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they bore serpent-like inscriptions of similar type. He was of
opinion that they Avere connected with serpent worship.

Mr. Bennett said Professor Browne had made a study of
early Christian art.

Mr. Chisholm-Batten read a paper on " The Forest
Trees of Somerset;" printed in Part II.

At the conclusion of the paper an interesting discussion took
place.

Mr. Bennett said : According to the letters of Locke the
philosopher, lime trees were introduced into England just two
hundred years ago.

Mr. Elavorthy mentioned apropos of Locke, that the
lime tree avenue at Chipley still exists, but there were signs
of great decay. He also mentioned that much mistletoe grew
on the lime trees there, and he thought that to be very un-
common.



48 Forty-second Annual Meeting.

A Member remarked that the mistletoe commonly grew on
the lime in Devon and Gloucestershire.

The Rev. G. E. Smith thanked Mr. Batten for working
uj) the Natural History department; he thought, hoAvever, he
had given them too many indigenous trees. The elm never
ripened in England, and to use a Somersetshire phrase, they
Avould never see a lime tree " gribble.'" If they were indig-
enous trees they might think they would naturally ripen. Mr.
Smith also alluded to the walnut tree, which was synonymous
with " welch nut," welclt meaning foreign. Reference was also
made to the abundant and lavish use of oak by the old builders.

Bishop HoBHOUSE put iu a plea for the alder as an in-
digenous tree. There was plenty of evidence of its having
been used for charcoal from time immemorial.

Prebendary Grafton followed with some remarks on the

gisi;ouern of the Dorman drastic.

He said they owed their discovery of the Castle to the trees.
Having explained how they came to hit upon the site, he next
mentioned those local gentlemen who had taken special interest
in the discovery, singling out the names of Mr. R. R. C.
Gregory and Mr. Francis, the latter gentleman having the
charge of and guiding the excavators. They had all worked
con amove }^

Mr. E. Buckle next followed with an exceedingly in-
teresting explanatory description of what had been unearthed.^^
The discovery was of great interest and importance ; un-
doubtedly they had come upon the site of a Norman Castle.
He strongly advised them to persevere in their search.

Prebendary Grafton, as Vicar of Castle Cary, said they
had every reason to be grateful to the Arclijeological Society
for having come there that year, and they would do all they
could to welcome them again.

The proceedings then terminated.

^° See Mr. Gregory's paper in Part II. " See ante, p. 23.



Camelot, or Cadhnry Castle. 49



S'uhn.



On Friday a large number left the Market Place In well
appointed breaks, at 9.30. The glorious weather, and the
drive through a charming country, with magnificent views at
every turn were delightful. The destination was

d^ami^Iot, ox (Tadbuvi) (kmih,

at the foot of which the Members were joined by the Dorset
Field Club, amongst whom were Mr. Mansel-Pleydell, the
President, and the Rev. O. P. Cambridge, f.r.s., Hon.
Treasurer. Their party numbered about forty. After climb-
ing up the steep embankments to the summit, from which
there are splendid and extensive views of the surrounding
country.

The Rev. J. A. Bennett conducted the party over the
Camp, and delivered, in situ, an address, to which his en-
thusiasm for the subject, and his genial manner, lent a charm
to the hearers which can in no way be reproduced even by
the full text printed in Part II.

In the discussion which followed,

Mr. NoRRis, in expressing the great pleasure he had ex-
perienced whilst listening to their Secretary's eloquent expo-
sition of the grand old Camp on which they were assembled,
felt that he was also giving vent to at least equal gratification
on the part of those whose presence around him proved that
this height was not now impregnable, whatever it might have
been in days gone by.

He was aware that the study of " Camelot '^ had been to
his friend, Mr. Bennett, a lifelong labour of love ; ueverthe-
less, although he could afford to make him a present of King
Arthur and his round table, he must demiu- to the apjoro-
priation of Kenwealh and his brave followers. He considered
it highly probable that the great scene of conflict between

N^w Series, Fol. XVI, 1890, Part 1. G



50 Forty-second Annual Meeting.

Snxon and Briton in tlie year G58, Avas some miles to the Avest
of the spot on which they stood. He had e]seA^'hel•e^^ given
his reasons for believing that the Biitish tribes east of the
Parret had made their final stand at the Pens ("Pen Mill,"
and "Pen Hill"), by Yeovil, where also there were several
other hills which, from their configuration, might well have
been called " Pens," 1,200 years ago.

