every other respect conformable to the said design,
which for that purpose is certified by the BARON DE
STEUBEN, President of this Convention, and to be de-
posited in the archives of the Society, as the original,
from which all copies are to be made. Also, that
silver medals, not exceeding the size of a Spanish
milled dollar, with the emblems, as designed by Major
L'ENFANT, and certified by the President, be given to
each and every member of the Society, together with a
diploma, on parchment, whereon shall be impressed the
exact figures of the order and medal, as above-men-
tioned ; anything in the original Institution, respecting
gold medals, to the contrary notwithstanding.
Major L'ENFANT'S letter is as follows :
PHILADELPHIA, 10th June, 1783.
"My General : Immediately on receiving your letter
of the 20th May, which I met by accident at the post
office, on the 7th inst., I set myself about the plan of
the medal. I send you both faces of the design, which
I have made large, so that you may better judge of
them. In the execution they can be reduced to a con-
venient size, which, on account of the precision required
elseif (getClientWidth() > 430)
in the design, ought not to be less than a dollar, the
subject being too complex to admit of its being properly
detailed in a smaller compass.
" I have not made it oval, agreeably to your desire,
as such a form is not proper for a medal ; besides, it can
be done in the execution, if the idea should be persisted
in of having the order in that form, to which, however,
I think any other preferable. I also believe and hope
that you will be persuaded of this ? and endeavor to
convince the gentlemen of it who compose the commit-
tee for forming the Institution, and to whom I beg you
to communicate the following observations :
"A medal, whether round or oval, is considered in
the different states of Europe, only as a reward of the
laborer and the artist, or as a sign of a manufacturing
community, or religious society ; besides, the abusive
custom prevailing particularly in Germany and Italy,
of sending to France mountebanks, dancers and musi-
cians, ornamented in this manner, renders it necessary
to distinguish this order by a form which shall be pecu-
liar to itself, and which will answer the two-fold pur-
pose of honoring those invested with it, and making
itself respected for its simplicity, by such as may be in
a situation minutely to examine its different parts.
" Not that I suppose one form or another will change
the opinion of a republican people, accustomed to think ;
I only say, that in an institution of this sort, the main
design should be to render it respectable to everybody,
and that it is only in appealing to the senses that you
can engage the attention of the common people, who
have certain habitual prejudices which cannot be de-
stroyed. A gentleman already invested with any Euro-
pean order would be unwilling to carry a medal, but
if, flattered by receiving a mark of distinction from a
respectable society, he should do it, the manner of it
would by no means increase the value of the order.
On the contrary, giving it a new and particular form
will be adding a recommendation to its real value, and
engage those invested with it to wear it in the same
manner as their other military orders, which is the
surest means of putting it at once upon a footing with
" The bald eagle, which is peculiar to this continent,
and is distinguished from those of other climates by its
white head and tail, appears to me to deserve attention.
"I send you two essays which I have made, and
desire one of them may be adopted instead of the medal.
In one, I make the eagle supporting a star with thirteen
points, in the centre of which is the figure of the medal,
with its inscriptions, as well in front as on the reverse.
A legend might be added in the claws and go round
the neck of the eagle, with a particular inscription, or
the contour of the medal transferred there. In the
other, I have made simply the eagle, supporting on its
breast the figure of the medal, with a legend in his
claws and about the neck, which passes behind and sus-
tains the reverse. I would prefer the latter, as it does
not resemble any other order, and bears a distinct char-
acter ; nor will it be expensive in its execution. The
first device, although more complex, would not be so
dear as people might imagine, especially if the execu-
tion of it should be committed to skillful persons, which
would not be the case any more than with the medal,
but by sending it to Europe, where it would not take
up a great deal of time, nor be so expensive as to trust
the execution of it here to workmen not well acquainted
with the business.
