Literaria," speaks in praise
of a Latin translation of the "Juchasin" by
Peringer. This Abraham also wrote — 2. " Se-
pher Matock Lanephesh " (" The Book that
is sweet to the Soul") (Pivv. xvi. 24.). This
is a doctrinal work, comprised in three chap-
tei's, of which, L treats of the soul and its state
when separated from the body; of the punish-
ment of souls in the nether hell, with a de-
scription of the two hells, superior and in-
ferior ; the superior being a purgatory, and
the inferior or nether hell a place of eternal
punishment, from which there is no re-
demption. II. treats of the future life, or
rather, the world to come, and why it is so
called, in which the axiom commonly quoted
by the Jews from the Mishna (book .San-
liedrim, c. 10.), "Col Israel jesh lahem che-
leck le olam habba " (" All Israel has a part
in the world to come"), is explained. III.
treats of the resurrection of the dead, and
how God shall cause men to rise again with
the same person, body and soul. This work
was printed at Venice by Jo. de Gara, a.m.
5367 (a.d. 1607), in 8%'o. 3. " Ben Arbaaim
Lcbinah" (" The Son of forty Years is for

Prudence"). This is an astrological work,
which is noticed by Hottinger in his " Bib-
liotheca Orientalis." This work is in MS.
in the Oppenheinier library at Oxford. 4.
An almanack, which was published in Latin,
with this title : " Almanack perpetuum Solis,
faeliciter incipit Anno Domini, 1473, inclu-
sive, factum a Rabbi Abraham Zacut, Salman-
ticensi " (" A perpetual Almanack of the
Sun, which begins auspiciously from the
Year 1473, inclusive, calculated by Rabbi
Abraham Zacut, a native of Salamanca") ; it
was printed at Venice, a.d. 1502, in 4to., by
Peter Lichtenstein, with additions by Al-
phonso de Sevilla de Cordova (Alphonsus
Hispalensis de Corduba), who also added the
title. This almanack appears also to have
been printed in 1496, in 4to., with the title
"Tabulaj Motuum Ca>lestium" ("Tables of
the Celestial Motions ") ; and Nic. Antonio,
in his " Bibliotheca Hispana," cites another
edition, with the additions of Alphonso de
Sevilla de Cordova, doctor of arts and me-
dicine, who, after some matter introductoiy
to the tables, adds a Christian calendar, the
tables of the motions of the seven planets, ta-
bles of the fixed stars, on the growth of the
infant in the mother's womb, and the decli-
nation and right ascension of the stars, which
was printed without place or date, in 4to., but
which, from the antiquity of the type and the
quality of the paper, Father Bartolocci con-
ceives to be a Venetian edition. Simler, ac-
cording to WolfF, cites a Venetian edition
of the almanack by J. Michael Germanus
Budorensis, A. D. 1499. According to La-
lande, this edition of J, Michael was re-pub-
lished at Venice in 1572, in 4to., with cor-
rections and additions by Lucas Goniscus.
Spizel, in his " Specimen Bibliothecte Uni-
versalis," cites a work called " Tecunath
Zacut" (" Astronomy of Zacuth"), which he
assigns to Abraham ben Daud, but which is
given to Abraham Zacuth by Hottinger:
there are probably two different works with
this title. In the British Museum, according
to WolfF, ai'e some astronomical tables in
manuscript by Abraham the Jew of Sala-
manca [Abraham Judjeus], which, no
doubt, is the almanack of Abraham Zacuth.
The same tables in Spanish were also in the
library of the Escurial, with this title, " Abra-
ham Zacuth Almanack de Tablas Astronomicas
a ayuntamiento Mayor ; " and also by the same
author, " Canon para Entendar los Atarices."
The Escurial also contained another work,
called " Compendio y Sunui de las Cosas per-
tinecientes h los juicios Astronomicos " (" A
Compendium and Summary of Matters ap-
pertaining to Judicial Astronomy (Astro-
logy "), wliich is probably by the same author.
(Bartoloccius,7?/7^//V)//i. Ma;/. Tiubh. i. 53 — 56.;
V,\Afius, Bi/jlioth. IMr. i. 104—117. iii. 66.;
N. Antonio, Bihlioth. Jllspnna, ii. 313,314. ;
Hottinger, Bi/ilict/i. Orient. CI. xi. 55. ; Le
Long, Biblwth. Sacra, ii. 505.) C. P. H.



Aiigustin friar, whose real name was Ulrich
Jlegerle, was born at Kriihenhennstetten,
near Mciskirch in Suabia, on the 4th of July
1642. Although he was descended from a
noble family, his parents were poor and
simple country people. He was educated in
the Latin Schools of Moskirch, Ingolstadt,
and Salzburg, and in his eighteenth year he
entered the order of the Augustin friars at
Mariabrimn. He now went to the convent
of his order at Vienna, to study philosophy
and theology, and after two years' study he
received holy orders (1662), and took his
degree of doctor of divinity. He officiated
for some time as preacher in the convent of
Taxa, not far from Dachau in Bavaria, and then
went back to Vienna, where he soon acquired
great reputation as a popular preacher. Sub-
sequently he spent some time at Gratz, where
his oratorical talents likewise attracted ge-
neral attention. In 1669, the emperor Leo-
pold I. appointed him preacher to the Im-
perial court at Vienna, an office which he
held for twenty years, during which he en-
joyed the esteem and admiration of the
people as well as of the court. He rose in
his order from one dignity to another : he
was made procurator provincialis, lector,
pater spiritualis, prior provincialis, and at last
definitor of his province. In his capacity of
prior provincialis, he was in 1689 present at
the general chapter of his order at Rome,
and preached there several times with great
applause. Pope Innocent XI. presented
him with a consecrated cross. As definitor
of his province, he showed extraordinary
activity in improving the state of the convents
of his order. He died at Vienna, on the
first of December 1709, at the age of sixty-

Abraham a Sancta Clara may justly be
considered the greatest popular preacher that
Germany produced during the seventeenth
and the first half of the eighteenth century,
although it is not till very recently that his
merits have been acknowledged and appre-
ciated by the protestant portion of Germany,
which used to view him scarcely in any other
light than that of a monkish buffoon. He
was a bold and upright man, attached to his
faith with the fullest and warmest conviction,
and truly devoted to the promotion of the
good of his order. His sincerity and bene-
volence are attested by many acts of his life,
and more especially by his behaviour in the
year 1679, when the plague was raging at
Vienna ; he visited the sick without fear, and
with all the self-sacrifice of the most genuine

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