The 0])posing forces had, according to the Ang.-Sax. Chron.,
met in bloody combat at Bradford-on-Avon, in A.D. 652 ; a
combat in which he believed each side claimed the victory.
The next reference in the chronicle to the struggle between
the Saxons and the British Avas that referring (a.d. 658) to
the victory of KenAvealh over the Britons, in a fight beginning
at Feonna, of late generally translated as "The Pens" (in the
plural number), and ending at Pcdricla, usually given as the
river Parret ; the great stream which, Avith its marshes and
swamps, was at that time a formidable barrier between the
tribes who occupied its eastern and Avestern banks respectively,
but Avhich Avas capable of being crossed at a favourable spot
(noAv called Petherton Bridge), by the Foss-Avay ford, signs
of Avhich Avere still visible at low water.

Looming- above this, to the east, was the great residential
fortress of Ham Hill, which croAvns a steep natural promon-
toiy, commanding the adjacent country, and approached on
the east only by a road over the hills from Aldon and Hend-
ford (close to the Yeovil " Pens "), five miles distant.

He held that the chronicles recorded, for the most part,
great historic events, without giving in detail, causes that led
up to them. Doubtless, betAveen 652 and 658, there had been
constant frontier fights betAvecn the opposing forces — the
Saxons advancing, and the Britons retiring — along the neigh-
bourhood of the Foss-Avay, until meeting for a decesive con-
flict at Yeovil, the invaded party took to the heights of

" Tvoc. Som. Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc, vul. xxx, pt. ii, p. 146.



South Cadhury Church. 51

Aldon and Heudford, following the road over Odcombe
and Odcombe Down, towards their strong river fortress on
Hamden.

The battle must have been bloody, severe, and long con-
tested, with alternate advantage to either side, until at its end
the Britons were finally and for ever driven across the river
" to a place called Pederydan," as ^thelweard told us in his
chronicle. This could only mean South Petherton, the Saxon
edition of a British town which once stood on the western
bank of the Parret, and which spot had been identified by the
discovery of various relics, in the speaker's possession.

Doubtless they attempted to cross the river by the ford
alluded to, a ' short mile ' west of which, on slightly rising
ground, stood the old Domesday estate of IFig-horough, which
name was quite as indicative of some big fight as ^S'z^^-well
would be of a victory.

For these reasons, and perhaps for others not equally strong,
Mr. Norris felt that he was entitled to regard his theory as to
the site of Kenwealh's last victory over the British as being
at least as tenable as that of his friend Mr. Bennett, to Avhom
he offered, on his own part, his best thanks for his able and
highly interesting address. (See Part II.)

Leaving Camelot, the Members next visited

^outlt dladbuviT Cluirdt,

its architectural features being explained by the Hon. Sec,
the Vicar of the parish.

From the Church the party proceeded to luncheon, which
was served in a tent close by. Afterwards

Mr. Benxett, addressing the assembled company, said he
wanted to explain to them what their Record Society was
doing to put into print docmnents valuable towards the history
of the county, which probably would not be printed at all
were it not for the Record Society. They had now got four
volumes. The Members' subscription to the Society was a



52 Forty-second Annual Meeting.

guinea per annum, and they undertook to give what they
could for the money, and that generally amounted to one
volume a year. The income of the Society amounted to about
£130 a year, and that was really spent in printing and such
like matter; therefore, for bringing out the text they had to
be dependent upon the generosity of their workers. Their
first volume, the earliest of their Episcopal Registers (Bishop
Drokensford's), was prepared by Bishop Hobhouse, who spent
a portion of every day in an ofhce at Wells, upou the ancient
manuscripts. Anyone who had had to do with episcopal
registers would know what a great task Bishop Hobhouse
undertook. He was not in good health, and his sight was
weak, therefore it was an extraordinary Avork. Volume two
consisted of the Records of the Survey of the Chantries, done
for them by Mr. Emanuel Green, who had been collecting the
material for a great number of years. The third volume was
Kirby's Quest, done for them by Mr. Dickinson. Here again
the greater part of it was written by Mr. Dickinson's own
hand. The fourth volume, which would be ready in the course
of that week, and for which also they had to thank Bishop
Hobhouse, was exceedingly interesting and valuable. It was
a collection or calendar of about six Churclncardens^ Paiislt
Accounts, between the years 1450 and 1550, Avhicli embraced
the troublesome times of the Reformation. But for voluntary
effort, the text of that would have cost them £60 or £70.
The forthcoming volume was a Custumarium of Glastonbury
Abbey ; being a list of all the manors belonging to the Abbey,
with the tenure upon which the land was held, the rent paid
being almost entirely in labour. Of course in process of time
this labour service was commuted for money rent, and thus
they woidd arrive at the period when rent by money was in-
troduced. After referring to the documents in the j^ossession
of the Marquis of Bath, Mr. Bennett said that by this fifth
volume they would get such an account of the tenure of land
as could not be obtained elsewhere in England. It would be