"A medal is a monument to be transmitted to pos-
terity; and, consequently, it is necessary that it be exe-
cuted to the highest degree of perfection possible in the
age in which it is struck. Now, to strike a medal well,
is a matter that requires practice and a good die ; and
as there is not here either a press proper for this work,
nor people who can make a good die, I would willingly
undertake to recommend the execution of the medal,
the eagle, or the order, to such persons in Paris as are
capable of executing it to perfection.
"So far from proposing to change the oval medal
into an eagle, on which should be impressed the medal,
I do not pretend to say medals cannot be made. On
the contrary, my idea of the subject is that silver
medals should be struck, at the common expense of the
Society, and distributed, one to each member, as an
appendage to a diploma of parchment, whereon it would
be proper to stamp the figure of the medal, the eagle,
or the star, in its full dimensions, and properly colored,
enjoining on the members to conform to it, though leav-
ing them the liberty, provided it be at their own ex-
pense, of having it made of such metal and as small as
they please, without altering any of the emblems. It
seems to me by no means proper that the honorary
members should wear the order in the same manner as
the original members ; it would be necessary that they
should wear the medal, the star, or the eagle, round
their necks, and the original members at the third
"These remarks, I beg you, my General, to have
translated and submitted to the gentlemen concerned.
I shall be obliged to you to let me know the issue of
this letter, and their decision upon it.
" I have, etc., etc., etc.,
"JN". B. The head and tail of the eagle should be
silver, or enamelled in white, the body and wings gold,
the medal on its breast and back enamelled in the same
color as the legend ; sprigs of laurel and oak might be
added in the wings enamelled in green ; the star should
be pointed in gold, or enamelled in blue and white ;
those who would be at the expense might, instead of
white, have diamonds. The riband, as is customary in
all orders, should be watered."
Resolved, That the thanks of this Convention be
transmitted, by the President, to Major L'ENFANT, for
his care and ingenuity in preparing the aforementioned
designs, and that he be acquainted that they cheerfully
embrace his offer of assistance, and request a continu-
ance of his attention in carrying the designs into exe-
cution, for which purpose the President is desired to
correspond with him.
ffice*s of tfce ^ ociettj of tlxc
1783. GEORGE WASHINGTON, of Virginia.
1800. ALEXANDER HAMILTON, of New York.
1805. CHARLES COTESWORTH PINCKNEY, of South Carolina.
1825. THOMAS PINCKNEY, of South Carolina.
1829. AARON OGDEN, of New Jersey.
1839. MORGAN LEWIS, of New York.
1844. WILLIAM POPHAM, of New York.
1848. HENRY ALEXANDER SCAMMELL DEARBORN, of Massachu-
1854 HAMILTON FISH, of New York.
1896. WILLIAM WAYNE, of Pennsylvania.
Vice- Presidents- General,
1784. HORATIO GATES, of Virginia.
1787. THOMAS MIFFLIN, of Pennsylvania.
1799. ALEXANDER HAMILTON, of New York.
1800. CHARLES COTESWORTH PINCKNEY, of South Carolina.
1805. HENRY KNOX, of Massachusetts.
1811. JOHN BROOKS, of Massachusetts.
1825. AARON OGDEN, of New Jersey.
1829. MORGAN LEWIS, of New York.
1839. WILLIAM SHUTE, of New Jersey.
1844. HORACE BINNEY, of Pennsylvania.
1848. HAMILTON FISH, of New York.
1854. CHARLES STEWART DAVEIS, of Massachusetts.
1866. JAMES WARREN SEVER, of Massachusetts.
1872. JAMES SIMONS, of South Carolina.
1881. WILLIAM ARMSTRONG IRVINE, of Pennsylvania.
1887. ROBERT MILLIGAN MOL/ANE, of Maryland.
1896. WINSLOW WARREN, of Massachusetts.
1783. HENRY KNOX, of Massachusetts.
1799. WILLIAM JACKSON, of Pennsylvania.
1829. ALEXANDER W. JOHNSTON, of Pennsylvania.
1857. THOMAS McEuEN, of Pennsylvania.
1875. GEORGE WASHINGTON HARRIS, of Pennsylvania.
1884. ASA BIRD GARDINER, of Rhode Island.
Assistant Secretaries- General.
1784. OTHO HOLLAND WILLIAMS, of Maryland.
1787. GEORGE TURNER, of South Carolina.
1790. WILLIAM MCPHERSON, of Pennsylvania.
1799. NATHAN DORSEY, of Pennsylvania.
1802. WILLIAM DENT BEALL, of Maryland.
1825. JOHN MARKLAND, of Pennsylvania.
1829. THOMAS McEuEN, of Pennsjdvania.
1857. GEORGE WASHINGTON HARRIS, of Pennsylvania.
1875. RICHARD IRVING MANNING, of Maryland.
1890. THOMAS PINCKNEY LOWNDES, of South Carolina.
1896. NICHOLAS FISH, of New York.
1783. ALEXANDER McDouGALL, of New York.
1796. WILLIAM JACKSON, of Pennsylvania.
1799. WILLIAM MCPHERSON, of Pennsylvania.
1825. ALLEN McL/ANE, of Pennsylvania.
1832. JOHN MARKLAND, of Pennsylvania.
1838. JOSEPH WARREN SCOTT, of New Jersey.
1872. TENCH TILGHMAN, of Maryland.
1875. ALEXANDER HAMILTON, JR., of New York.
1881. JOHN SCHUYLER, of New York.
1896. RICHARD MEREDITH MCSHERRY, of Maryland.
Assistant Treasurers- General.
1825. ALEXANDER W. JOHNSTON, of Pennsylvania.
1829. JOHN MARKLAND, of Pennsylvania.
1832. JOSEPH WARREN SCOTT, of New Jersey.
1838. WILLIAM JACKSON, of Pennsylvania.
1851. JOHN HENRY MARKLAND, of Pennsylvania.
1863. JOHN MCDOWELL, of New Jersey.
1872. WILLIAM BERRIAN DAYTON, of New Jersey.
1881. HERMAN BURGIN, of New Jersey.
1893. HENRY THAYER DROWNE, of Rhode Island.
llxc ^eal of tlxe jlociety; iu ttxc ^tatc of
EXTRACT FROM THE REPORT OF PRESIDENT JOSEPH BLOOMFIELD, MADE
TO THE SOCIETY AT ELIZABETOWN JULY 4, 1809.
"The Principal figure Cincinnatus. The Time, when his
Country no longer needed his exertions in Arms.
"His Sword and Shield, ornamented with an Eagle, are
thrown aside, to which he is pointing, with one hand and with
the other taking hold of the Plough ; intimating that he has
given up his high Military Employments ; became a private
citizen, and devoted himself to the pursuits of Agriculture.
"On a Scroll, above Cincinnatus, is inscribed the 'Reward
of Virtue,' 'Virtutis- Premium' ; ornamented with Roses, as
Emblematical of the Beauty and fragrance of Virtuous Actions
which like the fragrance of the Rose remains after death.
"A fortified City and Harbour, with an Ancient Galley in
view ; distant mountains, with a rising Sun."
(Dvgam^atiou of tfts Society in tfce jitate
of Ueiu gersey.
EXTRACT FROM THE MINUTES OF THE SOCIETY OF THE CINCINNATI IN
THE STATE OF NEW JERSEY.
ELIZABETHTOWN, llth June, 1783.
The officers of the New Jersey Line being about to
return to their respective places of abode, were requested
by General DAYTON, to convene, for the purpose of con-
sidering the Institution of the Society of the Cincinnati,
and, after some time spent thereon, they resolved unani-
mously to become members, and subscribed the Institu-
The Society then proceeded to the election of officers,
to continue till the next meeting, and the following
gentlemen were elected :
General ELTAS DAYTON, President.
Lieutenant Col. JONATHAN FORMAN, Vice- President.