The Somerset Record Society. 53

necessary to search through the manuscripts in the British
Museum, and he pointed out that the property which Glas-
tonbury Abbey held in Wiltshire was quite as large as in
Somersetshire. The Abbey had property also in Dorset, so
he thought it would be a good opportunity to put before them
this point — that it would be a most valuable book to their
neighbours if they could find means to include Wilts and
Dorset. It would involve a very large expenditure indeed to
include those counties ; something like £50 more than their
(Somerset) proportion would cost them. He wished now that
so many were present, to put the matter before the Members
of the Dorset Society, and to propose that they should get
forty subscribers at a guinea apiece for one year, in order to
bring in their portion. If also Wilts was willing to join, and
to subscribe just for this one particular volume, they too would
thus secure their own proportion. The volume would be a
valuable one as a contribution to the history of the whole of
Great Britain, and especially interesting for each of their own
three counties. In speaking about voluntary labour, Mr.
Bennett said the present volume of Churchwardens^ Accounts
had, save the printing, been provided by voluntary labour.
There had been a great deal of extra expense, and he thought
it ought to be known that Bishop Hobhouse had, out of his
own pocket, spent a large sum of money. The book cost
them £120, but it would have cost them nearly £200, had they
not been spared the expense by Bishop Hobhonse's kindness.
With regard to the next volume, they could not get this
voluntary assistance. Many of the manuscripts were in the
British Museum, and it would necessitate perhaps a six months
stay in London, searching and translating them.

The Bev. F. AY. Weaver suggested that they should strike
whilst the iron was hot, and gave his name in for two guineas.

The PiiESiDENT thought the subject Mr. Bennett had
brought forward was well worthy of notice, and he sincerely
hoped the Dorset and Wiltshire Societies would co-operate.



54 Forti/second Annual Meeting.

Mr. Mansel-Pleydell, as President of the Dorset Field
Club, thanked Mr, Hobhouse for the kind way in which they
had been received that day, and promised his best assistance
towards the promotion of Mr. Bennett's scheme. As an in-
dividual Member, he should be glad to put his name down for
two copies.

The Kev. O. P. Cambridge hoped that their Members
would co-operate, and follow the example of their President,
not necessarily for two copies each, but that they would all
join.

Mr. Story Maskelyne, as the President of the Wiltshire
Society, gave in his name for one copy, though he hoped it
would not be called vol. v, because everyone would then say,
" Where are the other four?" and it would then cost him £5,
instead of £l.

Before separating, the Rev. J. A. Bennett said he had a
paper sent him by Mr. J. L. W. Page, which he had intended
to read at the meeting the previous evening, but was prevented
through want of time. It related to the discovery of a stone
on Exmoor, with an inscription upon it, which Professor Rhys
had pronounced to be one of the most valuable finds in recent
times in this part of the country.

[The paper is printed iu Part II.]

The party then adjourned to the Vicarage to inspect an
interesting collection of objects found on Camelot.

They next visited

goi;tlt dladbunr Church.

Its ecclesiastical history was briefly told by the Hon. Sec.

Some evidence as to the building of the Church and
founding of a college are furnished ivs follows by Rev. F. W.
Weaver, from Tanner's Notitia Mojiastica (1787); edition
not paged ; —

"North Cadbury College. K. Henry V [1417] anno 4,
gave licence to dame Elizabeth Botreaux, relict of Sir W™



North Cadhury Church. 55

Botreaux the elder, to found and endow in the par. church
here (w^ that lady had then new huilt)'^ a college for seven
secular chaplains, one of whom to be rector, and for four
clerks. It was to have been dedicated to St. Michael ; but
qiicere, Whether it ever was settled. It seems not to have
been done in 37 Hen. 6 (1459), and that the same design was
then resumed by her grandson W™' Lord Botreaux, but never
perfected, for Leland, who passed through this town, mentions
nothing of it, nor is anything of it found in the valuations, or
in the grants of colleges and college lands upon the Patent
Kolls after the Dissolution."