Reverend ANDREW HUNTER, Secretary.
Major RICHARD Cox, Treasurer.
Doctor EBENEZER ELMER, Assistant Treasurer.
The Society then adjourned to meet at Princeton, the
22d day of September next.
pixies 0f tftc Society of tfte
incitwati in tlxc jitate 0f Ucxxr Jersey.
SEC. I. The annual meeting of the Society shall be held
on the 4th day of July. Such other stated meetings may
be held as shall be ordered by the Society. To the banquets
given at any stated meeting, four (4) guests may be invited
by the Committee of Arrangements and three (3) by the
President ; these seven (7) guests to include the speakers,
and to dine at the expense of the Society. Extraordinary
or special meetings may be called by the President, or, in
the event of his death, absence, or inability to act, by the
Vice-President, and shall also be called upon the written
request of ten (10) members of the Society. No business
shall be transacted at extraordinary or special meetings
except such as shall be mentioned in the call therefor.
SEC. II. Twelve (12) hereditary members shall constitute
ORDER OF BUSINESS.
SEC. III. The order of business at the annual meeting
shall be :
2. Roll call.
3. Reading of the minutes.
4. Reports of the President, Secretary, Treasurer, Stand-
ing Committee and Special Committees.
5. Unfinished business.
6. New business.
7. Election of officers.
SEC. IV. The officers of the Society shall be a President,
a Vice-President, a Secretary, an Assistant Secretary, a
Treasurer, an Assistant Treasurer, and a Chaplain, who-
shall be elected, by a ballot, at the annual meeting, to serve
for one year or until their successors are chosen, and shall
be members of the Standing Committee provided for in
Section IX. The official headquarters of the Society shall
be in the State of New Jersey, and the President, the Secre-
tary (when the Secretary now in office shall cease to serve)
and the Treasurer shall be residents of the State of New
DELEGATES TO THE GENERAL SOCIETY.
SEC. V. At each annual meeting, five (5) delegates and
five (5) alternates shall be elected, by ballot, to represent
the Society at such meetings of the General Society as may
be held during the ensuing year.
SEC. VI. The President, or, in his absence, the Vice-
President, shall preside at all meetings of the Society, and
such meetings shall be conducted in accordance with Rob-
erts' Rules of Order. In the event of the absence of the
President and Vice-President, the meeting shall elect a
Chairman. The President shall be ex officio a member of
DUTIES OF THE SECRETARY.
SEC. VII. The Secretary shall have the custody of the
seal, books and papers of the Society, and shall record the
minutes of all meetings in a book to be kept for that pur-
pose ; he shall record the dates of the death of members,
the names of their successors, with the dates of their admis-
sion, the various National, State or Society offices held by
them, and such other memoranda of their histories as he
may be able to obtain.
DUTIES OF THE TREASURER.
SEC. VIII. The Treasurer shall receive and have charge
of all moneys (except the permanent fund provided for in
Section X.) belonging to the Society, whether interest on the
permanent fund or from other sources ; he shall deposit all
moneys received in such New Jersey bank or trust com-
pany, allowing interest on the daily balance to its credit, as
may be designated by the Standing Committee ; he shall
pay only such bills as shall have first been approved in
writing by the President, and shall pay the same only by
check, countersigned by the President. The Treasurer shall
keep regular accounts, and present them before the annual
meeting, and at other times if required, to the Standing
Committee for audit.
SEC. IX. There shall be a Standing Committee, which
shall be elected annually, and shall be composed of seven
(7) members of the Society and the general officers named
in Section IV., whose duty it shall be to take charge of the
general affairs of the Society, and of such special matters
as may be referred to it, or which may be of special interest
to the Society ; to examine all claims and authorize the
payment of such as are proved to be just ; to recommend to
the Society such donations to the families of deceased mem-
bers as investigation may show to be necessary and proper,
and to fill vacancies for unexpired terms of all offices
becoming vacant by death, resignation or other reason. It
shall have power to invest, call in and re-invest any of the
moneys belonging to the Society, and shall audit the
accounts of the Treasurer before each annual meeting. It
shall elect a Chairman, who shall preside at its meetings.
The Secretary of the Society shall be the Secretary of the
DEPOSITARY FOR SECURITIES.
SEC. X. At each annual meeting of the Society, a trust
company shall be selected as a depositary for securities
owned by the Society. Such trust company, under the
instructions and subject to the orders of the Standing Com-
mittee, shall have the care of the securities of the Society,
which shall be registered in the name of the Standing
Committee as Trustee for the Society of the Cincinnati in
the State of New Jersey ; and at the meeting of the Stand-
ing Committee immediately preceding the annual meeting
of the Society, three (3) members of the said committee,
one of whom shall be the President, shall be appointed to
represent the Standing Committee for the year following in
its business with said trust company, and the Secretary of
the Society shall, under the seal of the Society, notify the
said trust company of the appointment of such Executive
TERM OF OFFICE.
SEC. XI. All officers, delegates, alternates, and members
of committees, shall continue in their respective authorities
until others are elected or appointed in their stead.
SEC. XII. All investments shall be in the securities of the
United States or of the State of New Jersey, or as specially
authorized by the Standing Committee.
SEC. XIII. The members of the Society shall be bound
in honor to keep secret any matter offered in debate, or any
individual opinion expressed relating to the admission of
SEC. XIV. Honorary members, or those applying under
the provisions of Rule II., must be proposed at the annual
meeting previous to that at which they are to be balloted
for. All elections shall be by ballot, and five (5) negative
votes shall be considered as a rejection of any candidate.
Honorary members shall be entitled to all the privileges of
regular members, except those of holding office and of
voting : they shall have no interest in the funds of the
Society, and no right of succession shall attach to their
membership. If any honorary member shall refuse or
neglect to attend two (2) successive annual meetings of the
Society, and no satisfactory reason shall be assigned for the
same, such refusal or neglect shall be construed to be ipso
facto a resignation of his membership, and the Society may
thereupon proceed to declare his membership to have
ceased. A copy of this by-law shall be sent to each
SEC. XV. All applications for relief or allowance from
this State Society shall be made in writing and addressed
to the Standing Committee ; and such application must
show that the party so applying or applied for is in neces-
sitous circumstances and worthy of relief.
COMMITTEE OF ARRANGEMENTS.
SEC. XVI. At each annual meeting the Society shall
elect a committee of three (3) members, whose duty it shall
be to select the place of the next meeting and to attend to
the necessary arrangements.
SEC. XVII. No by-law or rule shall be altered or repealed
unless such proposed change or repeal shall have been pro-
posed at the previous annual meeting, and be agreed to by
a vote of two-thirds of the members present.
CUSTOMS OF THE SOCIETY.
SEC. XVIII. The ancient customs of the Society shall
SEC. XIX. All by-laws inconsistent herewith, heretofore
adopted, are hereby repealed.
I. Where there are male descendants of an original mem
ber in the male line, the right of membership belongs to
the eldest male heir of the eldest male line, but where the
male line is extinct, the Society may determine which of
the female line shall have the representation ; and where
there are no lineal descendants of an original member, a
descendant of a brother or sister of the original member
may succeed to the representation. Upon the death of a
member, the right of succession shall descend to his eldest
heir in the male line, and if the person upon whom
devolves the succession, being of full age, shall fail to
apply for his membership within two (2) years, he shall be
notified by the Secretary at his last-known place of resi-
dence (a copy of this rule accompanying such notification),
and if within a year thereafter he declines or omits to make
said application, the right of succession may, at the option
of the Society, be offered to his next male heir ; and if he
also declines or omits to avail himself of the offer within a
year, the Society may determine which, if any, of the other
descendants of the original member shall succeed to the
representation ; provided, however, if the next male heir of
the person regularly entitled to the succession be a minor,
the eligibility to membership being vested in him, such
membership shall remain in abeyance until such disability
II. The lineal descendants of officers of the army or navy
of the Revolution, w r hose records are unsullied, who did not
join the Society at its institution, and who are unrepre-
sented in the Society, may be admitted to membership in
this State Society, but such representation shall be upon
the following conditions :
Each applicant shall furnish satisfactory evidence of his
good character and moral worth, and shall pay into the
treasury of the Society the sum of five hundred dollars
III. Any person claiming membership shall make
written application to the Standing Committee, stating
clearly his claim. The committee shall examine the same,
and, after receiving such proof as it thinks proper in its
support, shall report to the Society its opinion in writing.