" Licentia regia Eliz. qu?e fuit ux. Will. Botreaux senioris
Chivaler concessa, pro fundatione et dotatione ecclesige Col-
legiate de N. Cadbury [Pat. 4 Hen. V, part, unica m. 1] is
printed in Dugdale's Man., vi, 1423."

Mr. Buckle then pointed out the architectural features
as follows : — North Cadbury Church differs from the others
visited by the Society on this occasion, in that the whole
building is practically of one date. The only fragment of an
earlier church consists of portions of the j)ievs and capitals of
the nave arcades. These are all alike, and all have the same
Decorated mouldings, but it is not probable that the earlier
Church can have supplied them all ; the presumption is that the
old stones were re-used as far as they would go, and the rest
made to match. All the piers have Perpendicular bases.

The tradition that the tower was built before the rest of the
Church is corroborated by the appearance of the north-east
buttress within the Church. Probably the Decorated Church
had a south aisle but no north aisle, and this buttress, when
first erected, was consequently outside the Church. The label
terminations over the west door are formed by two heads, that
of a lady in a square head-dress being placed on the dexter side,

^^"Eadein Elizabetlia in ecclesia parochial! de North Cadebiiry in com
Somerset, ^^er ipsam de nova cedificatd et constmcta, quoddam Collegium per-
petuum," etc., etc.



56 Fortij-sccond Annual Meeting.

while the sinister head is that of a knight, with (apparently) a
plume of feathers for his crest. These may represent Dame
Elizabeth and her deceased husband Sir William Botreaux ;
but the Botreaux crest was a griffin, as it is represented on
the tomb within the tower. The belfry had originally one
window on each side of the tower, but a small additional square
window has been introduced asymmetrically on the east and
west sides.

One of the most striking features about the Church is its
excessive symmetry; there is even a two-storey porch on the
north side to match that on the south, and the only differences
in the two elevations are due to the presence of the tower stair
turret on the south side, and the vestry (which is a subse-
quent addition though nearly contemporaneous) on the north.
Within there is however a difference between the two porch
rooms. That on the north is entered by a staircase starting
from the porch outside the Church door, and has a small spy-
hole into the Church ; this was clearly the watching chamber.
The room on the south side has no spy-hole, the windows are
heavily barred, and the entrance is from within the Church
itself; this seems to have been the treasury. Both chambers
are provided with fireplaces, each placed between two windows
in the outer wall over the entrance archway, but the chimneys
are not carried above the parapet.

On the outside of tne Church mason's marks abound. The
angle formed by the north porch, and the adjoining bay on the
west side of it, has been used as a fives court. The vestry
seems to have been used for a school, as two black-letter
alphabets may be seen painted upon its northern wall.

The great size of the chancel is due to the fact of the Church
having been collegiate ; and the high blank walls on either
side were originally hidden by the canopy work of the stalls,
part of which survived until recently, but all has now unfortu-
nately been destroyed. Two niches of the ancient reredos
remain, but all the central part of the existing reredos is



I



North Cadbiiry Church, 57

moderu. Stowed away in the tower is a beautiful monument,
which undoubtedly belongs in the chancel. This is an altar
tomb, with the two recumbent figures of Sir William Botreaux
and his wife Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of John St. Lo.
He died in 1392, but she Avas still alive in 1420. She founded
the college, and was probably also the builder of the Church.
The knight is represented in plate armour, with the collar. of
S.S. round his neck, and his head resting upon his crest — A
griffin segreant. The lady wears the mitred head-dress. At
one end of the altar tomb are images, on a very small scale, of
the Virgin and Child in the centre, and (one on each side)
the knight and his lady kneeling and worshipping. The tomb
was probably not erected until after the death of the lady. A
piece of canopy work, now resting behind the heads of these
figures, has no connection with the tomb, and more probably
belongs to a reredos. Besides this tomb, there are two others
of the seventeenth centiuy (likewise placed in the tower),
one of them dated 1611, but both without inscription or other
clue. The tower also contains an altar slab, which appears
to have been re-consecrated, having two crosses close together
in one of the back corners.