The Society reserves to itself the right to reject or pass over
any application where it is deemed best for its interest
to do so.
IV. No elections for members shall be held except at the
V. None but males of full age shall be admitted to
membership. The eligibility to membership in succession
devolving upon a minor, shall be deemed vested in such
minor, and such membership shall remain in abeyance
until the disability cease or be terminated as provided for
in Rule I.
fficevs 0f tTxe jBatietg erf tfte Cincinnati
in tfte Static of fj
1783. ELIAS DAYTON.
1808. JOSEPH BLOOMFIELD.
1824. AARON OGDEN.
1839. EBENEZER ELMER.
1840. WILLIAM SHUTE.
1842. EBENEZER ELMER.
1844. JOSEPH WARREN SCOTT.
1871. Lucius QUINTIUS CINCINNATUS ELMER.
1883. CLIFFORD STANLEY SIMS.
1896. WILLIAM SCUDDER STRYKER.
' Vice- Presidents.
1783. JONATHAN FORMAN.
1783. DAVID BREARLEY.
1791. DAVID FORMAN.
1793. JOSEPH BLOOMFIELD.
1808. JOHN NOBLE GUMMING.
1822. JEREMIAH BALLARD.
1824. EBENEZER ELMER.
1838. WILLIAM SHUTE.
1840. JOSEPH WARREN SCOTT.
1842. WILLIAM CHETWOOD DE HART.
1848. GEORGE CUMINS THOMAS.
1862. Lucius QUINTIUS CINCINNATUS ELMER.
1871. CHARLES CLINTON BEATTY.
1883. WILLIAM BOWEN BUCK.
1783. ANDREW HUNTER.
1790. JAMES FRANCIS ARMSTRONG.
1797. ANDREW HUNTER.
1811. GEORGE CLINTON BARBER.
1829. PHILIP CORTLANDT HAY.
1830. JOHN JAY PLUME.
1833. ROBERT HEDDEN GUMMING.
1850. LUTHER HALSEY.
1852. FRANCIS BARBER.
1857. WILLIAM BOWEN BUCK.
1867. WILLIAM BERRIAN DAYTON.
1875. FRANCIS BARBER OGDEN.
1891. WILLIAM CHETWOOD SPENCER.
1895. WESSEL TEN BROECK STOUT IMLAY.
1873. FRANCIS BARBER OGDEN.
1879. EDWARD RIGGS PENNINGTON.
1884. WILLIAM CHETWOOD SPENCER.
1891. WILLIAM PANCOAST BARBER.
1894. WESSEL TEN BROECK STOUT IMLAY.
1895. WILLIAM MCKNIGHT RECKLESS.
1783. RICHARD Cox.
1811. ERKURIES BEATTY.
1823. JOHN BEATTY.
1826. EBENEZER ELMER.
1829. ROBERT LIVINGSTON ARMSTRONG.
1833. JOSEPH WARREN RECKLESS.
1838. ROBERT DAYTON SPENCER.
1854. JOHN MCDOWELL.
1869. WILLIAM BOWEN BUCK.
1875. WILLIAM BERRIAN DAYTON.
1881. HERMAN BURGIN.
1891. DAVID PROVOOST THOMAS.