In the chancel arch are three iron staples, one in the apex,
which probably supported (or helped to support) the Rood ;
and one on each side, from which Avas perhaps suspended the
cloth which, during Lent, hid the Rood from sight ; or they
may have carried the images of Mary and John. The roof is,
as usual, ceiled with oak over the Rood loft, and over the
altar spaces in the two aisles.

Under a yew tree, in the rectory garden, may be seen
some fragments of an elaborate stone pulpit, of the fifteenth
century ; and in Cadbury House are some panels of stained
glass of late date which, we may fairly assume, once orna-
mented the windows of this Church. This assumption is
strengthened by the coincidence that the same initials, " R
& S," are found in this glass and on one of the nave seats,

Ne-uj Series, Vol XVI, 1890, Part I. a



58 Foriij-sccond Annual Meeting.

in each case entwined in a love-knot. The glass appears to
come from the tracery lights of the Perpendicular windows.
Each panel contains a single figiue of an evangelist or saint.
One point in connection Avith this glass is interesting. A tiny
fignre of a woman, with palm branch and book, is almost
identical with a figure on some glass belonging to Mr. Wood-
forde, and said to have been taken from Alford Church. The
two figures were both certainly taken from the same drawing.

The oak seats fortunately remain in the Church. One
bench-end near the bottom of the south aisle appears to be of
English workmanship, and the remainder Dutch. They are
dated 1538, and present a curious medley, both of subjects
and of style. The architectural style is a mixture of bad
Gothic and good Renaissance detail, and the carving is gener-
ally rather poor, though the figure subjects are treated in a
very bold and effective, if not a very artistic, manner. The
seats in Alford Church should be compared with these. The
bench-ends there have the same unusual outline, and their
treatment is very similar ; but they are more deeply cut, and
the Gothic forms have a truer aspect ; still the one English
bench-end in Cadbury Church resembles very closely indeed
the Alford seats. Perhaps the Alford seats are an English
imitation of the foreign work at Cadbury. The resemblances
which have been noticed between the seats and the painted
glass in these two Churches may perhaps be accounted for by
the fact that while James Fitz- James was Kector of North
Cadbury, 1521-41, John Fitz-James was Lord of the Manor
of Alford. But a closer parallel to these seats is to be found
in Lapford Church in Devonshire. Here the ornamental
details are precisely similar, and here again the seats are
attributed to Dutch workmen. ^^

Some of the bench-ends are covered with merely decorative
detail, others bear simple emblematic devices, such as I H S,

1^ Drawings of some of the Lapford bench-eiids were exhibited by Mr. J. 0.
Cash.



North Cadhury House. 59

a flagon, etc. ; but the majority contain some feature of greater
interest, either a piece of pictorial scvilpture or a personal
memorial in the form of initials or heraldic hearings. Of the
pictorial class two stand pre-eminent, representations respect-
ively of the Virgin and Child, and of S. Margaret emerging
triumphant from the dragon's back, after having been swallowed
by him, and before the end of her robe has entirely disappeared
within the monster's jaws. Large grotesque heads are found
on several of the seats, and on one a full-length figure of a
flute-player. On others are carved pictures of a church, a
mill, a pack-horse on a stony road, a heron, and a cat care-
fully extracting a mouse from a gin. The initials foiuid are
" S B," and the following pairs in love knots, " R & W,"
" E, & S," " A & S." The following devices may have some
heraldic significance : — A knot (not, however, one of the well-
known forms of knot), a pelican, a ragged stafi" with a scroll
or strap twisted round, a unicorn bearing a blank shield, and
a rose. Besides these, there are some coats of arms, particu-
lars of which are given in Mr. Jewers^s paper, in Part II. It
is noteworthy that among the arms we find neither Hastings
nor Hungerford. It has been suggested that many of the
seats were given by separate donors, and in some cases the
carving seems to bear out this theory. In particular it may
be noticed that the two love knots, "R & S" and "R & W,"
occur at the two ends of the same seat, and may commemorate
" R's " two successive wives.

goiitit dlattbuny iouse/^

which is close to the Church, was next inspected, and its
history briefly related by the Rev. J. A. Bennett.

The plan of Cadbur^- House is distinctly media3val, and it
is probable that a good part of the walling is also mediaeval,
although all the ornamental features belong to later dates.

15 On the Heraldry of Cadbury House, see Mr. Jewers's paper iu Part II.



60 Forty-second Annual Meeting.

My. Bennett exhibited two ancient oil paintings of the



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